Form of Government: Federal republic
Area: 916 445 sq km
Population: 28 435 943 inhab. (estimate 2020)
Density: 31.03 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 12° - 1° N; long. 73° - 60° W
Capital: Caracas (capital) 1 942 652 inhab. (2011); Caracas 3 242 000 inhab. (2011), urban agglomeration
Currency: bolívar soberano (100 céntimos), since 20 August 2018
Human development index: 0.711 (rank: 113)
President and head of government: Nicolás Maduro (PSUV), in office since 5 March 2013, elected on 14 April 2013, reconfirmed 20 May 2018
National Assembly: seats based on the elections of 6 December 2020: PSUV (United Socialist Party of Venezuela), 253; AD (Democratic Action), 11; others, 13
Internet: www.ine.gov.ve (Instituto Nacional de Estadística)
Member of Mercosur, OAS, OPEC, UN, UNASUR, WTO

Venezuela

Venezuela, República Bolivariana de Venezuela
Useful information

International license plate code YV
International dialling code 0058
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (recommended for some areas); malaria prophylaxis (recommended for some areas)
Electricity (Voltage) 120
Driving side rigth
Internet code .ve

GMT  -4.30
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Caracas 20.6
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Caracas 18.5/21
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Caracas 7/7
Annual average precipitation (mm) Caracas 833
Days of rainfall (annual average) Caracas 100

Politics and current affairs

The elections held on 6 December 2020, which were boycotted by the opposition and held amid irregularities, returned control of the National Assembly to President N. Maduro. The Constituent Assembly was subsequently dissolved (31-XII).

Geography.
Venezuela is bordered by Guyana to the east, Brazil to the south and Colombia to the west, while the northern coastline is on the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. The territory includes many diverse regions: the foothills of the Andes in the north-west split into the Sierra de Perijá and the Cordillera de Mérida (Pico Bolívar, 5007 m), enclosing the lowlands of the Maracaibo region and the lake of the same name. In the centre there is a region of vast plains (llanos), while in the south there are highlands. The most important river is the Orinoco. The climate is hot and humid throughout the country.

Government


A former Spanish colony, Venezuela achieved independence in 1821, after a ten-year war of independence led by Simón Bolívar. The country has been governed by authoritarian regimes for much of the time.
In 1958 a period of democracy began, which was however interrupted by coups d’état and military rule. In 1999, Hugo Chávez became President, a former military figure with a turbulent past (including an attempted coup), he initiated populist reforms with the aim of a wider redistribution of the wealth coming from the exports of crude oil. The reforms have met with hostility from the business community, the right wing and the USA, culminating in an attempted coup in 2002 and a referendum to force him to resign in 2004. After Chávez’s death (5 March 2013), the office of Head of State was taken over by Vice President Nicolás Maduro, who compromised the institutional structure of the country by using the Constituent Assembly (elected on 30 July 2017) as a governing tool, using it to bypass Parliament, which is controlled by the opposition. After the disputed re-election of Maduro in 2018, on 23 January 2019, the President of the National Assembly Juan Guaidó (Popular Will) declared himself president on behalf of the opposition. The political crisis has added to the economic crisis of the country, where basic necessities and essential services are difficult to find.
Following the new “Bolivarian” Constitution adopted on 15 December 1999, the President of the Republic, who is also head of the government, is elected by direct suffrage for a six-year term. The National Assembly consists of 277 members elected for five years.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force10$%2015
Army54.8%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Homicides56.3per 100 000 pop.2016
TOP

Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Caracas1 942 652inhab.2011
Maracaibo1 898 770inhab.2011
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Caracas3 242 000inhab.2011
Maracaibo2 310 000inhab.2011
TOP

Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2020)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE

Due to the economic and political crisis, more than 5 million people have left the country.

Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate17.5662019
Death rate7.1182019
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mestizo63.7%2000
white20$%2000


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Catholic71$%2011
Protestant17$%2011


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Spanish
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years25.7%2020
15-29 years24.2%2020


TOP

Economy


Economic situation.
A drop in oil production and the dismal manufacturing industry in an economy strongly dependent on hydrocarbon exports have sunk the country into a deep recession that has lasted since 2014; this was exacerbated by heavy sanctions imposed by the United States and a serious political crisis in 2019, and pandemic containment measures in 2020. The growth of the country’s public debt is out of control, as is inflation, making it extremely difficult to supply essential goods. The manufacturing industry has been negatively affected by insufficient production of electrical energy, which has caused repeated interruptions to its supply.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)108.54index2016
Agricultural prod. index (2014-16=100)91.04index2019
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population11 063 337units2020
Active population, Females39.1%2019
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate9.1%2020
Unemployment rate, Females41.4%2019
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses74 184.4M LCU2005
Revenues83 731.6M LCU2005
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture8.3%2019
industry16.6%2019
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture5.718%2019
industry37.03%2019
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation3 756.1BN LCU2019
International reserves6 633M US$2019
TOP

Agriculture


Primary sector
Agriculture.
The main food crops (rice, potatoes, cassava, sorghum) are unable to meet the domestic demand. Coffee is widely planted on the slopes of the Andes; on the lower slopes on the Caribbean Sea where it is warm and humid, cocoa is also grown. Other important crops are sugar cane and fruit (coconuts, watermelons, citrus fruits), which fuels exports.
Forests and livestock.
The forests contain many types of wood: cedar, mahogany, saman, mulberry and apama. There are also other natural forestry resources including: balata, chicle, copaiba (resin) and dividivi (tree bark used for tanning).
Livestock mostly consists of cattle and poultry.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land3.741%2018
forests52.534%2018
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cereals, total2 742.5071000 t2019
maize1 940.5041000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava421.621000 t2019
potatoes477.0611000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages76.3681000 t2019
carrots and turnips173.8161000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry41.3371000 t2019
peas, dry0.1861000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes19.1431000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts2.4891000 t2019
sesame seed17.5591000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Oil palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
oil palm fruits435.4521000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts153.4741000 t2019
copra20$1000 t2006
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cocoa23.8471000 t2019
coffee56.7091000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar beet24.4241000 t2019
sugar cane4 380.3041000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton3.0571000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sisal1.5581000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
figs0$1000 t2016
fruits, total3 525.5651000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits619.2251000 t2019
grapefruits7.8441000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados135.6061000 t2019
bananas650.0511000 t2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
maize500.2181000 ha2019
rice179.0411000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava33.7611000 ha2019
potatoes24.4981000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages2.3491000 ha2019
carrots and turnips6.4661000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry61.6321000 ha2019
peas, dry0.1171000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape1.2191000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts0.9561000 ha2019
sesame seed45.4871000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oil palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
oil palm fruit41.6051000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts14.6541000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cocoa80.9241000 ha2019
coffee160.6341000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar beet1.1941000 ha2019
sugar cane73.3391000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton3.3041000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sisal0.6741000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
figs0$1000 ha2016
peaches0.9461000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits46.8381000 ha2019
grapefruits0.9891000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados11.7481000 ha2019
bananas41.7081000 ha2019
TOP

Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber5 645 3102019
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle16 048.8161000 heads2019
cattle and buffaloes16 048.8161000 heads2019
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs2 902.9191000 heads2019
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep606.4081000 heads2019
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats1 516.9361000 heads2019
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses4401000 heads2019
asses and mules5121000 heads2019
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds123 1711000 heads2019
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey0.4871000 t2019
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter0.9031000 t2018
cheese234.8341000 t2018
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs62 523t2019
freshwater fishes26 044t2019
TOP

Minerals


Secondary sector
Minerals.
The main natural resource is crude oil, the extraction of which is managed by the state-owned company PDSVA and the main reserves are found in the Maracaibo, Barinas, Anzoátegui, Monagas, Delta Amacuro (Pedernales), Falcón and Guárico fields. Natural gas production is also important (reserves in Amana, Maraven, Lechoso, Placer). The county also has other important mineral resources: iron ore (deposits in Cerro Bolívar, El Pao and San Isidro), gold (from the streams which flow into the right bank of the Orinoco), diamonds (Upper Icabarú); asphalt, asbestos, magnesite, coal (Naricual and Capiricual), bauxite and phosphates. Sea salt is also produced (Araya salt deposits, La Redonda, Las Cumaraguas and Coche).
Energy and industry.
Hydro-electric schemes (including the power plants on the River Caroní and others on the Guri and the Macagua) provide about 70% of the national electricity requirement, but their output is entirely dependent on the amount of rainfall and the obsolescence of the structures.
The most developed industrial sectors are the primary ones, particularly the petrochemical industry. The main refineries are in Amuay, Bajo Grande, Barcelona, Barinas, Cardón, El Palito, Puerto La Cruz and San Lorenzo. However, their actual production is insufficient and gasoline is rationed. At Morón there is an important plant producing nitrogen fertilizers. Iron and steel works and other metal-working plants are based at Matanzas and Ciudad Guayana. Vehicles production is carried out in Caracas, Valencia, and La Victoria. Textile plants produce cotton and artificial fibres. Tobacco and leather products are also worthy of mention. There are areas of cement production (Caracas, Pertigalete and Barquisimeto), and factories for producing glass, paper, beer and sugar.

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coal696.61000 t2020
coal, total696.61000 t2020
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bauxite7501000 t2017
iron ore1 0961000 t2019
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
feldspar80$1000 t2018
gypsum7$1000 t2011
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
granite7501000 t2011
kaolin2.41000 t2019
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
diamonds6$1000 ct2012
diamonds, industrial - ct9$1000 ct2012
TOP

Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro57 568.5M kWh2018
- thermal39 019.4M kWh2018
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal17 7321000 kW2018
- hydro15 4001000 kW2019
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation96 664.9M kWh2018
total installed capacity33 207.281000 kW2018
TOP

Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
alumina3301000 t2017
aluminium8$1000 t2019
Industry - Machinery and transport equipment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cars852no.2017
commercial vehicles922no.2017
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen5071000 t2018
petrol16 873.11000 t2014
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ammonia1901000 t2019
fertilizers1 9831000 t2010
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley8001000 t2018
coconut oil9.31000 t2018
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemical pulp17.9281000 t2019
other paper335.8051000 t2019
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement7 0001000 t2018
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production1 287M US$2003
food, beverages and tobacco production3 629M US$2003
TOP

Trade


Tertiary sector
Foreign trade.

The trend of the trade balance depends on exports of hydrocarbons.


Main exports (M US$ - 2017) 
crude oil 24 689, petroleum products 3 415, chemicals 677, iron and steel 363, aluminium 332, iron ores 332, fish and crustaceans 188


Finance & banking.
The banking system is regulated by the Central Bank of Venezuela. There is a stock exchange in Caracas.

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fuels97.668% of goods exports2013
manufactures1.82% of goods exports2013
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
United States550M US$2013
China248M US$2013
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
United States10 767M US$2013
China7 758M US$2013
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20205 020M US$ -
201917 210M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20206 550M US$ -
20195 870M US$ -
TOP

Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures2 920M US$2016
Number of arrivals427 000units2017
TOP

Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown300 000km flown2008
Civil aviation, passengers carried1 516.81000 units2019
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers89.81per 1000 pop.2019
Computers93.1per 1000 pop.2005
TOP

Social and welfare


Education and research.
Primary education is compulsory and lasts from the age of 6 to 15 years old; secondary education lasts two more years.

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling14.2years2009
Graduates138 557units2006
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Students, primary level3 285 299units2017
Students, secondary level2 391 174units2017
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending7.6% of total expenses2005
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds0.87per 1000 pop.2017
Physicians1.9per 1000 pop.2013
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV0.6% of adults2019
Malaria492 753cases2019
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.1% of GDP2016
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking97.1%2019
Access to electricity100%2019
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear9.6%2005
education3$%2005
TOP