Form of Government: Socialist republic
Area: 331 236 sq km
Population: 96 208 984 inhab. (census 2019)
Density: 290.45 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 23° - 8° N; long. 102° - 109° E
Capital: Hanoi=Hà Nội (capital) 3 962 310 inhab. (2019); Hanoi 8 053 663 inhab. (2019), urban agglomeration
Currency: dong (10 hào=100 xu)
Human development index: 0.704 (rank: 117)
President: Nguyễn Xuân Phúc, since 5 April 2021
Prime Minister: Phạm Minh Chính, since 5 April 2021
Internet: www.gso.gov.vn (General Statistics Office)
Member of APEC, ASEAN, UN, WTO

Vietnam

Việt Nam, Cộng Hòa Xã Hội Chủ Nghĩa Việt Nam
Useful information

International license plate code VN
International dialling code 0084
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (required only if traveling from a country with risk of transmission); malaria prophylaxis (recommended for some areas)
Electricity (Voltage) 127/220
Driving side rigth
Internet code .vn

GMT  +7
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Hanoi 23.9; Thanh Phô Hô Chí Minh 27.6
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Hanoi 16.5/29.5; Thanh Phô Hô Chí Minh 26.5/27.5
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Hanoi 5/2; Thanh Phô Hô Chí Minh 5/6
Annual average precipitation (mm) Hanoi 1795; Thanh Phô Hô Chí Minh 1982
Days of rainfall (annual average) Hanoi 151; Thanh Phô Hô Chí Minh 153

Geography.
Vietnam is bordered by China to the north and by Cambodia and Laos to the west. To the south and east its coastline is on the South China Sea. There are three distinctive regions: Tonkin to the north, with the mountains of Chinese Yunnan and the Red River basin; Annam, the central stretch of coastal plain in front of the Annamite Mountains, also known as Annamese Cordillera (Ngoc Linh, 2598 m); Cochin China to the south, the area where the Mekong Delta is to be found. The climate is characterized by monsoons and is affected by violent typhoons. Along with China and Taiwan, Vietnam claims the Paracel/Xisha Qundao islands, and along with China, Taiwan, Malaysia, Brunei and the Philippines has a claim to the Spratly/Nansha Qundao islands.

Government


A former French colony, dating from 1859, Vietnam was occupied during the Second World War by the Japanese. After the war an anti-colonial movement began (The Vietminh Liberation Front, led by Hô Chí Minh) which, after having proclaimed the Democratic Republic of Vietnam on 2 September 1945, managed to defeat the French army (1954) and achieve independence. The country was divided following the guidelines set up by the Geneva peace agreement (20 July 1954) into two parts along the 17th parallel, to the north the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (Marxist and supported by the USSR), with its capital in Hanoi, and the Republic of South Vietnam (favouring the west and supported by the USA), with its capital in Saigon.
At the beginning of the 1960s a guerrilla war broke out between the South Vietnamese communists (Vietcong), supported by the North Vietnamese, China and the USSR, and the government forces in Saigon, supported by the USA. After a long and bloody war, in 1975 the US troops were forced to retreat and the guerrillas entered Saigon (renamed Ho Chi Minh City). On the 2 July 1976 the country was reunified as the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. Since the second half of the 1990s, trade and diplomatic relations with the USA have returned to normal. There are frequent social skirmishes – often violent – in Vietnam regarding work conditions, land ownership and civil rights, which often involve ethnic minorities. The Constitution of 15 April 1992, whilst renouncing Marxism-Leninism and recognizing the right to private property, also confirmed the leading role of the Communist Party (Dang Cong San Viêt Nam). The National Assembly consists of 500 elected members, most of them being from the lists of the Communist Party, while the remaining are candidates in any case aligned with its policy. The assembly appoints the government and the President of the Republic.


Defence and justice.
The Vietnamese armed forces are among the most numerous and best-armed in the region. The legal system is based on the French model and Marxist legal doctrine.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force6.2%2015
Army85.5%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Homicides3.3per 100 000 pop.2012
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Ho Chi Minh City=Thanh Phô Hô Chí Minh7 125 493inhab.2019
Hanoi=Hà Nội3 962 310inhab.2019
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hanoi8 053 663inhab.2019
Hai Phòng2 028 514inhab.2019
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2020)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE

After the reunification of the country there was a mass exodus of refugees (many of them from the Chinese community), with large numbers finding permanent residence in the USA (about 1 million), Canada and France.

Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate16.32019
Death rate6.32019
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Vietnamese85.3%2019
other5.5%2019


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
nonreligious/atheist86.3%2019
Catholic6.1%2019


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Vietnamese
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years24$%2020
15-29 years23.4%2020


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Economy


Economic situation.
In 2021, the country recovered from the decline in growth due to the COVID-19 pandemic, which had caused the fall in exports and overseas investments. These, along with a developing internal market, had underpinned the strong growth of recent years, and the increase in GDP rate has remained positive even in 2020. Low incomes and difficult working conditions are at the base of social conflicts; to reduce tensions, minimum salaries were gradually increased, whilst also trying not to reduce company competitiveness.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)138.35index2016
Agricultural prod. index (2014-16=100)105.03index2019
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population56 542 499units2020
Active population, Females47.8%2019
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate2.3%2020
Unemployment rate, Females45.2%2019
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses1 754 515 000M LCU2019
Revenues1 551 074 000M LCU2019
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture27.783%2020
industry33.296%2020
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture15.493%2019
industry38.286%2019
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation1 085 018BN LCU2018
International reserves94 833.616M US$2020
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Agriculture


Primary sector
Agriculture and forests.
The main product is rice (cultivated in the Mekong and Red River delta regions, and in the hills) which is the staple foodstuff. Coffee is widespread (Vietnam is the second-largest producer in the world). In the north (Tonkin) maize, cassava, vegetables, sugar cane and sweet potatoes are grown, while in Annam tea, rubber, peanuts and fruit (pineapple and citrus fruits) are common. The forests offer a supply of quality timber. Livestock is of secondary importance, while fishing is a significant industry (Vietnam is one of the world’s largest exporters of prawns).

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land37.175%2018
forests46.736%2018
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cereals, total48 208.1411000 t2019
maize4 756.2321000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava10 105.2241000 t2019
potatoes333.9641000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages1 053.3161000 t2019
cauliflowers144.4351000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry167.3091000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes26.1411000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
castor oil seed7$1000 t2019
groundnuts438.8631000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts1 677.0441000 t2019
copra2431000 t2006
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cinnamon41.4461000 t2019
coffee1 683.9711000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane15 269.7161000 t2019
tobacco30.0331000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton0.0961000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
jute0.5351000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fruits, total10 027.2731000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cashew nuts283.3281000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits1 836.1141000 t2019
grapefruits818.9141000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bananas2 194.2471000 t2019
mangoes1 157.8531000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Others
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mushrooms24.0091000 t2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
maize991.0881000 ha2019
millet1.5161000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava519.3061000 ha2019
potatoes21.6211000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages38.4941000 ha2019
cauliflowers7.7691000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry140.3011000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape1.2121000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
castor oil seed8$1000 ha2019
groundnuts177.0431000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts158.9591000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cinnamon114.2241000 ha2019
coffee622.6371000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane233.3871000 ha2019
tobacco12.8061000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton0.1721000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
jute0.0981000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cashew nuts276.3651000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits137.3271000 ha2019
grapefruits65.8681000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bananas133.6381000 ha2019
mangoes101.6981000 ha2019
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
natural rubber1 185 157t2019
timber57 335 4202019
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle6 060.0241000 heads2019
cattle and buffaloes8 447.9111000 heads2019
Livestock - Buffaloes
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
buffaloes2 387.8871000 heads2019
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs19 615.5261000 heads2019
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats2 609.1981000 heads2019
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
equines, total50.6921000 heads2019
horses50.6921000 heads2019
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds465 1331000 heads2019
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey21.8471000 t2019
Livestock - Silk farming
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
silk, raw1.051000 t2018
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
condensed milk23 805t2018
eggs409.9941000 t2019
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs1 777 315t2019
freshwater fishes3 249 320t2019
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Minerals


Secondary sector
Minerals.
The main minerals are coal (deposits at Thái Nguyên, Quang Ninh) and crude oil (offshore fields at White Tiger, Bach Ho and Dragon, off the Mekong Delta, at Thanh Long and Vanguard Bank). Bauxite, iron ore, nickel, gold, copper, tungsten, zinc and phosphates are also mined.
Energy and industry.
Electricity production is based on coal, gas and hydroelectric plants, but wind and solar power are on the rise. Alongside traditional industries (silk, porcelain), iron and steel production has also become more developed (in the Red River Delta and at Ky Anh), as well as metal-working, mechanical and electronics (in Hanoi, Mong Cai, Vinh, Ho Chi Minh City), ship-building (Hai Phòng), chemicals (Hanoi, Viet Tri, Bac Giang, Vinh, Nha Trang), textiles and footwear production, construction materials, agricultural foodstuffs and rubber production. Two refineries are active in Quang Ngãi and Thanh Hoa provinces.

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coal48 617.41000 t2020
coal, total48 617.41000 t2020
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
antimony0.31000 t2020
bauxite4 0001000 t2020
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barite36$1000 t2019
fluorspar2401000 t2020
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
kaolin6501000 t2011
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gold560kg2018
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal146 798.86M kWh2018
- hydro83 283.75M kWh2018
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal26 8001000 kW2018
- hydro18 0691000 kW2019
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation230 728.61M kWh2018
total installed capacity45 511.731000 kW2018
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
alumina1 4001000 t2020
copper15.11000 t2018
Industry - Machinery and transport equipment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bikes736 200no.2019
cars125 235no.2020
Industry - Precision and optical instruments
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cameras1 545 300no.2012
Industry - Electrical and electronics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
air conditioners460 000no.2019
fridges2 933 200no.2019
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
petrol3 414.21000 t2015
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ammonia1 1001000 t2020
caustic soda50.21000 t2010
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
carpets50.61000 m²2010
cotton fabrics290M m²2013
Industry - Clothing and footwear
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
footwear1 267 500 000pairs2019
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley4 3001000 t2018
coconut oil167.1011000 t2018
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes5 462M units2015
cigarettes, packs6 381M units2019
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemical pulp1101000 t2019
chemi-mechanical pulp4001000 t2019
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement96 0001000 t2020
sheet glass60 6001000 m²2012
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production1 798.537M US$2018
food, beverages and tobacco production5 361.868M US$2018
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Trade


Tertiary sector
Foreign trade.
The main trading partners are China, South Korea, Japan and the USA.


Main exports (M US$ - 2017) 
telecommunications equipment 54 530, electrical and electronic equipment 28 566, apparel and accessories 27 016, footwear 20 353, electronic integrated circuits 15 338, furniture and accessories 8 977, computers and accessories 8 402, fish and crustaceans 7 014, machinery 6 821

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufactures84.521% of goods exports2019
food products9.416% of goods exports2019
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
United States11 416M US$2009
Japan6 336M US$2009
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
China15 411M US$2009
Singapore7 015M US$2009
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
2020282 655M US$ -
2019264 268M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
2020262 701M US$ -
2019253 394M US$ -
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Tourism


Tourism. The tourism sector, supported by heavy public investment, has shown a rapid expansion, with visitors mostly coming from China, South Korea, Japan, the USA and the EU.

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures6 150M US$2019
Number of arrivals18 009 000units2019
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown59 900 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried53 2271000 units2019
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers153.453per 1000 pop.2019
Computers96.5per 1000 pop.2008
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Social and welfare


Education.
Primary education is free, compulsory and lasts from the age of 6 to 10 years old. Secondary education lasts for seven years. There are around a hundred universities and institutes of higher education.

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling11.9years2010
Graduates536 712units2016
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Students, primary level8 041 842units2018
Students, secondary level8 799 835units2010
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending9.1% of total expenses2004
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds2.85per 1000 pop.2019
Physicians0.88per 1000 pop.2019
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV0.3% of adults2019
HIV, total0.2%2001
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.527% of GDP2017
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking64.7%2019
Access to electricity99.4%2019
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear3.5%2010
education6$%2010
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