Form of Government: China's Special Administrative Region
Area: 1 085 sq km
Population: 7 474 200 inhab. (estimate 2020)
Density: 6 888.66 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 22° N; long. 114° E
Capital: 
Currency: Hong Kong dollar (100 cents)
Human development index: 0.949 (rank: 4)
Chief Executive: Carrie Lam, elected 26 March 2017, in office since 1 July 2017
Legislative Council: seats based on the elections of 4 September 2016: pro-PRC parties, 40; democratic parties, 23; localist parties, 6; independent, 1
Internet: www.censtatd.gov.hk (Census and Statistics Department)
Member of APEC, WTO

Hong Kong

Hong Kong, Xianggang
Useful information

GMT  +8
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Hong Kong 22.4
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Hong Kong 15.5/28.5
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Hong Kong 5/6
Annual average precipitation (mm) Hong Kong 2217
Days of rainfall (annual average) Hong Kong 107

Politics and current affairs

The expulsion of four democratic members of the legislative council enforced by the Chinese central government caused all the others to step down as a protest, leaving the body without an opposition. On 27 May 2021, a new electoral law was approved that ratifies Chinese control over Hong Kong institutions. The authorities upped repression to ward out more protest rallies and many activists were arrested.

Government


State system.
Until 1 July 1997, Hong Kong was a British colony, comprising the island of Hong Kong (ceded to Britain by China under the Treaty of Nanjing in 1842), in the South China Sea opposite the south-east coast of China, the Kowloon Peninsula (ceded in 1863) and the territory behind it which, together with 236 largely uninhabited islands, form the so-called New Territories (rented to Britain in 1898 for 99 years). The border with the Chinese province of Guangdong is the River Sham Chun. According to the agreement signed in Beijing on 19 December 1984, on 1 July 1997, Hong Kong was given back to the People’s Republic of China. It was attributed special administrative status, known as the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (SAR), and there was a commitment on the part of the PRC to keep the social and economic system as it was under British administration for another 50 years. Under the 2021 electoral reform, the region is governed by a Chief Executive, who is elected for five years by a committee of 1500 members (mostly supporters of the government in Beijing). He appoints the Executive Council (consisting of 32 members, 16 of whom are chosen from among the officials of the institutions with executive functions). There is also a Legislative Council of 90 members, 20 of whom are elected for four years by means of proportional representation, 40 are appointed by a committee controlled by the Chinese government, and 30 are appointed by professional and trade associations.

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Administrative division

Administrative division
DistrictAREAINHABITANTSYEAR
Central and Western12.5 sq km245 600 inhab.2018
Eastern18$ sq km551 400 inhab.2018
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Victoria (Xianggang)956 800inhab.2020
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2020)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE

Population.
The enclaves of non-Chinese ethnic minorities include groups of Asians (Indonesians and Filipinos) as well as British, US and Australian citizens.

Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate5.82020
Death rate6.72020
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Chinese92.3%2016
Filipino2.5%2016


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
nonreligious/atheist54.5%2016
Buddhist and Taoist27.9%2016


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Cantonese
Chinese
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years12.8%2020
15-29 years15.1%2020


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Economy


The fundamental sector of the economy is the services sector, which provides employment for over two-thirds of the active population. Hong Kong is one of the largest hubs of international trade and also one of Asia’s most important financial centres, with a highly efficient banking system and an important stock exchange. Commercial banks in Hong Kong have been investing heavily in mainland China, especially in the industrial cities of Guangdong (Shenzhen, Guangzhou and Zhuhai). The per-capita income of Hong Kong is one of the highest in the world. Fishing is an important industry (especially in Shaukiwan and Aberdeen), and fish farms are also widespread. Much of industry is geared to exports, particularly high-quality products with high technological content. After Hong Kong was reunited with China, some of its industrial production facilities were moved to China. Tourism is an important source of income, with most visitors coming from China.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)59.24index2016
Agricultural prod. index (2014-16=100)138.44index2019
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population3 847 646units2020
Active population, Females49.4%2019
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate5.8%2020
Unemployment rate, Females43.5%2019
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses609 300M LCU2019-20
Revenues598 700M LCU2019-20
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture0.2%2019
industry13.517%2020
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture0.065%2019
industry6.575%2019
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation569.048BN LCU2020
International reserves491 775.722M US$2020
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Agriculture

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land80.39%2015
meadows & pastures19.61%2015
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cereals, total0$1000 t2017
rice0$1000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
roots and tubers, total0.0581000 t2019
sweet potatoes0.0581000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages0.6211000 t2019
cucumbers1.8731000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, green0.31000 t2019
peas, green0.4161000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
copra1$1000 t2003
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fruits, total5.1151000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Others
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mushrooms0.0141000 t2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
rice0$1000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sweet potatoes0.0041000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages0.0251000 ha2019
cucumbers0.1011000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, green0.0311000 ha2019
peas, green0.0581000 ha2019
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber79 2612019
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle1.5791000 heads2019
cattle and buffaloes1.9051000 heads2019
Livestock - Buffaloes
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
buffaloes0.3261000 heads2019
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs147.4291000 heads2019
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep0.0211000 heads2019
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats0.7031000 heads2019
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
equines, total1.5351000 heads2019
horses1.5351000 heads2019
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds1 6181000 heads2019
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
eggs0.4711000 t2019
hides and skins0.5391000 t2019
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs11 575.1t2019
freshwater fishes1 294t2019
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal34 587M kWh2019
non-renewable electricity generation99.729%2018
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal12 2821000 kW2018
- other renew.0.81000 kW2012
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation34 365M kWh2018
total installed capacity12 2821000 kW2018
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Industry

Industry - Precision and optical instruments
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
watches and clocks5 029 000no.2007
Industry - Electrical and electronics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
notebooks9 300no.2006
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
soap1$1000 t2004
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cotton fabrics199.8M m²2005
cotton yarn39.81000 t2007
Industry - Clothing and footwear
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
footwear504 000pairs2004
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley38.9481000 t2018
coconut oil0.3541000 t2018
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
other paper1801000 t2019
paper1801000 t2019
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement2 0001000 t2018
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production442.225M US$2018
food, beverages and tobacco production1 123.539M US$2018
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Trade


Main exports (M US$ - 2017) electronic integrated circuits and microassemblies 113 098, electrical and electronic equipment 92 527, telecommunications equipment 76 045, gold 52 202, computers and accessories 44 914, machinery 22 539, jewels and precious stones 17 840, diamonds 17 147, optical and electro-medical appliances 17 015, apparel and accessories 13 733, plastics and articles thereof 10 638, watches 8 370, toys and sports equipment 7 316, leather goods 4 771, meat 3 163

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufactures91.685% of goods exports2019
food products2.06% of goods exports2019
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
China304 707M US$2020
United States39 943M US$2020
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
China251 123M US$2020
United Kingdom91 180M US$2020
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
2020548 773M US$ -
2019534 887M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
2020569 769M US$ -
2019577 834M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures26 880M US$2019
Number of arrivals23 752 000units2019
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown337 700 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried46 469.91000 units2019
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers377.183per 1000 pop.2019
Computers693per 1000 pop.2008
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling17.222years2019
Gradautes, percentage25.5%2020
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Students, primary level376 310units2019
Students, secondary level341 388units2019
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending16.933% of total expenses2018
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds5.6per 1000 pop.2020
Physicians2$per 1000 pop.2020
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Tuberculosis (prevalence)58$per 100 000 pop.2008
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.863% of GDP2018
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to electricity100%2019
Access to improved drinking-water source100%2017
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