Area: 2 166 086 sq km
Population: 55 992 inhab. (estimate 2019)
Density: 0.03 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 84° - 60° N; long. 73° - 12° W
Capital: Nuuk (chief town) 17 984 inhab. (2019);
Currency: Danish krone (100 øre)
Prime Minister: Kim Kielsen (Siumut Party, social-democratic), since 10 December 2014
Member of  Nordic Council

Greenland

Kalaallit Nunaat
Useful information

GMT Nuuk -3; Danmarkshavn 0; Illoqqortoormiut -1; Thule Air Base -4
DST Nuuk -2; Danmarkshavn not applied; Illoqqortoormiut 0; Thule Air Base -3
DST duration (start-end) late March-late October

Annual average temperature (°C) Illulissat -3.9; Ammassalik 0.4
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Illulissat -13.5/8.5; Ammassalik -7/8
Annual average precipitation (mm) Illulissat 259; Ammassalik 770
Days of rainfall (annual average) Illulissat 59; Ammassalik 90

Politics and current affairs

Greenland, the largest island on Earth, has belonged to Denmark since 1721 and, with the Constitution of 5 June 1953, became an integral part of the kingdom of Denmark. A referendum in 1979 gave the island a statute of regional autonomy (1 May 1979) while, in the referendum of 24 November 2008, it acquired the right to self-government (from 21 June 2009), opening the way to independence. In 1985 Greenland withdrew from the EEC, assuming the status of associated external territory with privileged access to the markets of the member-countries of the EU. In 2013 the parliament decided to open up to foreign investment and remove the ban imposed by Denmark on the extraction of uranium and rare earths.
The Parliament, elected every four years, comprises 31 members, who elect the Council of Ministers. There is an American air-base at Thule. A large number of coastal islands also belong to Greenland, amounting to a total surface area of 44 800 km2. About 20% of the land is not covered with ice. In fact, the annual average temperature is between -1.2 and -6 °C, with peaks of between 5.9 and 7.7 °C in July. Melting ice opens new doors for development (mining and tourism). The island is at the centre of renewed international interest in the Arctic.

Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Nuuk17 984inhab.2019
Sisimiut5 509inhab.2019
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2018)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate14.72018
Death rate8.72018
Foreigners
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Foreigners, total1 112units2019
Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Protestant95.5%2010
nonreligious/atheist2.5%2010


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Danish
English
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years21%2018
15-29 years23.4%2018


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Economy


Economy.
Greenland depends on financial help from the Danish government. The economy is based on fishing, particularly cod and crustaceans, also the fish-processing and fish-conserving industry, which feed the exports. Sheep-farming is common in the southern part of the island, around Qaqortoq, also reindeer farming. The fact that the ice is gradually retreating means that it is becoming easier to exploit the vast mineral resources that lie underground. This is encouraging foreign companies to come and explore its extraction potential (for petroleum, natural gas, nickel, lead, zinc, gold and valuable soils).
There is a fish-processing factory at Narsaq; there are other processing plants at Qasigiannguit and Ilulissat.
Tourism is on the rise.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)97.79index2016
Balance of trade- 110M US$2018
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population27 271units2017
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate6.8%2017
Unemployment rate, Females45.7%2017
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture16.5%2017
industry10.3%2017
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture20.2%2017
industry16.3%2017
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Agriculture

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
meadows & pastures0.57%2015
other land99.43%2015
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber02011
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle0.161000 heads2017
cattle and buffaloes0.161000 heads2017
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep18.181000 heads2017
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
equines, total0.141000 heads2017
horses0.141000 heads2017
Livestock - Other animals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
reindeers3.11000 heads2012
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
meat0.5081000 t2017
wool0.021000 t2013
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs97 206t2017
marine fishes213 517t2017
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Minerals

Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gold100kg2013
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro384M kWh2016
- thermal154M kWh2016
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal961000 kW2016
- hydro911000 kW2016
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation538M kWh2016
total installed capacity1871000 kW2016
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Industry

Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fish, frozen251000 t2003
fish, salted or smoked1.51000 t2003
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufacturing production123.7M US$2016
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Trade

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
food products88.930% of goods exports2016
manufactures3.051% of goods exports2016
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
2018670M US$ -
2017563M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
2018780M US$ -
2017711M US$ -
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, passengers carried702.31000 units2011
Merchant fleet8units2018
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers177.377per 1000 pop.2015
Internet users685.008per 1000 pop.2016
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Public spending on education6.4% of GDP2011
Students11 344units2003-04
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending17.5% of GDP2011
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Public spending on health10.1% of GDP2011
Museums
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Museums1units2018
Museums, visitors12 342units2018
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to electricity100%2017
Access to improved drinking-water source100%2010
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