Form of Government: Republic
Area: 528 076 sq km
Population: 29 161 922 inhab. (estimate 2019)
Density: 55.22 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 19° - 13° N; long. 43° - 53° E
Capital: Ṣan’ā’ (capital) 2 779 317 inhab. (2018);
Currency: Yemeni rial (100 fils)
Human development index: 0.47 (rank: 179)
President: ’Abd Rabbuh Manṣūr Hādī (MSA), since 27 February 2012
Prime Minister: Ma‘īn ‘Abd al-Malik Sa‘īd (MSA), since 15 October 2018
House of Representatives: seats based on the elections of 27 April 2003: General People’s Congress (Arab nationalist), 238; Al-Islah (Congregation for Reform, Islamic reformist), 46; independents, 4; others, 13
Member of Arab League, OAS observer, OIC, UN, WTO

Yemen

Al-Yaman, Al-Jumhūrīyah al-Yamanīyah
Useful information

International license plate code YE
International dialling code 00967
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (required only if traveling from a country with risk of transmission); malaria prophylaxis (recommended for some areas)
Electricity (Voltage) 230
Driving side rigth
Internet code .ye

GMT  +3
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Ṣan’ā’ 18
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Ṣan’ā’ 14.5/21.5
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Ṣan’ā’ 8/9
Annual average precipitation (mm) Ṣan’ā’ 241
Days of rainfall (annual average) Ṣan’ā’ 20

Politics and current affairs

In 2021, the offensive by the Houthi militia focused on the Ma’rib Province, east of the capital and the last stronghold in the northwest of the country (an area with an abundance of petroleum) still in the hands of the loyalist forces backed by Saudi Arabia.

Geography.
Bordering with Saudi Arabia to the north and Oman to the east, Yemen lies between the Gulf of Aden (Indian Ocean) and the Red Sea to the west. In the eastern part there is a vast plateau which is bordered to the north by the Rub‘ al Khali desert. The coastal strip in the west is fairly narrow. The climate is tropical. The country’s territory also includes the islands of Perim (13 km²), Kamarān (57 km²) and Socotra archipelago (3626 km²).

Government


The Republic of Yemen came about from the union on 22 May 1990 of North Yemen (which had been a republic from 26 November 1962, following the coup d’état which overthrew the Zaidi monarchy) and South Yemen (a former British protectorate, independent since 20 November 1967). After months of violent protests and an attack on the capital’s government buildings (3 June 2011), President Alī ‘Abdullāh Ṣāliḥ, in power since 1990, left the country for Saudi Arabia, where he went on to sign an agreement with opposition groups (23 November 2011); based on this, he resigned in exchange for immunity. The subsequent alliance of Ṣāliḥ with the Zaidi Shiite Houthis, whose rebellion had long been active in the north-west of the country, has led to a state of war: after having occupied the capital, on 6 February 2015 the rebels announced that they had taken control of the institutions, dissolved parliament and installed their own revolutionary committee. On 25 March, President Hādī fled to Saudi Arabia, which began air raids against the rebels the following day. On 4 March 2017, the former President Ṣāliḥ was killed by the Houthis militiamen, after having tried to negotiate with the Saudi-led coalition. The Houthis control the north-eastern part of the country, including the capital; part of the southern coast and the island of Socotra are occupied by the Southern Transitional Council, supported by the United Arab Emirates, while almost all the rest of the country is in the hands of the loyalists. These events have also been influenced by the conflict with Sunni Arab countries, which comprise a Saudi Arabia-led coalition that backs Yemen’s government, and with Iran, close to Shiite rebels. According to the 1991 Constitution, amended in 1994, the President, who is also the head of the executive, is elected by direct suffrage for a seven-year term. The House of Representatives has 301 members who are elected for six years, the Shura Council consists of 111 members who are appointed by the President. Because of the conflict, legislative elections have been indefinitely postponed.


Defence and justice.
Military spending accounts for a large part of the GDP. Military service is voluntary and lasts for two years. US special troops are present in an “unofficial” form to counteract Islamic fundamentalist activity. The judicial system is based on Islamic Law (sharia).

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Army100%2015
Military expenditure4.6% of GDP2014
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes151.6per 100 000 pop.2013
Homicides6.7per 100 000 pop.2013
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Ṣan’ā’2 779 317inhab.2018
Aden='Adan784 000inhab.2014
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2020)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE

There are over 4 million refugees due to the war. The country is also a crossing point for migrants who try to reach Saudi Arabia from the Horn of Africa.

Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate29.8732019
Death rate5.9832019
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Yemeni93$%2000
Somali3$%2000


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Muslim (Sunni)65$%2010
Muslim (Shia)35$%2010


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Arabic
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years37.4%2020
15-29 years30.2%2020


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Economy


Economic situation.
The state of war has compromised economic activities and damaged the country’s already inadequate infrastructure.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)140.85index2016
Agricultural prod. index (2014-16=100)97.8index2019
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population6 956 437units2020
Active population, Females7.7%2019
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate13.4%2020
Unemployment rate, Females14.8%2019
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses1 274 026M LCU2017
Revenues864 423M LCU2017
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture29$%2019
industry10$%2019
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture19.04%2019
industry20.482%2019
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation1 789.6BN LCU2016
International reserves5 349.4M US$2013
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Agriculture


Primary sector.
In the coastal area, where it is hot and humid, tobacco, cotton, date palms and bananas are grown; instead on the plateau there are sorghum, wheat, millet, potatoes, vines, vegetables and fruit trees. On the mountain slopes coffee and qat predominate. The latter’s leaves are used by the local population as a mild narcotic. Livestock, especially sheep-farming is very important.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land2.628%2018
forests1.04%2018
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley26.9331000 t2019
cereals, total456.7141000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes233.0511000 t2019
roots and tubers, total233.4031000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages8.0381000 t2019
carrots and turnips15.1121000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry3.0281000 t2019
beans, green3.1511000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes134.1871000 t2019
raisins0.81000 t2007
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts1.5511000 t2019
sesame seed21.6391000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coffee20.8121000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane0$1000 t2017
tobacco28.5981000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton22.5511000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples21.9461000 t2019
apricots1.5211000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
almonds11.341000 t2019
walnuts0$1000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits165.3241000 t2019
citrus fruits, nes0.2921000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bananas116.31000 t2019
dates64.3751000 t2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley27.3441000 ha2019
maize36.5781000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes15.7111000 ha2019
sweet potatoes0.0421000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages0.711000 ha2019
carrots and turnips1.5661000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry1.4741000 ha2019
beans, green0.4231000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape11.7841000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts2.1411000 ha2019
sesame seed20.6211000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coffee34.9811000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane0$1000 ha2017
tobacco13.2361000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton21.6391000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples2.2041000 ha2019
apricots0.6811000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
almonds6.4741000 ha2019
walnuts0$1000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits11.821000 ha2019
citrus fruits, nes0.0361000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bananas9.4311000 ha2019
dates14.7651000 ha2019
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber594 5352019
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle1 413.4141000 heads2019
cattle and buffaloes1 413.4141000 heads2019
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep8 762.4431000 heads2019
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats8 366.6311000 heads2019
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses736.6241000 heads2019
asses and mules736.6241000 heads2019
Livestock - Camelids
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
camels432.6821000 heads2019
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds69 0551000 heads2019
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey2.3591000 t2019
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter6.9621000 t2018
cheese18.5851000 t2018
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs10 351t2019
marine fishes120 934t2019
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Minerals


Secondary and tertiary sector.
Crude oil is extracted mostly from the Al Masīlah and Ma’rib deposits, and transported 440 km by pipeline to the port of Ṣalīf. There are smaller deposits in Jannah, Ayadh, Shabwah and Şa’ar. There are also reserves of natural gas (in Mar’ib and Jannah), which is partly liquefied in Bal’ḥaf for export, as well as copper, lead, zinc, nickel, gold, gypsum, salt and marble reserves. Other industries include textiles, agricultural foodstuffs, tobacco manufacture, refineries (at Ma’rib and Aden), plastic production plants (at Ta’izz) and cement works. Leather and tanning are practised at a craft level.

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
natural gas101.5M m³2020
oil, crude3 291.81000 t2020
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gypsum1001000 t2019
salt1001000 t2018
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
basalt5001000 t2014
granite1001000 t2014
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal2 961.94M kWh2018
- other renew.500M kWh2019
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal1 5191000 kW2018
- other renew.2501000 kW2019
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation3 419.94M kWh2018
total installed capacity1 7691000 kW2018
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Industry

Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen9$1000 t2018
petrol496.51000 t2014
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
soap1951000 t2008
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fabrics - m3 0371000 metres2008
Industry - Clothing and footwear
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
footwear23 403 000pairs2008
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley6.2591000 t2018
cottonseed oil1.3721000 t2018
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes5 960M units2003
cigarettes, packs215M units2008
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
newsprint0.21000 t2017
other paper1$1000 t2017
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement1 9801000 t2018
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production58.959M US$2014
food, beverages and tobacco production1 967.316M US$2014
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Trade

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
food products99.285% of goods exports2019
ores and metals2.822% of goods exports2018
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
China1 429M US$2009
India1 262M US$2009
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
China836M US$2009
Japan505M US$2009
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
2020927M US$ -
20191 434M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20207 368M US$ -
201910 407M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures56$M US$2016
Number of arrivals366 700units2015
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown22 000 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried336.31000 units2018
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers13.556per 1000 pop.2018
Computers28$per 1000 pop.2008
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling9$years2011
Graduates26 527units2007
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Students, primary level3 900 134units2016
Students, secondary level1 915 871units2016
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending20.3% of total expenses2012
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds0.71per 1000 pop.2017
Physicians0.53per 1000 pop.2014
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV-0.1% of adults2019
HIV, total0.05%2001
Museums
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Museums19$units2012
Museums, visitors136 775units2012
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking60.9%2019
Access to electricity72.752%2019
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