Form of Government: Republic
Area: 528 076 sq km
Population: 28 250 420 inhab. (estimate 2017)
Density: 53.50 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 19° - 13° N; long. 43° - 53° E
Capital: Ṣan’ā’ (capital) 2 779 317 inhab. (2018);
Currency: Yemeni rial (100 fils)
Human development index: 0.452 (rank: 178)
President: ’Abd Rabbuh Manṣūr Hādī (MSA), since 27 February 2012
Prime Minister: Ma‘īn ‘Abd al-Malik Sa‘īd (MSA), since 15 October 2018
House of Representatives: seats based on the elections of 27 April 2003: General People’s Congress (Arab nationalist), 238; Al-Islah (Congregation for Reform, Islamic reformist), 46; independents, 4; others, 13
Member of Arab League, OAS observer, OIC, UN, WTO

Yemen

Al-Yaman, Al-Jumhūrīyah al-Yamanīyah
Useful information

International license plate code YE
International dialling code 00967
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (required only if traveling from a country with risk of transmission); malaria prophylaxis (recommended for some areas)
Electricity (Voltage) 230
Driving side rigth
Internet code .ye

GMT  +3
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Ṣan’ā’ 18
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Ṣan’ā’ 14.5/21.5
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Ṣan’ā’ 8/9
Annual average precipitation (mm) Ṣan’ā’ 241
Days of rainfall (annual average) Ṣan’ā’ 20

Politics and current affairs

As the conflict begun in 2015 continues, meetings were relaunched between the Houthi movement and the government, agreeing on a ceasefire for Hodeida on 13 December 2018, at the end of peace talks in Sweden; the city is a crucial port for the arrival of international aid.

Geography.
Bordering with Saudi Arabia to the north and Oman to the east, Yemen lies between the Gulf of Aden (Indian Ocean) and the Red Sea to the west. In the eastern part there is a vast plateau which is bordered to the north by the Rub‘ al Khali desert. The coastal strip in the west is fairly narrow. The climate is tropical. The country’s territory also includes the islands of Perim (13 km²), Kamarān (57 km²) and Socotra archipelago (3626 km²).

Government


The Republic of Yemen came about from the union on 22 May 1990 of North Yemen (which had been a republic from 26 November 1962, following the coup d’état which overthrew the Zaidi monarchy) and South Yemen (a former British protectorate, independent since 20 November 1967).
After months of violent protests and an attack on the capital’s government buildings (3 June 2011), President Alī ‘Abdullāh Ṣāliḥ, in power since 1990, left the country for Saudi Arabia, where he went on to sign an agreement with opposition groups (23 November 2011); based on this, he resigned in exchange for immunity. The subsequent alliance of Ṣāliḥ with the Zaidi Shiite Houthis, whose rebellion had long been active in the north-west of the country, has led to a state of war: after having occupied the capital, on 6 February 2015 the rebels announced that they had taken control of the institutions, dissolved parliament and installed their own revolutionary committee.
On 25 March, President Hādī fled to Saudi Arabia, which began air raids against the rebels the following day. On 4 March 2017, the former President Ṣāliḥ was killed by the Houthis militiamen, after having tried to negotiate with the Saudi-led coalition. The Houthis control the north-eastern part of the country, including the capital; part of the southern coast and the island of Socotra are occupied by the Southern Transitional Council, supported by the United Arab Emirates, while almost all the rest of the country is in the hands of the loyalists. These events have also been influenced by the conflict with Sunni Arab countries, which comprise a Saudi Arabia-led coalition that backs Yemen’s government, and with Iran, close to Shiite rebels.
According to the 1991 Constitution, amended in 1994, the President, who is also the head of the executive, is elected by direct suffrage for a seven-year term. The House of Representatives has 301 members who are elected for six years, the Shura Council consists of 111 members who are appointed by the President. Because of the conflict, legislative elections have been indefinitely postponed.


Defence and justice.
Military spending accounts for a large part of the GDP. Military service is voluntary and lasts for two years. US special troops are present in an “unofficial” form to counteract Islamic fundamentalist activity. The judicial system is based on Islamic Law (sharia).


Justice.
The legal system is based on Islamic law (sharia).

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Army100%2015
Military expenditure4.6% of GDP2014
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes151.6per 100 000 pop.2013
Homicides6.7per 100 000 pop.2013
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Ṣan’ā’2 779 317inhab.2018
Aden='Adan784 000inhab.2014
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2018)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE

Most of the population lives in rural towns and villages on the plateau.

Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate312017
Death rate6.42017
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Yemeni93%2000
Somali3%2000


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Muslim (Sunni)65%2010
Muslim (Shia)35%2010


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Arabic
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years39.2%2018
15-29 years29.9%2018


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Economy


Economic situation.
The state of war has compromised economic activities and damaged the country’s already inadequate infrastructure.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)140.85index2016
Balance of trade-5 900M US$2018
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population6 728 645units2018
Active population, Females7.7%2018
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate12.9%2018
Unemployment rate, Females14.1%2018
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses1 274 026M LCU2017
Revenues864 423M LCU2017
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture35.5%2018
industry10.6%2018
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture16.7%2017
industry25.7%2017
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation1 789.6BN LCU2016
International reserves5 349.4M US$2013
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Agriculture


Primary sector.
In the coastal area, where it is hot and humid, tobacco, cotton, date palms and bananas are grown; instead on the plateau there are sorghum, wheat, millet, potatoes, vines, vegetables and fruit trees. On the mountain slopes coffee and qat predominate. The latter’s leaves are used by the local population as a mild narcotic. Livestock, especially sheep-farming is very important.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land2.93%2015
forests1.04%2015
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley21.2881000 t2017
cereals, total501.4661000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes251.591000 t2017
roots and tubers, total251.9421000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages81000 t2017
carrots and turnips15.5061000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry5.1831000 t2017
beans, green3.4331000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes135.3571000 t2017
raisins0.81000 t2007
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sesame seed22.8871000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coffee19.5141000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane01000 t2017
tobacco23.7371000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton12.2971000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples17.551000 t2017
apricots1.1151000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
almonds0.1651000 t2017
walnuts01000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits152.4671000 t2017
citrus fruits, nes0.2611000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bananas115.91000 t2017
dates47.6151000 t2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley31.4391000 ha2017
maize37.651000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes16.6311000 ha2017
sweet potatoes0.0411000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages0.6251000 ha2017
carrots and turnips1.7151000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry2.5961000 ha2017
beans, green0.4291000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape11.8071000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sesame seed21.3371000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coffee34.0851000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane01000 ha2017
tobacco10.2881000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton9.7481000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples2.1081000 ha2017
apricots0.5181000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
almonds0.2591000 ha2017
walnuts01000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits11.6261000 ha2017
citrus fruits, nes0.0361000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bananas9.321000 ha2017
dates13.961000 ha2017
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber556 5482017
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle1 696.6111000 heads2017
cattle and buffaloes1 696.6111000 heads2017
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep9 324.5411000 heads2017
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats8 944.7591000 heads2017
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses733.5081000 heads2017
asses and mules733.5081000 heads2017
Livestock - Camelids
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
camels447.0081000 heads2017
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds65 0001000 heads2017
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey2.6471000 t2014
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter7.4981000 t2014
cheese24.4251000 t2014
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs10 351t2017
marine fishes120 916t2017
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Minerals


Secondary and tertiary sector.
Crude oil is extracted mostly from the Al Masīlah and Ma’rib deposits, and transported 440 km by pipeline to the port of Ṣalīf. There are smaller deposits in Jannah, Ayadh, Shabwah and Şa’ar. There are also reserves of natural gas (in Mar’ib and Jannah), which is partly liquefied for export, as well as copper, lead, zinc, nickel, gold, gypsum, salt and marble reserves.
Other industries include textiles, agricultural foodstuffs, tobacco manufacture, refineries (at Ma’rib and Aden), plastic production plants (at Ta’izz) and cement works. Leather and tanning are practised at a craft level.

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
natural gas500M m³2017
oil, crude7981000 t2018
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gypsum1001000 t2016
salt251000 t2016
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
basalt5001000 t2014
granite1001000 t2014
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal4 054.22M kWh2016
- other renew.730M kWh2016
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal1 5191000 kW2016
- other renew.3001000 kW2016
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation4 784.22M kWh2016
total installed capacity1 8191000 kW2016
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Industry

Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen61000 t2016
petrol496.51000 t2014
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
soap1951000 t2008
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fabrics - m3 0371000 metres2008
Industry - Clothing and footwear
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
footwear23 403 000pairs2008
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley8.71000 t2014
cottonseed oil1.81000 t2014
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes5 960M units2003
cigarettes, packs215M units2008
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
newsprint0.21000 t2017
other paper11000 t2017
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement2 4001000 t2016
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production59M US$2014
food, beverages and tobacco production1 967.3M US$2014
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Trade

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
food products80.995% of goods exports2015
manufactures16.766% of goods exports2015
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
China1 429M US$2009
India1 262M US$2009
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
China836M US$2009
Japan505M US$2009
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20182 500M US$ -
20171 500M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20188 400M US$ -
20177 500M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures56M US$2016
Number of arrivals366 700units2015
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown22 000 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried132.61000 units2017
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers15.603per 1000 pop.2016
Computers28per 1000 pop.2008
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling9years2011
Graduates26 527units2007
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level144 824units2016
Teachers, secondary level102 142units2011
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending20.3% of total expenses2012
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds0.7per 1000 pop.2014
Physicians0.3per 1000 pop.2014
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV-0.1% of adults2016
HIV, total0.05%2001
Museums
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Museums19units2012
Museums, visitors136 775units2012
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking64.93%2016
Access to electricity79.2%2017
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