Form of Government: Parliamentary republic
Area: 13 812 sq km
Population: 622 373 inhab. (estimate 2017)
Density: 45.06 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 44° - 43° N; long. 18° - 20° E
Capital: Podgorica (capital) 177 177 inhab. (2018);
Currency: euro (100 cents)
Human development index: 0.814 (rank: 50)
President: Milo Đukanović (DPS), since 20 May 2018
Prime Minister: Duško Marković (DPS), since 28 November 2016
Internet: www.monstat.org (Statistical Office of Montenegro)
Member of CEFTA, Council of Europe, EBRD, NATO, OAS observer, OSCE, UN, WTO

Montenegro

Crna Gora
Useful information

International license plate code MNE
International dialling code 00382
Travel vaccinations requirement none
Electricity (Voltage) 220
Driving side rigth
Internet code .me

GMT  +1
DST  +2
DST duration (start-end) late March-late October

Annual average temperature (°C) Podgorica 15.9
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Podgorica 5.5/26.5
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Podgorica 10/4
Annual average precipitation (mm) Podgorica 1620
Days of rainfall (annual average) Podgorica 100

Politics and current affairs

Early 2019 was marked by a number of protests against President Milo Ðukanović (DPS), accused of abuse of power and clientelism. Meanwhile, worries increased over the financial effects of the substantial loans from China.

Geography.
It is bordered by Croatia and Bosnia-Herzegovina to the west and north-west, and by Serbia, Kosovo (with which an agreement on the borders was reached in 2018) and Albania to the east and south-east. The Adriatic Sea lies off its south and south-west coasts. The fiord-like Bay of Kotor lies within its high, rocky coastline. The landscape is mainly mountainous (Durmitor, 2522 m). The climate is Mediterranean along the coast and continental inland.

Government


From 1992 it was a member of the Federal Rep. of Yugoslavia along with Serbia, which later became the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro. It declared independence on 3 June 2006. The single-chamber Parliament has 81 members elected for four years. The President is elected for five years.
The country is a candidate for membership of the EU.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force11.1%2015
Army72.1%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes920.8per 100 000 pop.2012
Homicides3.9per 100 000 pop.2016
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Podgorica177 177inhab.2018
Nikšić56 970inhab.2011
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2018)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate11.92017
Death rate10.52017
Foreigners
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Foreigners, total44 324units2011
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Montenegrin45.3%2001
Serb29%2011


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Orthodox72.1%2011
Muslim19.1%2011


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Albanian
Bosnian
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years18.2%2018
15-29 years19.4%2018


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Economy


The main crops are cereals, potatoes, tobacco, citrus fruits, grapes and olives. It has quite large reserves of bauxite, lignite, lead and zinc. Electricity is produced by hydro power plants and the thermal one in Pljevlja. Important industrial sectors are iron and steel and metalworking (aluminium), timber and tobacco processing, textiles and food processing. Tourism is on the rise.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)66.23index2016
Balance of trade-2 538.2M US$2018
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population279 900units2018
Active population, Females43.9%2018
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate15.5%2018
Unemployment rate, Females45.2%2018
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses2 601.9M LCU2018
Revenues2 875.8M LCU2018
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture8%2018
industry18.9%2018
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture8.4%2017
industry19.4%2017
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
International reserves1 260.9M US$2018
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Agriculture

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land1.03%2015
forests61.48%2015
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley1.091000 t2017
cereals, total7.311000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes27.51000 t2017
roots and tubers, total27.51000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages10.2211000 t2017
chillies and peppers2.7211000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry0.2651000 t2017
beans, green0.6871000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes22.21000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Olive
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
olives0.4011000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
tea0.11000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
tobacco0.241000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples1.351000 t2017
cherries2.0631000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
walnuts0.6831000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits12.1991000 t2017
mandarins31000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Others
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mushrooms0.61000 t2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley0.41000 ha2017
maize0.641000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes1.621000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages0.3031000 ha2017
chillies and peppers0.11000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry0.0421000 ha2017
beans, green0.3441000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape2.81000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Olive
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
olive0.141000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
tea0.1241000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
tobacco0.121000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples0.211000 ha2017
cherries0.7241000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
walnuts0.4111000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits1.071000 ha2017
mandarins0.131000 ha2017
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber1 082 1992017
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle871000 heads2017
cattle and buffaloes871000 heads2017
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs251000 heads2017
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep1891000 heads2017
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats291000 heads2017
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
equines, total3.7841000 heads2017
horses3.7841000 heads2017
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds8241000 heads2017
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey0.3251000 t2014
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter0.721000 t2014
cheese6.161000 t2014
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
corals0.7t2017
crustaceans and molluscs274t2017
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Minerals

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coal, total1 3981000 t2016
lignite1 3981000 t2016
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bauxite2001000 t2016
lead5.21000 t2016
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
salt101000 t2013
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
marble - t3.11000 t2017
sand and gravel - t272.31000 t2016
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro1 825M kWh2016
- thermal1 220.12M kWh2016
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro6671000 kW2016
- thermal2201000 kW2016
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation3 045.12M kWh2016
total installed capacity8901000 kW2016
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
aluminium401000 t2017
steel, crude1201000 t2016
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cotton fabrics0.007M m²2005
wool fabrics0.002M m²2008
Industry - Clothing and footwear
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
footwear12 016pairs2016
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley3.61000 t2014
olive oil0.21000 t2014
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes517M units2016
tobacco332t2007
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
other paper0.2271000 t2017
paper0.2271000 t2017
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production7.1M US$2016
food, beverages and tobacco production60.6M US$2016
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Trade

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ores and metals31.208% of goods exports2018
manufactures28.759% of goods exports2018
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Serbia123M US$2010
Greece74.5M US$2010
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Serbia571.8M US$2010
Bosnia-Herzegovina162.9M US$2010
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
2018472M US$ -
2017421M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20183 011M US$ -
20172 613M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures91M US$2017
Number of arrivals1 877 000units2017
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, passengers carried507.61000 units2017
Merchant fleet12units2018
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers218.497per 1000 pop.2017
Internet users712.723per 1000 pop.2017
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling15years2017
Graduates5 043units2016
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level1 620units2016
Teachers, secondary level2 367units2015
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds3.9per 1000 pop.2016
Physicians2.7per 1000 pop.2017
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV-0.1% of adults2017
Tuberculosis14per 100 000 pop.2017
Museums
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Museums31units2015
Museums, visitors263 049units2015
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.32% of GDP2016
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking69.35%2016
Access to electricity100%2017
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear5%2017
education1.1%2017
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