Form of Government: Republic
Area: 448 971 sq km
Population: 34 558 891 inhab. (estimate 2021)
Density: 76.97 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 46° - 37° N; long. 56° - 73° E
Capital: Tashkent=Toshkent (capital) 2 571 668 inhab. (2020);
Currency: som (100 tiyin)
Human development index: 0.72 (rank: 106)
President and head of government: Šavkat Mirzijaev (OLDP), since 8 September 2016, elected 4 December 2016
Prime Minister: Abdulla Aripov (OLDP), since 14 December 2016
Chamber of Deputies: seats held following elections on 22 December 2019 and 5 January 2020: OLDP (Liberal Democratic Party), 53; OMTDP (National Revival Democratic Party), 36; ASDP (Justice Social Democratic Party), 24; OXDP (People’s Democratic Party), 22; Ecological Party of Uzbekistan, 15
Internet: www.stat.uz (State Committee on Statistics)
Member of CIS, EBRD, OIC, OSCE, SCO, UN, WTO observer

Uzbekistan

O‘zbekiston, O‘zbekiston Respublikasi
Useful information

International license plate code UZ
International dialling code 00998
Travel vaccinations requirement none
Electricity (Voltage) 220
Driving side rigth
Internet code .uz

GMT  +5
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Toshkent 12.8
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Toshkent -1.5/25.5
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Toshkent 12/4
Annual average precipitation (mm) Toshkent 417
Days of rainfall (annual average) Toshkent 59

Geography.
Bordered to the north and north-west by Kazakhstan, to the east by Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan, to the southeast by Afghanistan and by Turkmenistan to the south. The country is partly desertic in the centre (the Kyzylkum) and also in the east, in the western foothills of the Tien Shan. In the north-western part there is the Aral Sea, which is in advanced state of being completely drained. The climate is continental with cold winters and hot, long summers.

Government


A former Soviet republic of the USSR, Uzbekistan became independent on 31 August 1991; until 2016, President Islam Karimov has been in office, who has established an authoritarian and personal regime, actually stopping the formation of any organised opposition. According to the 1992 Constitution, which was modified in 2002, the President of the Republic, who has wide-ranging powers, is elected by direct suffrage for a seven-year term. There are two houses of Parliament (the Chamber of Deputies with 150 members who are elected for a five-year term, and a Senate with 100 members).

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force15.6%2015
Army51.1%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Homicides3$per 100 000 pop.2015
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Tashkent=Toshkent2 571 668inhab.2020
Namangan626 120inhab.2020
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2020)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate24.32019
Death rate4.62019
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Uzbek83.8%2017
Tajik4.8%2017


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Muslim93$%2015
Orthodox4$%2015


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Kazakh
Russian
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years23.1%2020
15-29 years26.7%2020


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Economy


In 2021, the country recovered from the decline in growth due to the COVID-19 pandemic, which, however, had not led to the recession. In 2017-18, a broad reform plan began to liberalize the economy and encourage foreign investment. Revenues from hydrocarbons, cotton and gold exports fuel investment in infrastructure.
The dominant crop is cotton, grown widely thanks to irrigation from the waters of the River Amu Darya, this being one of the causes of the problems of the Aral Sea. Other products are tomatoes and other vegetable, wheat and fruit. Cattle and sheep farming is extremely important because of the prized karakul sheep. The subsoil is rich in natural gas, oil, lignite, uranium and other metals (copper, gold, silver, lead, zinc, bauxite, tungsten, fluorspar and molybdenum).
Industries are mostly based on the natural resources (metal-working, iron and steel works, chemical, petrochemical, plastic materials and cement). Other industries include machinery (motor-vehicle assembly in Andijon), foodstuffs and textiles. The main trading partners are China, Russia, Switzerland and Kazakhstan.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)166.54index2016
Agricultural prod. index (2014-16=100)102.02index2019
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population14 384 347units2020
Active population, Females40.8%2019
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate6$%2020
Unemployment rate, Females39.3%2019
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses86 327 000M LCU2018
Revenues113 401 000M LCU2018
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture23.9%2019
industry29.5%2019
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture27.312%2019
industry35.49%2019
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation27 798.774BN LCU2020
International reserves34 903.112M US$2020
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Agriculture

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land10.274%2018
forests8.375%2018
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley133.4961000 t2019
cereals, total6 992.4951000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes3 089.6581000 t2019
roots and tubers, total3 089.6581000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
artichokes4.4781000 t2019
cabbages703.4031000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, green8.5281000 t2019
broad beans, dry15.2671000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes1 603.3081000 t2019
raisins39$1000 t2006
Agriculture - products - Olive
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
olives0.1171000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts28.3051000 t2019
rapeseed1.2631000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pepper0.2241000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar beet0$1000 t2016
tobacco6.2911000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton2 694.4081000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
linseed1$1000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
jute15.2331000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples1 124.0171000 t2019
apricots536.5441000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
almonds21.4111000 t2019
hazelnuts4.8481000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits15.3151000 t2019
citrus fruits, nes9.5061000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Others
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mushrooms0.6511000 t2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley91.9091000 ha2019
maize43.4321000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes89.1951000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
artichokes0.1121000 ha2019
cabbages14.8391000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, green0.5841000 ha2019
broad beans, dry2.2061000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape104.4631000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Olive
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
olive0.1151000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts1.2941000 ha2019
rapeseed2.4751000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pepper0.3231000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar beet0$1000 ha2016
tobacco2.4731000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton1 050.6311000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
linseed3$1000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
jute1.4261000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples98.5251000 ha2019
apricots43.4641000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
almonds3.0111000 ha2019
hazelnuts4.2011000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits3.0211000 ha2019
citrus fruits, nes2.6461000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Others
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mushrooms0$1000 ha2014
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber34 0002019
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle12 949.71000 heads2019
cattle and buffaloes12 949.71000 heads2019
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs54.811000 heads2019
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep18 197.81000 heads2019
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats3 709.11000 heads2019
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses186.6911000 heads2019
asses and mules186.6911000 heads2019
Livestock - Camelids
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
camels19.9611000 heads2019
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds73 9501000 heads2019
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey13.0021000 t2019
Livestock - Silk farming
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
silk, raw1.2541000 t2018
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter5.7231000 t2018
cheese13.2371000 t2018
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
freshwater fishes120 884t2019
total catch121 717t2019
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Minerals

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coal175.61000 t2019
coal, total4 133.11000 t2020
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
copper1001000 t2018
molybdenum0.21000 t2020
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bentonite26$1000 t2019
feldspar4.31000 t2011
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
kaolin4 5001000 t2020
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gold90 000kg2020
silver223 900kg2018
Mineral resources - Other minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
iodine2$t2013
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal53 579.06M kWh2018
- hydro5 838.03M kWh2018
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal10 9581000 kW2018
- hydro1 8401000 kW2019
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation59 423.92M kWh2018
total installed capacity12 802.751000 kW2018
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
copper, primary1011000 t2018
steel, crude9501000 t2020
Industry - Machinery and transport equipment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bikes108 718no.2016
cars280 080no.2020
Industry - Electrical and electronics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
air conditioners117 478no.2016
computers13 101no.2016
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen117.21000 t2019
petrol1 299.71000 t2015
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ammonia1 1001000 t2020
artificial yarn1.051000 t2016
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
carpets31 9751000 m²2016
cotton fabrics162.4M m²2016
Industry - Clothing and footwear
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
footwear38 038 982pairs2016
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley191.191000 t2018
cottonseed oil176.2911000 t2018
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes10 399M units2016
cigars and cigarettes10 399M units2016
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemical pulp7.41000 t2019
newsprint0.2541000 t2019
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement8 6001000 t2018
sheet glass7 310.81000 m²2016
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production861.827M US$2018
food, beverages and tobacco production1 874.869M US$2018
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Trade

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufactures19.035% of goods exports2019
fuels16.56% of goods exports2019
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Russia1 461M US$2007
Poland631M US$2006
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Russia1 729M US$2007
China765M US$2007
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
202013 281M US$ -
201914 024M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
202020 020M US$ -
201921 867M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures2 753M US$2019
Number of arrivals6 749 000units2019
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown43 800 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried3 685.21000 units2019
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers139.388per 1000 pop.2019
Computers31.3per 1000 pop.2008
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling12.477years2019
Graduates67 897units2018
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Students, primary level2 505 930units2019
Students, secondary level4 073 028units2019
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending23.696% of total expenses2019
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds4.66per 1000 pop.2018
Physicians2.72per 1000 pop.2018
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV0.2% of adults2019
Malaria1$cases2019
Museums
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Museums100units2019
Museums, visitors7 777 800units2019
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.13% of GDP2018
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking84.6%2019
Access to electricity100%2019
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