Form of Government: Republic
Area: 390 757 sq km
Population: 13 572 611 inhab. (estimate 2017)
Density: 34.73 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 15° - 22° S; long. 25° - 33° E
Capital: Harare (capital) 1 592 369 inhab. (2017); Harare 1 973 906 inhab. (2017), urban agglomeration
Currency: Zimbabwe dollar (reintroduced on 24 June 2019)
Human development index: 0.535 (rank: 156)
President: Emmerson Mnangagwa (ZANU-PF), since 24 November 2017, elected 30 July 2018
House of Representatives: seats based on the elections of 30 July 2018: ZANU-PF (African National Union-Patriotic Front) 180; MDC Alliance (Movement for Democratic Change), 87; others, 3
Internet: www.zimstat.co.zw (Central Statistical Office)
Member of AU, COMESA, SADC, UN, WTO

Zimbabwe

Zimbabwe, Republic of Zimbabwe
Useful information

International license plate code ZW
International dialling code 00263
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (required only if traveling from a country with risk of transmission); malaria prophylaxis (recommended for some areas)
Electricity (Voltage) 220
Driving side left
Internet code .zw

GMT  +2
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Harare 18.7
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Harare 21/14
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Harare 8/6
Annual average precipitation (mm) Harare 860
Days of rainfall (annual average) Harare 73

Politics and current affairs

The economic crisis, begun under R. Mugabe’s government, has continued even following E. Mnangagwa’s rise to power and the 2018 elections.
The increase in the prices of staple goods has led to violent protests that were brutally repressed.

Geography.
Zimbabwe borders Zambia to the north, Mozambique to the east, South Africa to the south and Botswana to the south-west. The territory consists of a vast plateau which drops down towards Mozambique in the east and towards the Zambezi delta in the north and the Limpopo delta in the south. The climate is tropical.

Government


Formerly a British colony known as Rhodesia, Zimbabwe was proclaimed independent in 1965 with a unilateral act by the head of government Ian Smith, who in 1969 introduced a segregationist regime along the lines of South Africa’s. British intervention in 1979 temporarily reinstated its colonial status until the elections of 1980 (won by the African National Union-Patriotic Front led by Robert Mugabe) when a republic was proclaimed. Since then, Mugabe has unscrupulously remained in power by winning all of the elections thanks to the use of bribery and violence against opponents. In 2017, with a military coup d’état, the ZANU-PF opposed to Mugabe took control of the country. Mugabe was forced to resign and was replaced by former vice president Emmerson Mnangagwa.
The 2013 constitution reduced the powers of the president and set a limit of two five-year presidential terms.
The Parliament is formed by a House of Assembly (210 members elected and 60 seats reserved for women) and a Senate (80 members of which 60 are directly elected), each of which has a five-year term. The legal system is based on Dutch Law and British Common Law systems.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force13.8%2015
Army86.2%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Homicides6.7per 100 000 pop.2012
Police personnel213.2per 100 000 pop.2008
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Harare1 592 369inhab.2017
Bulawayo700 466inhab.2017
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Harare1 973 906inhab.2017
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2018)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE

The white minority of land owners largely emigrated from Zimbabwe following the start of the agrarian reform in 2000. Around three million Zimbabwean citizens live abroad.

Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate32.32017
Death rate7.92017
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
African99.4%2012
other0.2%2012


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Apostolic37%2015
Pentecostal21%2015


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Chewa (official)
Chibarwe (official)
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years38.6%2018
15-29 years29.3%2018


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Economy


Economic situation.
In the last trimester of 2018, the rapid rise in the prices of staple goods led to serious social tensions. In seeking a solution, the government introduced a new currency in February 2019 (RTGS dollar) alongside the multicurrency system that accepted many foreign currencies; in light of the lack of results this produced, in June, the multicurrency system was abolished and a new Zimbabwe dollar was reintroduced.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)100.35index2016
Balance of trade414M US$2018
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population8 341 968units2018
Active population, Females49.1%2018
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate11.4%2015
Unemployment rate, Females69.5%2014
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses6 568M LCU2017
Revenues3 814M LCU2017
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture67.2%2018
industry7.2%2018
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture11.6%2017
industry24.3%2017
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation0.523BN LCU2018
International reserves86.95M US$2018
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Agriculture


Primary sector.
Since 2016, the agricultural reform decreed in 2000, which redistributed the land belonging to white owners and reduced efficiency in the sector, has been heavily modified; as a result, productivity has increased. The most important crops for sustenance farming are maize, cassava, vegetables and bananas; fruit farming is well developed. The main export products are tobacco, cotton, sugar cane, tea, peanuts and soya.
Livestock farming, especially cattle, is widespread. The forests provide quality timber such as teak and mahogany.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land10.6%2014
forests37.15%2014
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley56.2311000 t2017
cereals, total1 102.7051000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava240.7241000 t2017
potatoes66.3591000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
artichokes0.3141000 t2017
asparagus0.2821000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry13.8111000 t2017
beans, green3.5871000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes3.3631000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts401000 t2017
soybeans601000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coffee0.6081000 t2017
pepper1.9511000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane3 583.6721000 t2017
tobacco181.6431000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton124.9921000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
jute2.5191000 t2014
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples6.7791000 t2017
apricots0.0441000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits141.751000 t2017
citrus fruits, nes0.5741000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados1.7481000 t2017
bananas105.4151000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Others
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mushrooms0.7041000 t2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley10.1231000 ha2017
maize1 349.1581000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava50.9031000 ha2017
potatoes3.9151000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
artichokes0.0241000 ha2017
cabbages0.0351000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry32.6661000 ha2017
chick peas0.2291000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape0.4091000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts1541000 ha2017
soybeans571000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coffee2.6731000 ha2017
pepper1.591000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane45.8811000 ha2017
tobacco150.1241000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton185.131000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
jute4.1541000 ha2014
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples0.7481000 ha2017
apricots0.0221000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits19.2011000 ha2017
citrus fruits, nes0.1271000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados0.2991000 ha2017
bananas15.0251000 ha2017
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber9 869 3362017
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle5 534.4951000 heads2017
cattle and buffaloes5 534.4951000 heads2017
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs251.7581000 heads2017
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep303.6021000 heads2017
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats4 895.0431000 heads2017
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses595.9041000 heads2017
asses and mules597.1531000 heads2017
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds22 1911000 heads2017
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter2.0931000 t2014
cheese2.4751000 t2014
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
freshwater fishes26 720t2017
total catch26 800t2017
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Minerals


Secondary sector.
Mining activities extract gold (at Bulawayo, Gweru, Gwanda, Chegutu, Harare, Mvuma and Masvingo), coal (at Lubimbi, near Hwange), and minerals such as iron ore and chromite (at Shurugwi and Umkukwe). There are also reserves of cobalt, nickel, copper, lithium and phosphates, while to the south of Harare there are seams bearing emeralds. At Beitbridge, Murowa, River Ranch and Marane diamonds are mined, and there is platinum near Hartley.
The hydroelectric power supplied by the Kariba plant on the River Zambezi is important. The main industries are metal-working (plants at Gweru, Bulawayo and Manugla), iron and steel works (Redcliff-Kwekwe and Bulawayo), machinery (automobile assembly at Bulawayo, Harare and Mutare), food, textiles and chemical (Harare, Kwekwe and Mutare). Other industries include paper, cement and asbestos products (Gweru). At Feruka, near Mutare, there is a crude oil storage depot connected to a pipeline at Beira in Mozambique.

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coal3 041.11000 t2018
coal, total3 041.11000 t2018
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chromite2751000 t2016
cobalt0.4091000 t2016
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asbestos0.3771000 t2013
graphite21000 t2018
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
diamonds2501000 ct2018
diamonds, industrial - ct2 0001000 ct2018
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal3 710.18M kWh2016
- hydro2 957M kWh2016
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal1 2351000 kW2016
- hydro7801000 kW2016
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation6 800.18M kWh2016
total installed capacity2 1221000 kW2016
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cobalt0.3551000 t2015
coke, metall.3321000 t2016
Industry - Machinery and transport equipment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
commercial vehicles820no.2014
motor vehicles820no.2014
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ammonia151000 t2016
nitrogen fertilizers32.31000 t2016
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley253.31000 t2014
cottonseed oil11.91000 t2014
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemical pulp311000 t2011
chemi-mechanical pulp471000 t2011
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement1 5001000 t2016
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production355.1M US$2015
food, beverages and tobacco production705.6M US$2015
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Trade


Tertiary sector.
The long crisis and international isolation have weaken the tertiary sector. At Harare there is a stock exchange.

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ores and metals41.851% of goods exports2018
food products35.891% of goods exports2018
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
South Africa1 192M US$2009
Netherlands188M US$2009
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
South Africa2 132M US$2009
United States275M US$2009
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20184 514M US$ -
20173 480M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20184 100M US$ -
20173 900M US$ -
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Tourism


Tourism. The long political crisis has badly affected this sector: the main tourist attractions are the Victoria Falls and the large national parks, including the Nyanga National Park and the Great Limpopo Transfrontier Park, which also crosses into Mozambique and South Africa.

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures338M US$2017
Number of arrivals2 423 000units2017
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown6 400 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried282.51000 units2017
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers11.331per 1000 pop.2017
Computers76.2per 1000 pop.2008
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling10.2years2013
Graduates33 255units2015
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level73 148units2013
Teachers, secondary level42 585units2013
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds1.6per 1000 pop.2016
Physicians0.1per 1000 pop.2017
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV13.3% of adults2017
HIV, total17.9%2001
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking29.05%2016
Access to electricity40.421%2017
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