Form of Government: Republic
Area: 752 612 sq km
Population: 16 887 720 inhab. (estimate 2018)
Density: 22.44 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 8° - 18° S; long. 22° - 34° E
Capital: Lusaka (capital) 1 747 152 inhab. (2010);
Currency: Zambian kwacha (100 ngwee)
Human development index: 0.588 (rank: 144)
President and head of government: Edgar Lungu (PF), elected 20 January 2015, reconfirmed 11 August 2016
National Assembly: seats based on the elections of 11 August 2016: PF (Patriotic Front), 80; UPND (United Party for National Development), 58; MMD (Movement for Multi-party Democracy), 3; others, 15
Internet: www.zamstats.gov.zm (Central Statistical Office)
Member of AU, COMESA, Commonwealth, SADC, UN, WTO

Zambia

Zambia, Republic of Zambia
Useful information

International license plate code Z
International dialling code 00260
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (required only if traveling from a country with risk of transmission, including travelers having transited more than 12 hours through the airport of a country with risk of transmission); malaria prophylaxis (recommended)
Electricity (Voltage) 230
Driving side left
Internet code .zm

GMT  +2
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Lusaka 20.6
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Lusaka 21.5/16.5
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Lusaka 9/6
Annual average precipitation (mm) Lusaka 835
Days of rainfall (annual average) Lusaka 71

Geography.
Zambia is bordered to the north by the Democratic Republic of the Congo, to the north-east by Tanzania and Malawi, to the east by Mozambique, to the south by Zimbabwe and Botswana, to the south-west by Namibia and to the west by Angola.
The terrain consists of a highland area in which the Muchinga Mountains can be found. To the north there is a vast, swampy depression, while in the south-west the altitude drops until it reaches the basin of the River Zambezi, whose course is interrupted by waterfalls and rapids (the huge Victoria Falls). The climate is tropical, summer rains getting less prevalent from north to south.

Government


A former British colony called Northern Rhodesia, Zambia became independent on 24 October 1964. The multiparty elections of 1991 put an end to the long presidency of Kenneth Kaunda (1964-91) and to the long predominance of the UNIP, the sole ruling party from 1972 to 1990. From 1991 to 2011 power remained in the hands of the Movement for Multiparty Democracy, then replaced by the Patriotic Front in 2011.
According to the Constitution of 28 May 1996, the President of the Republic, who is also head of the government, is elected by direct suffrage for a five-year term, as is the National Assembly (164 members, of which 156 are elected and 8 are appointed by the President), which holds legislative power. In addition, there is a Council of Chiefs, a consultative body with 50 representatives of the different ethnic groups. The legal system is based on British Common Law.


Defence.
Military service is voluntary.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force10.6%2015
Army89.4%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Homicides5.3per 100 000 pop.2015
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Lusaka1 747 152inhab.2010
Kitwe501 360inhab.2010
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2018)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate37.82017
Death rate7.62017
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
other35.5%2010
Bemba21%2010


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Protestant75.3%2010
Catholic20.2%2010


Languages
DESCRIPTION
English
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years45.9%2018
15-29 years27.6%2018


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Economy


Economic situation.
The economy is sensitive to the trend of agricultural productivity and the price of copper. An ambitious infrastructural plan, with Chinese financing, increased the public debt; interest on the debt and the deficit of the current accounts make the financial situation precarious and led to a depreciation of the kwacha in 2018. Foreign investment played a considerable role in the mining, farming and manufacturing segments. Due to major disparity in the distribution of wealth, economic growth has little impact on the poverty that affects most of the population.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)182.94index2016
Balance of trade- 409.5M US$2018
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population7 353 191units2018
Active population, Females48%2018
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate7.2%2018
Unemployment rate, Females46.2%2018
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses61 730 000M LCU2017
Revenues43 032 000M LCU2017
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture53.9%2018
industry10.7%2018
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture4.3%2017
industry39.9%2017
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation8.292BN LCU2018
International reserves1 569.2M US$2018
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Agriculture


Primary sector.
Cereals (maize and wheat) are mostly growth for domestic consumption as well as vegetable and cassava. Commercially grown agricultural products include maize, sugar cane, tobacco, cotton and sunflower seed.
The forests are a rich natural resource, providing teak and mahogany. Fishing is important in Lakes Mweru, Kariba, Tanganyika and Bangweulu, and in the River Kafue and River Luapula.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land5.16%2015
forests65.43%2015
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley10.6481000 t2017
cereals, total3 899.2371000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava1 036.9081000 t2017
potatoes31.751000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
artichokes0.8051000 t2016
onions, dry37.8961000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts168.6991000 t2017
soybeans351.4161000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coffee6.881000 t2017
pepper0.0161000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane4 451.2531000 t2017
tobacco131.5091000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton89.2931000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fruits, total112.7791000 t2014
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits3.7891000 t2017
oranges3.7891000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bananas0.6671000 t2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley10.2761000 ha2017
maize1 433.9441000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava177.2551000 ha2017
potatoes1.0041000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
onions, dry2.4661000 ha2017
tomatoes2.6321000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts262.6121000 ha2017
soybeans225.3591000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coffee7.7271000 ha2017
pepper0.0191000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane43.3871000 ha2017
tobacco73.3571000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton105.3521000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits0.8851000 ha2017
oranges0.8851000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bananas0.1581000 ha2017
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber11 400 6302017
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle4 077.3591000 heads2017
cattle and buffaloes4 077.3591000 heads2017
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs1 166.0551000 heads2017
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep257.1441000 heads2017
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats2 761.4271000 heads2017
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses2.1511000 heads2017
asses and mules2.1511000 heads2017
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds40 3341000 heads2017
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey0.751000 t2013
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter0.3031000 t2014
cheese1.0831000 t2014
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
freshwater fishes114 300t2017
total catch114 300t2017
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Minerals


Secondary sector.
Mineral mining plays a crucial role in the economy of Zambia. The main product is copper, mined in Luanshya, Mufulira, Kansanshi, Chibuluma, Chambishi, Nchanga, Rhokana, Bwana and Mkubwa. There are mines for nickel (at Bindura), manganese (at Chiwefwe and Kampumba), coal (ta Maamba), cadmium (at Kabwe), lead, tin, pyrites, and emeralds. Gold, silver, selenium and, above all, cobalt are also produced as by-products of copper refining. The mineral-rich area of Kabwe is supplied by the hydroelectric power stations on the Mulungushi and Lunsemfwa rivers; energy coming from the Kariba plant, on the Zambezi, is shared with Zimbabwe; other power stations are in operation near the Victoria Falls, to serve Livingstone area, and on the Kafue River. Important industrial plants include those for the concentration and electro-refining of copper (at Nkana, Mufulira, Chingola, Ndola, Luanshya) as well as the metal-working plants at Kabwe.
At Ndola there is a refinery using oil coming via a pipeline from Dar es Salaam (Tanzania). There are also some chemical plants (at Kafue), cement works (near Luanda and Ndola), rubber plants (tyres at Ndola), textile mills (at Kafue), machine industries (assembly and production of tractors at Lusaka, automobiles at Ndola and Livingstone), sugar refineries (Ndola and Nakambala) and tobacco plants, breweries (beer) and paper mills.

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coal1261000 t2016
coal, total1261000 t2016
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cobalt2.91000 t2017
copper8701000 t2018
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
emeralds22 0001000 ct2015
gold4 000kg2016
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro10 915M kWh2016
- thermal629.8M kWh2016
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro2 3901000 kW2016
- thermal1401000 kW2016
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation11 549.8M kWh2016
total installed capacity2 5731000 kW2016
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cobalt4.71000 t2016
copper4721000 t2015
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen51000 t2012
petrol148.71000 t2014
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sulfuric acid1 6951000 t2015
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley350.31000 t2014
cottonseed oil51000 t2014
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
other paper3.91000 t2017
paper3.91000 t2017
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement2 235.51000 t2017
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production70M US$2004
food, beverages and tobacco production431M US$2004
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Trade


Tertiary sector.
The trade balance is in deficit, despite the export of raw materials, largely minerals and metals (especially copper, nickel and cobalt). Tobacco and timber are also important. The main trading partners are Switzerland, China, South Africa and the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The central bank is the Bank of Zambia. There is a stock exchange in Lusaka.

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ores and metals77.445% of goods exports2018
manufactures14.412% of goods exports2018
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Switzerland3 673M US$2010
China1 455M US$2010
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
South Africa1 830M US$2010
Congo, Dem. Rep.1 269M US$2010
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20189 052M US$ -
20178 007M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20189 462M US$ -
20177 983M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures410M US$2017
Number of arrivals1 083 000units2017
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown1 900 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried154.61000 units2017
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers2.100per 1000 pop.2017
Computers11.2per 1000 pop.2005
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Gross enrolment ratio, primary - Female101index2017
Gross enrolment ratio, primary - Male99index2017
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level78 099units2017
Teachers, secondary level29 148units2008
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds2per 1000 pop.2010
Physicians0.09per 1000 pop.2016
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV11.5% of adults2017
HIV, total17%2005
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.34% of GDP2008
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking16.43%2016
Access to electricity40.3%2017
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