Form of Government: Republic
Area: 752 612 sq km
Population: 16 405 229 inhab. (estimate 2017)
Density: 21.80 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 8° - 18° S; long. 22° - 34° E
Capital: Lusaka (capital) 1 747 152 inhab. (2010);
Currency: Zambian kwacha (100 ngwee)
Human development index: 0.579 (rank: 139)
President and head of government: Edgar Lungu (PF), elected 20 January 2015, reconfirmed 11 August 2016
National Assembly: seats based on the elections of 11 August 2016: PF (Patriotic Front), 80; UPND (United Party for National Development), 58; MMD (Movement for Multi-party Democracy), 3; others, 15
Internet: www.zamstats.gov.zm (Central Statistical Office)
Member of AU, COMESA, Commonwealth, SADC, UN, WTO

Zambia

Zambia, Republic of Zambia
Useful information

International license plate code Z
International dialling code 00260
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (required only if traveling from a country with risk of transmission, including travelers having transited more than 12 hours through the airport of a country with risk of transmission); malaria prophylaxis (recommended)
Electricity (Voltage) 230
Driving side left
Internet code .zm

GMT  +2
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Lusaka 20.6
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Lusaka 21.5/16.5
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Lusaka 9/6
Annual average precipitation (mm) Lusaka 835
Days of rainfall (annual average) Lusaka 71

Geography.
Zambia is bordered to the north by the Democratic Republic of the Congo, to the north-east by Tanzania and Malawi, to the east by Mozambique, to the south by Zimbabwe and Botswana, to the south-west by Namibia and to the west by Angola.
The terrain consists of a highland area in which the Muchinga Mountains can be found. To the north there is a vast, swampy depression, while in the south-west the altitude drops until it reaches the basin of the River Zambezi, whose course is interrupted by waterfalls and rapids (the huge Victoria Falls). The climate is tropical, summer rains getting less prevalent from north to south.

Government


A former British colony called Northern Rhodesia, Zambia became independent on 24 October 1964. The multiparty elections of 1991 put an end to the long presidency of Kenneth Kaunda (1964-91) and to the long predominance of the UNIP, the sole ruling party from 1972 to 1990. From 1991 to 2011 power remained in the hands of the Movement for Multiparty Democracy, then replaced by the Patriotic Front in 2011.
According to the Constitution of 28 May 1996, the President of the Republic, who is also head of the government, is elected by direct suffrage for a five-year term, as is the National Assembly (164 members, of which 156 are elected and 8 are appointed by the President), which holds legislative power. In addition, there is a Council of Chiefs, a consultative body with 50 representatives of the different ethnic groups. The legal system is based on British Common Law.


Defence.
Military service is voluntary.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force10.6%2015
Army89.4%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Homicides10.7per 100 000 pop.2012
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Lusaka1 747 152inhab.2010
Kitwe501 360inhab.2010
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2017)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate38.12016
Death rate7.82016
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
other35.5%2010
Bemba21%2010


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Protestant75.3%2010
Catholic20.2%2010


Languages
DESCRIPTION
English
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years46%2017
15-29 years27.6%2017


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Economy


Economic situation.
In 2017-18, the increase in agricultural productivity and the rise in the price of copper drove growth, while the strengthening of the kwacha limited inflation. An ambitious infrastructural plan, with Chinese financing, increased the public debt. Foreign investment played a considerable role in the mining, farming and manufacturing segments. Due to major disparity in the distribution of wealth, economic growth has little impact on the poverty that affects most of the population.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)182.94index2016
Balance of trade- 584M US$2017
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population7 060 655units2017
Active population, Females47.8%2017
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate7.8%2017
Unemployment rate, Females51.2%2017
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses61 449 000M LCU2017
Revenues42 058 000M LCU2017
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture53.3%2017
industry11.9%2017
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture5.1%2016
industry35.8%2016
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation7.4BN LCU2017
International reserves2 082.1M US$2017
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Agriculture


Primary sector.
Cereals (maize and wheat) are mostly growth for domestic consumption as well as vegetable and cassava. Commercially grown agricultural products include maize, sugar cane, tobacco, cotton and sunflower seed. The forests are a rich natural resource, providing teak and mahogany. Fishing is important in Lakes Mweru, Kariba, Tanganyika and Bangweulu, and in the River Kafue and River Luapula.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land5.16%2015
forests65.43%2015
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley9.7691000 t2016
cereals, total3 113.1071000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava1 010.2981000 t2016
potatoes24.4281000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
artichokes0.8051000 t2016
onions, dry37.5851000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts158.8131000 t2016
soybeans26.7491000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coffee6.821000 t2016
pepper0.031000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane4 285.8391000 t2016
tobacco124.6421000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton111.9021000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fruits, total112.7791000 t2014
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits3.7771000 t2016
oranges3.7771000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bananas0.6771000 t2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley9.5081000 ha2016
maize1 157.7541000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava172.9071000 ha2016
potatoes1.3041000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
onions, dry2.4551000 ha2016
tomatoes2.6221000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts216.5691000 ha2016
soybeans137.8141000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coffee7.6451000 ha2016
pepper0.0351000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane41.6951000 ha2016
tobacco73.6241000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton129.5991000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits0.8891000 ha2016
oranges0.8891000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bananas0.1641000 ha2016
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber11 225 6302016
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle3 660.8211000 heads2016
cattle and buffaloes3 660.8211000 heads2016
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs1 374.1371000 heads2016
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep255.0431000 heads2016
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats2 693.421000 heads2016
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses2.1241000 heads2016
asses and mules2.1241000 heads2016
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds39 9641000 heads2016
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey0.751000 t2013
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter0.3031000 t2014
cheese1.0831000 t2014
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
freshwater fishes114 203t2016
total catch114 203t2016
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Minerals


Secondary sector.
Mineral mining plays a crucial role in the economy of Zambia. The main product is copper, mined in Luanshya, Mufulira, Kansanshi, Chibuluma, Chambishi, Nchanga, Rhokana, Bwana and Mkubwa. There are mines for nickel (at Bindura), manganese (at Chiwefwe and Kampumba), coal (ta Maamba), cadmium (at Kabwe), lead, tin, pyrites, and emeralds. Gold, silver, selenium and, above all, cobalt are also produced as by-products of copper refining. The mineral-rich area of Kabwe is supplied by the hydroelectric power stations on the Mulungushi and Lunsemfwa rivers; energy coming from the Kariba plant, on the Zambezi, is shared with Zimbabwe; other power stations are in operation near the Victoria Falls, to serve Livingstone area, and on the Kafue River. Important industrial plants include those for the concentration and electro-refining of copper (at Nkana, Mufulira, Chingola, Ndola, Luanshya) as well as the metal-working plants at Kabwe.
At Ndola there is a refinery using oil coming via a pipeline from Dar es Salaam (Tanzania). There are also some chemical plants (at Kafue), cement works (near Luanda and Ndola), rubber plants (tyres at Ndola), textile mills (at Kafue), machine industries (assembly and production of tractors at Lusaka, automobiles at Ndola and Livingstone), sugar refineries (Ndola and Nakambala) and tobacco plants, breweries (beer) and paper mills.

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coal2001000 t2015
coal, total2001000 t2015
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cobalt2.91000 t2017
copper7551000 t2017
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
emeralds22 0001000 ct2015
gold4 240kg2015
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro12 905M kWh2015
- thermal379.76M kWh2015
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro2 3201000 kW2015
- other renew.431000 kW2015
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation13 284.76M kWh2015
total installed capacity2 3701000 kW2015
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cobalt31000 t2015
coke, metall.101000 t2006
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen51000 t2012
petrol148.71000 t2014
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sulfuric acid1 6951000 t2015
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley350.31000 t2014
cottonseed oil51000 t2014
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
other paper3.91000 t2016
paper3.91000 t2016
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement2 3901000 t2015
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production70M US$2004
food, beverages and tobacco production431M US$2004
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Trade


Tertiary sector.
The trade balance is in deficit, despite the export of raw materials, largely minerals and metals (especially copper, nickel and cobalt). Tobacco and timber are also important. The main trading partners are South Africa, Switzerland, China and the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The central bank is the Bank of Zambia. There is a stock exchange in Lusaka.

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ores and metals77.799% of goods exports2015
manufactures10.053% of goods exports2015
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Switzerland3 673M US$2010
China1 455M US$2010
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
South Africa1 830M US$2010
Congo, Dem. Rep.1 269M US$2010
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20178 139.452M US$ -
20166 512.804M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20178 723.572M US$ -
20167 537.345M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures423M US$2016
Number of arrivals956 000units2016
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown1 900 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried154.61000 units2017
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers2.100per 1000 pop.2017
Computers11.2per 1000 pop.2005
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Gross enrolment ratio, primary - Female103index2013
Gross enrolment ratio, primary - Male102index2013
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level64 139units2013
Teachers, secondary level29 148units2008
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds2per 1000 pop.2010
Physicians0.1per 1000 pop.2016
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV12.4% of adults2016
HIV, total17%2005
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.34% of GDP2008
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking16.43%2016
Access to electricity27.219%2016
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