Form of Government: Socialist republic
Area: 331 231 sq km
Population: 93 671 600 inhab. (estimate 2017)
Density: 282.80 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 23° - 8° N; long. 102° - 109° E
Capital: Hanoi=Hà Nội (capital) 4 282 738 inhab. (2018); Hanoi 7 420 100 inhab. (2017), urban agglomeration
Currency: dong (10 hào=100 xu)
Human development index: 0.694 (rank: 116)
President: Nguyên Phu Trong, since 23 October 2018
Prime Minister: Nguyên Xuân Phuc, since 7 April 2016
Internet: www.gso.gov.vn (General Statistics Office)
Member of APEC, ASEAN, UN, WTO

Vietnam

Việt Nam, Cộng Hòa Xã Hội Chủ Nghĩa Việt Nam
Useful information

International license plate code VN
International dialling code 0084
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (required only if traveling from a country with risk of transmission); malaria prophylaxis (recommended for some areas)
Electricity (Voltage) 127/220
Driving side rigth
Internet code .vn

GMT  +7
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Hanoi 23.9; Thanh Phô Hô Chí Minh 27.6
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Hanoi 16.5/29.5; Thanh Phô Hô Chí Minh 26.5/27.5
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Hanoi 5/2; Thanh Phô Hô Chí Minh 5/6
Annual average precipitation (mm) Hanoi 1795; Thanh Phô Hô Chí Minh 1982
Days of rainfall (annual average) Hanoi 151; Thanh Phô Hô Chí Minh 153

Geography.
Vietnam is bordered by China to the north and by Cambodia and Laos to the west. To the south and east its coastline is on the South China Sea. There are three distinctive regions: Tonkin to the north, with the mountains of Chinese Yunnan and the Red River basin; Annam, the central stretch of coastal plain in front of the Annamite Mountains, also known as Annamese Cordillera (Ngoc Linh, 2598 m); Cochin China to the south, the area where the Mekong Delta is to be found. The climate is characterized by monsoons and is affected by violent typhoons. Along with China and Taiwan, Vietnam claims the Paracel/Xisha Qundao islands, and along with China, Taiwan, Malaysia, Brunei and the Philippines has a claim to the Spratly/Nansha Qundao islands.

Government


A former French colony, dating from 1859, Vietnam was occupied during the Second World War by the Japanese. After the war an anti-colonial movement began (The Vietminh Liberation Front, led by Hô Chí Minh) which, after having proclaimed the Democratic Republic of Vietnam on 2 September 1945, managed to defeat the French army (1954) and achieve independence. The country was divided following the guidelines set up by the Geneva peace agreement (20 July 1954) into two parts along the 17th parallel, to the north the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (Marxist and supported by the USSR), with its capital in Hanoi, and the Republic of South Vietnam (favouring the west and supported by the USA), with its capital in Saigon.
At the beginning of the 1960s a guerrilla war broke out between the South Vietnamese communists (Vietcong), supported by the North Vietnamese, China and the USSR, and the government forces in Saigon, supported by the USA. After a long and bloody war, in 1975 the US troops were forced to retreat and the guerrillas entered Saigon (renamed Ho Chi Minh City). On the 2 July 1976 the country was reunified as the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. Since the second half of the 1990s, trade and diplomatic relations with the USA have returned to normal. There are frequent social skirmishes – often violent – in Vietnam regarding work conditions, land ownership and civil rights, which often involve ethnic minorities. The Constitution of 15 April 1992, whilst renouncing Marxism-Leninism and recognizing the right to private property, also confirmed the leading role of the Communist Party (Dang Cong San Viêt Nam). The National Assembly consists of 500 elected members, 92% being from the lists of the Communist Party and from popular organizations, while the remaining 8% are independent candidates. The assembly appoints the government and the President of the Republic.


Defence and justice.
The Vietnamese armed forces are among the most numerous and best-armed in the region. The legal system is based on the French model and Marxist legal doctrine.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force6.2%2015
Army85.5%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Homicides3.3per 100 000 pop.2012
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Ho Chi Minh City=Thanh Phô Hô Chí Minh5 968 384inhab.2009
Hanoi=Hà Nội4 282 738inhab.2018
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hanoi7 420 100inhab.2017
Hai Phòng1 997 700inhab.2017
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2018)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE

After the reunification of the country there was a mass exodus of refugees (many of them from the Chinese community), with large numbers finding permanent residence in the USA (about 1 million), Canada and France.

Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate14.92017
Death rate6.82017
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Vietnamese85.7%2009
other3.4%2009


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
nonreligious/atheist73.1%2014
Buddhist12.2%2014


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Vietnamese
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years23.3%2018
15-29 years25%2018


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Economy


Economic situation.
In 2019, the growth rate slowed slightly in 2019 owing to a credit crunch and a drop in foreign demand, but levels are nonetheless high. Growth was boosted by exports, foreign investments and the development of the domestic market. The government has alternated measures for increasing competition and stimulating growth in order to stabilize the economy. Low incomes and difficult working conditions are at the base of social conflicts; to reduce tensions, minimum salaries were gradually increased, whilst also trying not to reduce company competitiveness.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)138.35index2016
Balance of trade1 440M US$2018
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population57 499 679units2018
Active population, Females48.2%2018
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate1.9%2018
Unemployment rate, Females44.7%2018
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses1 462 965 000M LCU2017
Revenues1 288 665 000M LCU2017
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture39.8%2018
industry25.8%2018
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture17%2017
industry37.1%2017
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation851 441BN LCU2016
International reserves55 452.6M US$2018
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Agriculture


Primary sector
Agriculture and forests.
The main product is rice (cultivated in the Mekong and Red River delta regions, and in the hills) which is the staple foodstuff. Coffee is widespread (Vietnam is the second-largest producer in the world). In the north (Tonkin) maize, cassava, vegetables, sugar cane and sweet potatoes are grown, while in Annam tea, rubber, fruit (pineapple and citrus fruits) are common. The forests offer a supply of quality timber.
Livestock is of secondary importance, while fishing is a significant industry (Vietnam is one of the world’s largest exporters of prawns).

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land35.7%2015
forests47.64%2015
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cereals, total47 877.2181000 t2017
maize5 109.7661000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava10 267.5681000 t2017
potatoes303.6751000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages976.211000 t2017
cauliflowers136.2171000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry162.8321000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes26.2551000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
castor oil seed71000 t2017
groundnuts459.8491000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts1 499.2281000 t2017
copra2431000 t2006
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cinnamon37.1261000 t2017
coffee1 542.3981000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane18 356.3981000 t2017
tobacco32.0651000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton0.3591000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
jute0.971000 t2014
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fruits, total8 996.91000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cashew nuts863.061000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits1 336.671000 t2017
grapefruits568.3521000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bananas2 045.3521000 t2017
mangoes744.4251000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Others
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mushrooms23.8011000 t2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
maize1 099.2741000 ha2017
millet2.161000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava532.5011000 ha2017
potatoes20.481000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages37.4131000 ha2017
cauliflowers7.0331000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry149.7021000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape1.2181000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
castor oil seed81000 ha2017
groundnuts195.3521000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts148.1061000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cinnamon102.0591000 ha2017
coffee605.1781000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane281.1491000 ha2017
tobacco14.2041000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton0.6281000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
jute0.2541000 ha2014
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cashew nuts283.7911000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits103.5291000 ha2017
grapefruits46.7911000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bananas125.4561000 ha2017
mangoes76.7111000 ha2017
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
natural rubber1 094 519t2017
timber40 153 8202017
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle5 654.9011000 heads2017
cattle and buffaloes8 146.5631000 heads2017
Livestock - Buffaloes
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
buffaloes2 491.6621000 heads2017
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs27 406.7391000 heads2017
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats2 556.2681000 heads2017
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
equines, total86.7591000 heads2017
horses86.7591000 heads2017
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds370 1571000 heads2017
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey14.2181000 t2014
Livestock - Silk farming
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
silk, raw6.7611000 t2014
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
condensed milk13 915t2014
eggs5321000 t2017
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs1 756 647.7t2017
freshwater fishes2 657 796.82t2017
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Minerals


Secondary sector
Minerals.
The main minerals are coal (deposits at Thái Nguyên, Quang Ninh) and crude oil (offshore fields at White Tiger, Bach Ho and Dragon, off the Mekong Delta, at Thanh Long and Vanguard Bank). Bauxite, iron ore, nickel, gold, copper, tungsten, zinc and phosphates are also mined.
Industry.
Alongside traditional industries (silk, porcelain), iron and steel production has also become more developed (in the Red River Delta and at Ky Anh), as well as metal-working, mechanical and electronics (in Hanoi, Mong Cai, Vinh, Ho Chi Minh City), ship-building (Hai Phòng), chemicals (Hanoi, Viet Tri, Bac Giang, Vinh, Nha Trang), textiles and footwear production, construction materials, agricultural foodstuffs and rubber production. Two refineries are active in Quang Ngãi and Thanh Hoa provinces.

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coal41 594.81000 t2018
coal, total41 594.81000 t2018
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
antimony0.31000 t2018
bauxite2 5001000 t2018
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barite1001000 t2016
fluorspar2201000 t2018
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
kaolin6501000 t2011
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gold164kg2014
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal94 438.98M kWh2016
- hydro63 462M kWh2016
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal23 3201000 kW2016
- hydro17 1001000 kW2016
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation158 168.98M kWh2016
total installed capacity40 7671000 kW2016
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
alumina1 1001000 t2018
copper81000 t2015
Industry - Machinery and transport equipment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bikes708 600no.2018
cars146 000no.2018
Industry - Precision and optical instruments
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cameras1 545 300no.2012
Industry - Electrical and electronics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
air conditioners333 400no.2018
fridges2 676 000no.2018
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
petrol3 414.21000 t2015
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ammonia1 1001000 t2018
caustic soda50.21000 t2010
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
carpets50.61000 m²2010
cotton fabrics290M m²2013
Industry - Clothing and footwear
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
footwear1 181 800 000pairs2018
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley1 3081000 t2014
coconut oil156.81000 t2014
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes5 462M units2015
cigarettes, packs6 283.6M units2018
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemical pulp2101000 t2017
chemi-mechanical pulp4001000 t2017
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement88 9531000 t2018
sheet glass60 6001000 m²2012
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production1 455.1M US$2015
food, beverages and tobacco production4 491.1M US$2015
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Trade


Tertiary sector
Foreign trade.
The main trading partners are China, South Korea, Japan and the USA.


Main exports (M US$ - 2017) 
telecommunications equipment 54 530, electrical and electronic equipment 28 566, apparel and accessories 27 016, footwear 20 353, electronic integrated circuits 15 338, furniture and accessories 8 977, computers and accessories 8 402, fish and crustaceans 7 014, machinery 6 821

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufactures83.197% of goods exports2017
food products12.107% of goods exports2017
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
United States11 416M US$2009
Japan6 336M US$2009
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
China15 411M US$2009
Singapore7 015M US$2009
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
2018245 635M US$ -
2017214 323M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
2018244 195M US$ -
2017211 518M US$ -
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Tourism


Tourism. The tourism sector, supported by heavy public investment, has shown a rapid expansion, with visitors mostly coming from China, South Korea, Japan, the USA and the EU.

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures5 040M US$2017
Number of arrivals12 922 000units2017
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown59 900 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried42 592.81000 units2017
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers117.959per 1000 pop.2017
Computers96.5per 1000 pop.2008
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Social and welfare


Education.
Primary education is free, compulsory and lasts from the age of 6 to 10 years old. Secondary education lasts for seven years. There are around a hundred universities and institutes of higher education.

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling11.9years2010
Graduates536 712units2016
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level397 098units2017
Teachers, secondary level474 345units2010
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending9.1% of total expenses2004
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds2.8per 1000 pop.2018
Physicians0.9per 1000 pop.2018
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV0.3% of adults2017
HIV, total0.2%2001
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.5% of GDP2017
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking66.92%2016
Access to electricity100%2017
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear3.5%2010
education6%2010
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