Form of Government: Republic
Area: 176 215 sq km
Population: 3 473 727 inhab. (estimate 2020)
Density: 19.71 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 30° - 35° S; long. 58° - 53° W
Capital: Montevideo (capital) 1 382 579 inhab. (2019); Montevideo 1 736 989 inhab. (2018), urban agglomeration
Currency: Uruguayan peso (100 centésimos)
Human development index: 0.817 (rank: 55)
President and head of government: Luis Lacalle Pou (PN), elected 24 November 2019, in office since 1 March 2020
Chamber of Deputies: seats based on the elections of 27 October 2019: FA (Broad Front, left-wing), 42; PN (National Party, "The Whites", conservative-centrist), 30; PC (Colorado Party, liberal-conservative), 13; Open Cabildo (national-conservative), 11; others, 3
Internet: www.ine.gub.uy (Instituto Nacional de Estadística)
Member of Mercosur, OAS, UN, WTO

Uruguay

Uruguay, República Oriental del Uruguay
Useful information

International license plate code ROU
International dialling code 00598
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (required only if traveling from a country with risk of transmission)
Electricity (Voltage) 220
Driving side rigth
Internet code .uy

GMT  -3
DST  -2
DST duration (start-end) early October-mid March (Sunday 9)

Annual average temperature (°C) Montevideo 16.6
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Montevideo 23/11
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Montevideo 5/10
Annual average precipitation (mm) Montevideo 1110
Days of rainfall (annual average) Montevideo 78

Geography.
Uruguay is bordered by Brazil to the north and east, Argentina to the west, and it has a coastline on the Atlantic Ocean to the south-east. The country, mostly rolling plains, contains some long, thin hilly areas to the north and east. The most important river is the Uruguay which meets the Paraná to form the Río de la Plata (River Plate) estuary. The climate is temperate and moderately rainy.

Government


A former Spanish colony, Uruguay has been independent since 25 August 1825. Following a series of coups from 1973 onwards, democracy was re-established in 1984. A left-wing coalition (Broad Front) with a programme of social and economic reforms was in government from 2004 to 2020, under T.R. Vázquez from 2005 to 2010 and then again from 2015, and under J. Mujica from 2010 to 2015.
In accordance with the Constitution which was approved by referendum on 27 November 1966 and came into force on 15 February 1967, executive power resides in the President of the Republic, who is elected by direct suffrage and remains in office for a five-year term. Legislative power lies with the General Assembly, which consists of two chambers, each of them elected for five years using a system of proportional representation: the Chamber of Deputies (99 members) and the Senate (30 members, plus the Vice-President of the Republic).


Defence and justice.
The legal system is based on the Spanish system.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force11.8%2017
Army64.7%2017
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Homicides8.5per 100 000 pop.2017
Police personnel676.7per 100 000 pop.2015
TOP

Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Montevideo1 382 579inhab.2019
Salto104 011inhab.2011
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Montevideo1 736 989inhab.2018
TOP

Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2020)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE

Around 40% of the population is of Italian origin. There are approximately 500 000 Uruguayans who live abroad.

Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate13.742019
Death rate9.4732019
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
white84.4%2011
black7.3%2011


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Catholic42$%2014
belief in God (no specific religious affiliation)37$%2014


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Spanish
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years19.5%2020
15-29 years22.7%2020


TOP

Economy


Economic situation.
Economic growth is closely linked to the trend in exports. The main driver of the economy is still agricultural produce grown for export.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)118.34index2016
Agricultural prod. index (2014-16=100)102.13index2019
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population1 686 487units2020
Active population, Females45.5%2019
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate12.7%2020
Unemployment rate, Females55.6%2019
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses530 721M LCU2018
Revenues462 479M LCU2018
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture8.1%2019
industry18.9%2019
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture6.484%2019
industry26.573%2019
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation93.175BN LCU2020
International reserves16 250.372M US$2020
TOP

Agriculture


Primary sector.
Livestock farming (especially cattle and sheep) is the country’s main resource; meat, dairy products and wool for export come from this.
The most profitable crop is soya, which is largely exported. There are some cereal crops (wheat, rice and maize), vines (in Montevideo and Canelones), fruit farming (citrus fruits, apples and peaches), potatoes and sugar cane. Caviar export is also important.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land11.518%2018
forests11.364%2018
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley637.81000 t2019
cereals, total3 565.1311000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes94.41000 t2019
roots and tubers, total174.8441000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages3.8781000 t2019
carrots and turnips24.8621000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry3.3431000 t2019
beans, green1.0541000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes86.2291000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Olive
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
olives22.0111000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts1.9761000 t2019
rapeseed90.71000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane358.5471000 t2019
tobacco3.3071000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton0.0041000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
linseed2.4521000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples42.3221000 t2019
fruits, total420.4681000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits242.6441000 t2019
grapefruits0.791000 t2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley167.31000 ha2019
maize1071000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes4.0531000 ha2019
sweet potatoes8.8051000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages0.4021000 ha2019
carrots and turnips1.0751000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry5.2681000 ha2019
beans, green0.3361000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape6.1441000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Olive
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
olive7.31000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts3.6711000 ha2019
rapeseed55$1000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane6.4311000 ha2019
tobacco0.8171000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton0.0011000 ha2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
linseed1.9621000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples2.2751000 ha2019
peaches1.2961000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits14.1081000 ha2019
grapefruits0.0731000 ha2019
TOP

Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber16 036 8842019
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle11 400.9631000 heads2019
cattle and buffaloes11 400.9631000 heads2019
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs127.661000 heads2019
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep6 556.8161000 heads2019
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats18.0521000 heads2019
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses1.6711000 heads2019
asses and mules5.7681000 heads2019
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds31 7691000 heads2019
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey21.5131000 t2019
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter16.9711000 t2018
cheese67.341000 t2018
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs1 962t2019
freshwater fishes5 412t2019
TOP

Minerals


Secondary and tertiary sector.
Small amounts of gold are mined and iron ore reserves are being exploited. Offshore oil prospecting is under way. There are two pipelines connecting the country to Argentine gas fields.
The most important industries are food processing, mechanical, wood pulp and paper production. At La Teja there is an oil refinery; cement plants are active at Montevideo, Minas, Pan de Azúcar, Paysandú.
Uruguay exports meat, soya, flour and malt, cellulose, wool, dairy products and other food products, rice. Several tax-free zones have been created to attract new investments. The main trading partners are China, Brazil and Argentina. The Central Bank of Uruguay is the national bank. Banking privacy laws are enforced in Uruguay. There is a stock exchange in Montevideo.
Tourism is important (seaside resorts in Punta del Este and Piriápolis); about 60% of tourists come from Argentina.

Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
iron ore6$1000 t2019
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bentonite6.71000 t2019
clay1.761000 t2018
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
dolomite14.51000 t2018
granite1.981000 t2018
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gold400kg2018
precious stones - kg12 610 000kg2018
TOP

Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro8 026.92M kWh2019
- other renew.7 691M kWh2019
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- other renew.2 235.271000 kW2019
- hydro1 5381000 kW2019
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation15 989.58M kWh2019
total installed capacity4 918.031000 kW2018
TOP

Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
steel, crude47$1000 t2020
sulfur, rec.3$1000 t2010
Industry - Machinery and transport equipment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mopeds16 816no.2013
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen75$1000 t2019
petrol656.41000 t2014
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
phosphate fertilizers18.51000 t2019
superphosphates1001000 t2016
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley101.21000 t2018
cottonseed oil0.11000 t2018
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes5 718M units2003
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemical pulp2 6181000 t2019
other paper54$1000 t2019
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement8121000 t2018
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production799.691M US$2016
food, beverages and tobacco production2 985.847M US$2016
TOP

Trade

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
food products65.397% of goods exports2019
manufactures18.081% of goods exports2019
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Brazil1 099M US$2009
Argentina346M US$2009
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Argentina1 628M US$2009
Brazil1 460M US$2009
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20206 853M US$ -
20197 680M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20207 565M US$ -
20198 246M US$ -
TOP

Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures1 480M US$2019
Number of arrivals3 056 000units2019
TOP

Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown7 600 000km flown2006
Gas pipelines257km2013
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers292.458per 1000 pop.2019
Computers136.1per 1000 pop.2005
TOP

Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling16.836years2017
Graduates15 091units2017
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Students, primary level304 309units2017
Students, secondary level356 952units2017
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending56.5% of total expenses2001
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds2.43per 1000 pop.2017
Physicians5$per 1000 pop.2018
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV0.6% of adults2018
HIV, total0.2%2001
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.419% of GDP2018
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking100%2019
Access to electricity99.9%2019
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
food, non-alcoholic beverages19.5%2005-06
health12.1%2005-06
TOP