Form of Government: Republic
Area: 752 612 sq km
Population: 17 885 422 inhab. (estimate 2020)
Density: 23.76 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 8° - 18° S; long. 22° - 34° E
Capital: Lusaka (capital) 1 747 152 inhab. (2010); Lusaka 2 523 844 inhab. (2018), urban agglomeration
Currency: Zambian kwacha (100 ngwee)
Human development index: 0.584 (rank: 146)
President and head of government: Hakainde Hichilema (UPND), elected 12 August 2021, in office since 24 August 2021
National Assembly: seats based on the elections of 12 August 2021: UPND (United Party for National Development), 82; PF (Patriotic Front), 59; PNUP (Party of National Unity and Progress), 3; independents, 13
Internet: www.zamstats.gov.zm (Central Statistical Office)
Member of AU, COMESA, Commonwealth, SADC, UN, WTO

Zambia

Zambia, Republic of Zambia
Useful information

International license plate code Z
International dialling code 00260
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (required only if traveling from a country with risk of transmission, including travelers having transited more than 12 hours through the airport of a country with risk of transmission); malaria prophylaxis (recommended)
Electricity (Voltage) 230
Driving side left
Internet code .zm

GMT  +2
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Lusaka 20.6
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Lusaka 21.5/16.5
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Lusaka 9/6
Annual average precipitation (mm) Lusaka 835
Days of rainfall (annual average) Lusaka 71

Politics and current affairs

In the general elections of 12 August 2021, Hakainde Hichilema (UPND) defeated the incumbent President, Edgar Lungu (PF), with 59.4% of the votes.

Geography.
Zambia is bordered to the north by the Democratic Republic of the Congo, to the north-east by Tanzania and Malawi, to the east by Mozambique, to the south by Zimbabwe and Botswana, to the south-west by Namibia and to the west by Angola. The terrain consists of a highland area in which the Muchinga Mountains can be found. To the north there is a vast, swampy depression, while in the south-west the altitude drops until it reaches the basin of the River Zambezi, whose course is interrupted by waterfalls and rapids (the huge Victoria Falls). The climate is tropical, summer rains getting less prevalent from north to south.

Government


A former British colony called Northern Rhodesia, Zambia became independent on 24 October 1964. The multiparty elections of 1991 put an end to the long presidency of Kenneth Kaunda (1964-91) and to the long predominance of the UNIP, the sole ruling party from 1972 to 1990. Since then, the presidency of the country has alternated between different parties. According to the Constitution of 28 May 1996, the President of the Republic, who is also head of the government, is elected by direct suffrage for a five-year term, as is the National Assembly (163 members, of which 155 are elected and 8 are appointed by the President), which holds legislative power. In addition, there is a Council of Chiefs, a consultative body with 50 representatives of the different ethnic groups. The legal system is based on British Common Law.


Defence.
Military service is voluntary.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force10.6%2015
Army89.4%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Homicides5.3per 100 000 pop.2015
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Lusaka1 747 152inhab.2010
Kitwe501 360inhab.2010
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Lusaka2 523 844inhab.2018
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2020)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate35.7762019
Death rate6.3212019
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
other35.5%2010
Bemba21$%2010


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Protestant75.3%2010
Catholic20.2%2010


Languages
DESCRIPTION
English
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years43.8%2020
15-29 years27.7%2020


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Economy


Economic situation.
The economy is sensitive to the trend of agricultural productivity and the price of copper, recovering in 2021 after the decline due to the COVID-19 pandemic. An ambitious infrastructural plan, with Chinese financing, increased the public debt; interest on the debt (in dollars), compounded by the devaluation of the local currency, made the financial situation precarious, tipping the country into insolvency in November 2020. Foreign investment played a considerable role in the mining, farming and manufacturing segments. Due to major disparity in the distribution of wealth and rapid population increase, economic growth has little impact on the poverty that affects most of the population.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)182.94index2016
Agricultural prod. index (2014-16=100)110.44index2019
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population7 636 664units2020
Active population, Females48.3%2020
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate12.2%2020
Unemployment rate, Females51.8%2019
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses73 700 000M LCU2018
Revenues53 400 000M LCU2018
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture48.8%2019
industry10.8%2019
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture3.394%2019
industry36.782%2019
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation12.389BN LCU2020
International reserves1 203.448M US$2020
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Agriculture


Primary sector.
Cereals (maize and wheat) are mostly growth for domestic consumption as well as vegetable and cassava. Commercially grown agricultural products include maize, sugar cane, tobacco, cotton and sunflower seed.
The forests are a rich natural resource, providing teak and mahogany. Fishing is important in Lakes Mweru, Kariba, Tanganyika and Bangweulu, and in the River Kafue and River Luapula.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land5.16%2018
forests60.79%2018
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley11.6871000 t2019
cereals, total2 229.0371000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava4 036.5841000 t2019
potatoes38.7861000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
artichokes0.8051000 t2016
onions, dry39.1981000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts130.8251000 t2019
soybeans281.3891000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coffee6.9761000 t2019
pepper0.0091000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane4 994.3021000 t2019
tobacco153.8391000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton72.5081000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fruits, total115.9051000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits3.9221000 t2019
oranges3.9221000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bananas0.6441000 t2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley11.1171000 ha2019
maize841.6931000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava126.8691000 ha2019
potatoes2.0161000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
onions, dry2.5471000 ha2019
tomatoes2.6611000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts208.4831000 ha2019
soybeans196.2871000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coffee7.7361000 ha2019
pepper0.0111000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane48.3361000 ha2019
tobacco88.4821000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton88.7481000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits0.8881000 ha2019
oranges0.8881000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bananas0.1461000 ha2019
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber25 725 0002019
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle3 683.8591000 heads2019
cattle and buffaloes3 683.8591000 heads2019
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs1 207.2941000 heads2019
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep266.1751000 heads2019
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats2 886.8891000 heads2019
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses2.21000 heads2019
asses and mules2.21000 heads2019
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds41 8801000 heads2019
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey0.8231000 t2019
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter1.7071000 t2018
cheese6.0221000 t2018
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
freshwater fishes135 943t2019
total catch135 943t2019
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Minerals


Secondary sector.
Mineral mining plays a crucial role in the economy of Zambia. The main product is copper, mined in Luanshya, Mufulira, Kansanshi, Chibuluma, Chambishi, Nchanga, Rhokana, Bwana and Mkubwa. There are mines for nickel (at Bindura), manganese (at Chiwefwe and Kampumba), coal (ta Maamba), cadmium (at Kabwe), lead, tin, pyrites, and emeralds. Gold, silver, selenium and, above all, cobalt are also produced as by-products of copper refining. The mineral-rich area of Kabwe is supplied by the hydroelectric power stations on the Mulungushi and Lunsemfwa rivers; energy coming from the Kariba plant, on the Zambezi, is shared with Zimbabwe; other power stations are in operation near the Victoria Falls, to serve Livingstone area, and on the Kafue River. Important industrial plants include those for the concentration and electro-refining of copper (at Nkana, Mufulira, Chingola, Ndola, Luanshya) as well as the metal-working plants at Kabwe.
At Ndola there is a refinery using oil coming via a pipeline from Dar es Salaam (Tanzania). There are also some chemical plants (at Kafue), cement works (near Luanda and Ndola), rubber plants (tyres at Ndola), textile mills (at Kafue), machine industries (assembly and production of tractors at Lusaka, motor-vehicle assembly at Ndola), sugar refineries (Ndola and Nakambala) and tobacco plants, breweries (beer) and paper mills.

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coal1 323.31000 t2019
coal, total1 323.31000 t2019
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cobalt0.421000 t2019
copper8301000 t2020
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
emeralds12 0001000 ct2018
gold3 899kg2018
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro13 556.07M kWh2018
- thermal2 346.24M kWh2018
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro2 4001000 kW2019
- thermal4991000 kW2018
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation15 981M kWh2018
total installed capacity2 943.021000 kW2018
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cobalt1.51000 t2019
copper3601000 t2020
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen5$1000 t2012
petrol148.71000 t2014
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sulfuric acid5941000 t2018
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley3001000 t2018
cottonseed oil8.41000 t2018
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
other paper1$1000 t2019
paper1$1000 t2019
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement2 751.11000 t2018
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production161.185M US$2015
food, beverages and tobacco production512.272M US$2015
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Trade


Tertiary sector.
The trade balance is in surplus, thanks to the export of raw materials, largely minerals and metals (especially copper, nickel and cobalt). Tobacco and timber are also important. The main trading partners are Switzerland, South Africa and China. The central bank is the Bank of Zambia. There is a stock exchange in Lusaka.

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ores and metals74.934% of goods exports2019
manufactures14.25% of goods exports2019
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Switzerland3 673M US$2010
China1 455M US$2010
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
South Africa1 830M US$2010
Congo, Dem. Rep.1 269M US$2010
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20207 805M US$ -
20197 047M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20205 316M US$ -
20197 181M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures511M US$2019
Number of arrivals1 266 000units2019
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown1 900 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried17.51000 units2019
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers4.977per 1000 pop.2019
Computers11.2per 1000 pop.2005
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Gross enrolment ratio, primary - Female99.904index2017
Gross enrolment ratio, primary - Male97.543index2017
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Students, primary level3 284 841units2017
Students, secondary level646 455units2008
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds2$per 1000 pop.2010
Physicians1.19per 1000 pop.2018
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV11.5% of adults2019
HIV, total17$%2005
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.34% of GDP2008
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking15.7%2019
Access to electricity43$%2019
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