Form of Government: Parliamentary republic
Area: 13 888 sq km
Population: 621 306 inhab. (estimate 2020)
Density: 44.74 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 44° - 43° N; long. 18° - 20° E
Capital: Podgorica (capital) 177 177 inhab. (2018);
Currency: euro (100 cents)
Human development index: 0.829 (rank: 48)
President: Milo Đukanović (DPS), since 20 May 2018
Prime Minister: Zdravko Krivokapić (independent), since 4 December 2020
Internet: www.monstat.org (Statistical Office of Montenegro)
Member of CEFTA, Council of Europe, EBRD, NATO, OAS observer, OSCE, UN, WTO

Montenegro

Crna Gora
Useful information

International license plate code MNE
International dialling code 00382
Travel vaccinations requirement none
Electricity (Voltage) 220
Driving side rigth
Internet code .me

GMT  +1
DST  +2
DST duration (start-end) late March-late October

Annual average temperature (°C) Podgorica 15.9
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Podgorica 5.5/26.5
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Podgorica 10/4
Annual average precipitation (mm) Podgorica 1620
Days of rainfall (annual average) Podgorica 100

Politics and current affairs

In April 2021, the EU refused to support the country, which was the brink of collapse due to debt owed to China to build a motorway. In July, financial support arrived from two US banks and a French bank.

Geography.
It is bordered by Croatia and Bosnia-Herzegovina to the west and north-west, and by Serbia, Kosovo (with which an agreement on the borders was reached in 2018) and Albania to the east and south-east. The Adriatic Sea lies off its south and south-west coasts. The fiord-like Bay of Kotor lies within its high, rocky coastline. The landscape is mainly mountainous (Durmitor, 2522 m). The climate is Mediterranean along the coast and continental inland.

Government


From 1992 it was a member of the Federal Rep. of Yugoslavia along with Serbia, which later became the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro. It declared independence on 3 June 2006. The single-chamber Parliament has 81 members elected for four years. The President is elected for five years.
The country is a candidate for membership of the EU.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force11.1%2015
Army72.1%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes920.8per 100 000 pop.2012
Homicides2.1per 100 000 pop.2018
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Podgorica177 177inhab.2018
Nikšić56 970inhab.2011
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2020)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate11.62019
Death rate10.62019
Foreigners
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Foreigners, total44 324units2011
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Montenegrin45.3%2001
Serb29$%2011


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Orthodox72.1%2011
Muslim19.1%2011


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Albanian
Bosnian
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years18.1%2020
15-29 years18.9%2020


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Economy


The main crops are cereals, potatoes, tobacco, citrus fruits, grapes and olives. It has quite large reserves of bauxite, lignite, lead and zinc. Electricity is produced by hydro power plants and the thermal one in Pljevlja. Important industrial sectors are iron and steel and metalworking, timber and tobacco processing, textiles and food processing. Tourism is on the rise.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)66.23index2016
Agricultural prod. index (2014-16=100)101.84index2019
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population267 100units2020
Active population, Females44.4%2020
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate17.9%2020
Unemployment rate, Females45.8%2020
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses2 593.2M LCU2019
Revenues1 885.2M LCU2019
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture7.521%2020
industry18.414%2020
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture7.868%2019
industry19.851%2019
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation0.744BN LCU2020
International reserves2 134.38M US$2020
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Agriculture

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land1.086%2018
forests61.492%2018
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley0.991000 t2019
cereals, total6.991000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes26.561000 t2019
roots and tubers, total26.561000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages11.1011000 t2019
chillies and peppers4.5651000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry0.3221000 t2019
beans, green0.5291000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes20.861000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Olive
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
olives0.311000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
tea0.11000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
tobacco0.2281000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples1.491000 t2019
cherries2.091000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
walnuts0.6691000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits13.0971000 t2019
mandarins3.4791000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Others
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mushrooms0.61000 t2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley0.391000 ha2019
maize0.641000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes1.621000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages0.3281000 ha2019
chillies and peppers0.1881000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry0.0451000 ha2019
beans, green0.2741000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape2.831000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Olive
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
olive0.141000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
tea0.1241000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
tobacco0.1151000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples0.221000 ha2019
cherries0.7271000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
walnuts0.4051000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits1.1151000 ha2019
mandarins0.1361000 ha2019
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber1 082 1992019
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle81.41000 heads2019
cattle and buffaloes81.41000 heads2019
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs23$1000 heads2019
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep182.11000 heads2019
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats28.71000 heads2019
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
equines, total3.9651000 heads2019
horses3.9651000 heads2019
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds6881000 heads2019
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey0.541000 t2019
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter0.4651000 t2018
cheese10.951000 t2018
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
corals0.8t2018
crustaceans and molluscs337t2019
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Minerals

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coal, total1 605.21000 t2019
lignite1 605.21000 t2019
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bauxite7751000 t2019
lead4.41000 t2018
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
salt10$1000 t2013
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
marble - t3.21000 t2018
sand and gravel - t2591000 t2018
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro2 091.87M kWh2018
- thermal1 461.7M kWh2018
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro6521000 kW2019
- thermal2251000 kW2018
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation3 696.57M kWh2018
total installed capacity9981000 kW2018
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
aluminium60$1000 t2019
steel, crude75$1000 t2019
Industry - Clothing and footwear
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
footwear12 016pairs2016
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley33.21000 t2018
olive oil0.0181000 t2018
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes127M units2018
tobacco332t2007
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
other paper0.2271000 t2019
paper0.2271000 t2019
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production9.473M US$2018
food, beverages and tobacco production81.303M US$2018
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Trade

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ores and metals31.214% of goods exports2018
manufactures28.894% of goods exports2018
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Serbia123M US$2010
Greece74.5M US$2010
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Serbia571.8M US$2010
Bosnia-Herzegovina162.9M US$2010
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
2020419M US$ -
2019465M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20202 402M US$ -
20192 909M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures72$M US$2019
Number of arrivals2 510 000units2019
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, passengers carried597.41000 units2019
Merchant fleet17$units2021
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers284.689per 1000 pop.2019
Internet users734.767per 1000 pop.2019
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling14.945years2019
Graduates5 042units2017
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Students, primary level39 085units2019
Students, secondary level56 896units2019
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending16.6% of GDP2018
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds3.91per 1000 pop.2018
Physicians2.76per 1000 pop.2018
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV-0.1% of adults2019
Tuberculosis15$per 100 000 pop.2019
Museums
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Museums26$units2018
Museums, visitors238 181units2018
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.5% of GDP2018
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking62.2%2019
Access to electricity100%2019
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear4.9%2019
education1$%2019
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