Area: 2 166 086 sq km
Population: 56 421 inhab. (estimate 2021)
Density: 0.03 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 84° - 60° N; long. 73° - 12° W
Capital: Nuuk (chief town) 18 800 inhab. (2021);
Currency: Danish krone (100 øre)
Prime Minister: Múte Bourup Egede (Inuit Ataqatigiit, left-wing), since 23 April 2021
Member of  Nordic Council

Greenland

Kalaallit Nunaat
Useful information

GMT Nuuk -3; Danmarkshavn 0; Illoqqortoormiut -1; Thule Air Base -4
DST Nuuk -2; Danmarkshavn not applied; Illoqqortoormiut 0; Thule Air Base -3
DST duration (start-end) late March-late October

Annual average temperature (°C) Illulissat -3.9; Ammassalik 0.4
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Illulissat -13.5/8.5; Ammassalik -7/8
Annual average precipitation (mm) Illulissat 259; Ammassalik 770
Days of rainfall (annual average) Illulissat 59; Ammassalik 90

Politics and current affairs

Greenland, the largest island on Earth, has belonged to Denmark since 1721 and, with the Constitution of 5 June 1953, became an integral part of the kingdom of Denmark. A referendum in 1979 gave the island a statute of regional autonomy (1 May 1979) while, in the referendum of 24 November 2008, it acquired the right to self-government (from 21 June 2009), opening the way to independence. In 1985 Greenland withdrew from the EEC, assuming the status of associated external territory with privileged access to the markets of the member-countries of the EU.
In 2013 the parliament decided to open up to foreign investment and remove the ban imposed by Denmark on the extraction of uranium and rare earths.
The Parliament, elected every four years, comprises 31 members, who elect the Council of Ministers. There is an American air-base at Thule. A large number of coastal islands also belong to Greenland, amounting to a total surface area of 44 800 km2. About 20% of the surface area consists of land that is not covered with ice, the melting of which opens new doors for development (mining and tourism). Inuit Ataqatigiit, a left-wing party opposed to the start-up of the new Kvanefjeld mine (rare earths), won the elections of April 6, 2021 (37.4%).

Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Nuuk18 800inhab.2021
Sisimiut5 622inhab.2021
TOP

Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2020)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate14.72018
Death rate8.72018
Foreigners
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Foreigners, total1 112units2019
Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Protestant95.5%2010
nonreligious/atheist2.5%2010


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Danish
English
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years20.7%2020
15-29 years22.7%2020


TOP

Economy


Economy.
Greenland depends on financial help from the Danish government. The economy is based on fishing, particularly cod and crustaceans, also the fish-processing and fish-conserving industry, which feed the exports. Sheep-farming is common in the southern part of the island, around Qaqortoq, also reindeer farming. The fact that the ice is gradually retreating means that it is becoming easier to exploit the vast mineral resources that lie underground. This is encouraging foreign companies to come and explore its extraction potential (for petroleum, natural gas, nickel, lead, zinc, gold and valuable soils). There is a fish-processing factory at Narsaq; there are other processing plants at Qasigiannguit and Ilulissat.
Tourism is on the rise.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)97.79index2016
Balance of trade- 114.8M US$2020
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population27 141units2019
Active population, Females45.9%2019
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate5.1%2019
Unemployment rate, Females45.6%2019
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture16.3%2019
industry10.4%2019
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture19.202%2019
industry18.12%2019
TOP

Agriculture

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
forests0.001%2018
meadows & pastures0.592%2018
TOP

Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle0.31000 heads2019
cattle and buffaloes0.31000 heads2019
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep17.0851000 heads2019
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
equines, total0.1291000 heads2019
horses0.1291000 heads2019
Livestock - Other animals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
reindeers3$1000 heads2019
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hides and skins0.0541000 t2018
meat0.5051000 t2018
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs103 450t2019
marine fishes161 719t2019
TOP

Minerals

Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gold100kg2013
TOP

Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro413.82M kWh2018
- thermal98.7M kWh2018
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal96$1000 kW2018
- hydro91$1000 kW2019
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation512.52M kWh2018
total installed capacity187.191000 kW2018
TOP

Industry

Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fish, frozen25$1000 t2003
fish, salted or smoked1.51000 t2003
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufacturing production135.749M US$2018
TOP

Trade

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
food products92.344% of goods exports2018
manufactures4.455% of goods exports2018
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
2020788M US$ -
2019827M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
2020903M US$ -
2019986M US$ -
TOP

Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, passengers carried702.31000 units2011
Merchant fleet8$units2021
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers254.164per 1000 pop.2019
Internet users694.825per 1000 pop.2017
TOP

Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Public spending on education6.4% of GDP2011
Students11 344units2003-04
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending17.5% of GDP2011
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Public spending on health10.1% of GDP2011
Museums
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Museums1$units2020
Museums, visitors9 274units2020
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to electricity100%2019
Access to improved drinking-water source100%2017
TOP