Form of Government: Republic
Area: 390 757 sq km
Population: 16 166 351 inhab. (estimate 2020)
Density: 41.37 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 15° - 22° S; long. 25° - 33° E
Capital: Harare (capital) 1 592 369 inhab. (2017); Harare 2 811 128 inhab. (2020), urban agglomeration
Currency: Zimbabwe dollar (reintroduced on 24 June 2019); the US dollar and other foreign currencies are also in use since March 2020
Human development index: 0.571 (rank: 150)
President: Emmerson Mnangagwa (ZANU-PF), since 24 November 2017, elected 30 July 2018
National Assembly: seats based on the elections of 30 July 2018: ZANU-PF (African National Union-Patriotic Front) 180; MDC Alliance (Movement for Democratic Change), 87; others, 3
Internet: www.zimstat.co.zw (National Statistics Agency)
Member of AU, COMESA, SADC, UN, WTO

Zimbabwe

Zimbabwe, Republic of Zimbabwe
Useful information

International license plate code ZW
International dialling code 00263
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (required only if traveling from a country with risk of transmission); malaria prophylaxis (recommended for some areas)
Electricity (Voltage) 220
Driving side left
Internet code .zw

GMT  +2
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Harare 18.7
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Harare 21/14
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Harare 8/6
Annual average precipitation (mm) Harare 860
Days of rainfall (annual average) Harare 73

Geography.
Zimbabwe borders Zambia to the north, Mozambique to the east, South Africa to the south and Botswana to the south-west.
The territory consists of a vast plateau which drops down towards Mozambique in the east and towards the Zambezi delta in the north and the Limpopo delta in the south. The climate is tropical.

Government


Formerly a British colony known as Rhodesia, Zimbabwe was proclaimed independent in 1965 with a unilateral act by the head of government Ian Smith, who in 1969 introduced a segregationist regime along the lines of South Africa’s. British intervention in 1979 temporarily reinstated its colonial status until the elections of 1980 (won by the African National Union-Patriotic Front led by Robert Mugabe) when a republic was proclaimed. Since then, Mugabe has unscrupulously remained in power by winning all of the elections thanks to the use of bribery and violence against opponents. In 2017, with a military coup d’état, the ZANU-PF opposed to Mugabe took control of the country. Mugabe was forced to resign and was replaced by former vice president Emmerson Mnangagwa.
The 2013 constitution reduced the powers of the president and set a limit of two five-year presidential terms.
The Parliament is formed by a National Assembly (270 members elected and 60 seats reserved for women) and a Senate (80 members of which 60 are directly elected), each of which has a five-year term. The legal system is based on Dutch Law and British Common Law systems.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force13.8%2015
Army86.2%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Homicides6.7per 100 000 pop.2012
Police personnel213.2per 100 000 pop.2008
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Harare1 592 369inhab.2017
Bulawayo700 466inhab.2017
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Harare2 811 128inhab.2020
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2020)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate29.7472019
Death rate7.7732019
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
African99.4%2012
other0.2%2012


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Apostolic37$%2015
Pentecostal21$%2015


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Chewa (official)
Chibarwe (official)
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years38.3%2020
15-29 years28.9%2020


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Economy


Economic situation.
Due to good harvests and the resumption of activities following COVID-19 restrictions, the economy came out of recession in 2021. After doing away with the multi-currency system and reintroducing the Zimbabwe dollar in June 2019, the local currency depreciated and inflation quickly rose. The measures taken by the central bank in 2020-21 ensured that prices did not rise, which nevertheless remain high.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)100.35index2016
Agricultural prod. index (2014-16=100)112.6index2019
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population6 985 770units2020
Active population, Females50.9%2020
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate5.7%2020
Unemployment rate, Females56.1%2019
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses12 194M LCU2019
Revenues9 367M LCU2019
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture66.5%2019
industry6.6%2019
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture9.049%2019
industry23.68%2019
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation2.376BN LCU2020
International reserves33.405M US$2020
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Agriculture


Primary sector.
Since 2016, the agricultural reform decreed in 2000, which redistributed the land belonging to white owners and reduced efficiency in the sector, has been heavily modified; as a result, productivity has increased. The most important crops for sustenance farming are maize, cassava, vegetables and bananas; fruit farming is well developed. The main export products are tobacco, cotton, sugar cane, tea, peanuts and soya.
Livestock farming, especially cattle, is widespread. The forests provide quality timber such as teak and mahogany.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land10.598%2018
forests45.332%2018
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley56.7811000 t2019
cereals, total994.1781000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava253.8351000 t2019
potatoes12.881000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
artichokes0.3241000 t2019
asparagus0.3071000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry18.1191000 t2019
beans, green3.8831000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes3.4361000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts90$1000 t2019
soybeans40$1000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coffee0.5211000 t2019
pepper1.9621000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane3 5621000 t2019
tobacco257.7641000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton107.3381000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
jute2.731000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples6.4411000 t2019
apricots0.0461000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits140.4921000 t2019
citrus fruits, nes0.5511000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados7.2331000 t2019
bananas142.381000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Others
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mushrooms0.7971000 t2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley10.2921000 ha2019
maize875.9091000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava52.9881000 ha2019
potatoes3.6451000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
artichokes0.0231000 ha2019
cabbages0.0371000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry30.0671000 ha2019
beans, green1.0991000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape0.4091000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts1921000 ha2019
soybeans30$1000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coffee10.921000 ha2019
pepper1.31000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane46$1000 ha2019
tobacco102.7951000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton156.641000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
jute4.5081000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples0.731000 ha2019
apricots0.0221000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits18.7651000 ha2019
citrus fruits, nes0.121000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados1.2471000 ha2019
bananas17.681000 ha2019
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber9 983 3502019
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle5 522.9561000 heads2019
cattle and buffaloes5 522.9561000 heads2019
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs298.5321000 heads2019
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep364.5311000 heads2019
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats4 733.561000 heads2019
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses599.781000 heads2019
asses and mules601.0351000 heads2019
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds8 8671000 heads2019
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter2.0911000 t2018
cheese2.4731000 t2018
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
freshwater fishes29 186.47t2019
total catch29 225.37t2019
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Minerals


Secondary sector.
Mining activities extract gold (at Bulawayo, Gweru, Gwanda, Chegutu, Harare, Mvuma and Masvingo), coal (at Lubimbi, near Hwange), and minerals such as iron ore and chromite (at Shurugwi and Umkukwe). There are also reserves of cobalt, nickel, copper, lithium and phosphates, while to the south of Harare there are seams bearing emeralds. At Beitbridge, Murowa, River Ranch and Marane diamonds are mined, and there is platinum near Hartley.
The hydroelectric power supplied by the Kariba plant on the River Zambezi is important. The main industries are metal-working (plants at Gweru, Bulawayo and Manugla), iron and steel works (Redcliff-Kwekwe and Bulawayo), machinery (automobile assembly), food, textiles and chemicals (Harare, Kwekwe and Mutare).
Other industries include paper, cement (Gweru, Harare and Redcliff), and asbestos products (Gweru). At Feruka, near Mutare, there is a crude oil storage depot connected to a pipeline at Beira in Mozambique.

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coal3 280.11000 t2020
coal, total3 280.11000 t2020
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chromite894.71000 t2018
cobalt0.41000 t2019
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asbestos8$1000 t2020
graphite2$1000 t2019
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
diamonds2001000 ct2020
diamonds, industrial - ct2 0001000 ct2020
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro5 000M kWh2018
- thermal3 932.02M kWh2018
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal1 2201000 kW2018
- hydro1 0801000 kW2019
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation9 133.02M kWh2018
total installed capacity2 410.611000 kW2018
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coke, metall.2191000 t2018
copper5$1000 t2015
Industry - Machinery and transport equipment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
commercial vehicles820no.2014
motor vehicles820no.2014
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ammonia10$1000 t2019
nitrogen fertilizers13.21000 t2019
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley2301000 t2018
cottonseed oil10.21000 t2018
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
newsprint2$1000 t2012
other paper1071000 t2012
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement1 8001000 t2018
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production189.163M US$2017
food, beverages and tobacco production1 207.085M US$2017
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Trade


Tertiary sector.
The long crisis and international isolation have weaken the tertiary sector. At Harare there is a stock exchange.

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ores and metals35.167% of goods exports2019
food products23.453% of goods exports2019
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
South Africa1 192M US$2009
Netherlands188M US$2009
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
South Africa2 132M US$2009
United States275M US$2009
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20204 057M US$ -
20194 269M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20204 953M US$ -
20194 817M US$ -
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Tourism


Tourism. The long political crisis and the pandemic have badly affected this sector: the main tourist attractions are the Victoria Falls and the large national parks, including the Nyanga National Park and the Great Limpopo Transfrontier Park, which also crosses into Mozambique and South Africa.

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures338M US$2017
Number of arrivals2 290 000units2019
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown6 400 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried282.51000 units2018
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers13.958per 1000 pop.2019
Computers76.2per 1000 pop.2008
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling10.2years2013
Graduates33 255units2015
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Students, primary level2 663 187units2013
Students, secondary level957 461units2013
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds1.6per 1000 pop.2019
Physicians0.21per 1000 pop.2018
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV12.8% of adults2019
HIV, total17.9%2001
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking30$%2019
Access to electricity41.089%2019
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