Form of Government: Republic
Area: 176 215 sq km
Population: 3 493 205 inhab. (estimate 2017)
Density: 19.82 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 30° - 35° S; long. 58° - 53° W
Capital: Montevideo (capital) 1 381 228 inhab. (2017); Montevideo 1 736 989 inhab. (2018), urban agglomeration
Currency: Uruguayan peso (100 centésimos)
Human development index: 0.804 (rank: 55)
President and head of government: Tabaré Ramón Vázquez Rosas (FA), elected 30 November 2014, in office since 1 March 2015
Chamber of Deputies: seats based on the elections of 26 October 2014: FA (Broad Front, left-wing), 50; PN (National Party, "The Whites", conservative-centrists), 32; PC (Coloured Party, liberal-conservatives), 13; PI (Independent Party), 3; Popular Assembly, 1
Internet: www.ine.gub.uy (Instituto Nacional de Estadística)
Member of Mercosur, OAS, UN, UNASUR, WTO

Uruguay

Uruguay, República Oriental del Uruguay
Useful information

International license plate code ROU
International dialling code 00598
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (required only if traveling from a country with risk of transmission)
Electricity (Voltage) 220
Driving side rigth
Internet code .uy

GMT  -3
DST  -2
DST duration (start-end) early October-mid March (Sunday 9)

Annual average temperature (°C) Montevideo 16.6
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Montevideo 23/11
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Montevideo 5/10
Annual average precipitation (mm) Montevideo 1110
Days of rainfall (annual average) Montevideo 78

Geography.
Uruguay is bordered by Brazil to the north and east, Argentina to the west, and it has a coastline on the Atlantic Ocean to the south-east. The country, mostly rolling plains, contains some long, thin hilly areas to the north and east. The most important river is the Uruguay which meets the Paraná to form the Río de la Plata (River Plate) estuary. The climate is temperate and moderately rainy.

Government


A former Spanish colony, Uruguay has been independent since 25 August 1825. Following a series of coups from 1973 onwards, democracy was re-established in 1984.
A left-wing coalition (Broad Front) has been in government since 2004, under T.R. Vázquez from 2005 to 2010 and then again from 2015, and under J. Mujica from 2010 to 2015; the coalition is implementing a programme of social and economic reforms. In accordance with the Constitution which was approved by referendum on 27 November 1966 and came into force on 15 February 1967, executive power resides in the President of the Republic, who is elected by direct suffrage and remains in office for a five-year term. Legislative power lies with the General Assembly, which consists of two chambers, each of them elected for five years using a system of proportional representation: the Chamber of Deputies (99 members) and the Senate (30 members, plus the Vice-President of the Republic).


Defence and justice.
The legal system is based on the Spanish system.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force11.8%2017
Army64.7%2017
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Homicides8.5per 100 000 pop.2017
Police personnel676.7per 100 000 pop.2015
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Montevideo1 381 228inhab.2017
Salto104 011inhab.2011
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Montevideo1 736 989inhab.2018
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2018)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE

Around 40% of the population is of Italian origin. There are approximately 500 000 Uruguayans who live abroad.

Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate13.12017
Death rate9.42017
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
white84.4%2011
black7.3%2011


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Catholic42%2014
belief in God (no specific religious affiliation)37%2014


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Spanish
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years19.9%2018
15-29 years23.1%2018


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Economy


Economic situation.
Economic growth is closely linked to the trend in exports. The main driver of the economy is still agricultural produce grown for export.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)118.34index2016
Balance of trade-1 395.3M US$2018
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population1 765 243units2018
Active population, Females45.4%2018
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate8%2018
Unemployment rate, Females55.5%2018
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses480 637M LCU2017
Revenues422 424M LCU2017
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture8.7%2018
industry19.7%2018
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture5.7%2017
industry26.8%2017
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation80.08BN LCU2018
International reserves15 556.5M US$2018
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Agriculture


Primary sector.
Livestock farming (especially cattle and sheep) is the country’s main resource; meat, dairy products and wool for export come from this. The most profitable crop is soya, which is largely exported. There are some cereal crops (wheat, rice and maize), vines (in Montevideo and Canelones), fruit farming (citrus fruits, apples and peaches), potatoes and sugar cane. Caviar export is also important.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land14%2015
forests10.54%2015
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley3851000 t2017
cereals, total2 669.7011000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes90.7721000 t2017
roots and tubers, total169.9891000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages3.7631000 t2017
carrots and turnips25.41000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry3.4481000 t2017
beans, green1.1611000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes95.6911000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Olive
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
olives6.3241000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts1.8231000 t2017
rapeseed521000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane357.0971000 t2017
tobacco3.2361000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton0.0041000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
linseed4.771000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples45.1281000 t2017
fruits, total476.1751000 t2014
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits264.0521000 t2017
grapefruits1.0741000 t2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley1441000 ha2017
maize801000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes4.5841000 ha2017
sweet potatoes9.8671000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages0.3921000 ha2017
carrots and turnips1.21000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry5.441000 ha2017
beans, green0.3561000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape6.5621000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Olive
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
olive3.021000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts3.3821000 ha2017
rapeseed511000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane6.6541000 ha2017
tobacco0.8371000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton0.0011000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
linseed3.8831000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples2.8031000 ha2017
peaches1.3961000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits14.4641000 ha2017
grapefruits0.0771000 ha2017
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber15 895 7682017
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle11 7391000 heads2017
cattle and buffaloes11 7391000 heads2017
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs1751000 heads2017
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep6 5651000 heads2017
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats17.8341000 heads2017
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses1.6431000 heads2017
asses and mules5.7141000 heads2017
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds33 8301000 heads2017
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey19.61000 t2014
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter31.6141000 t2014
cheese80.21000 t2014
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs919t2017
freshwater fishes3 456t2017
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Minerals


Secondary and tertiary sector.
Small amounts of gold are mined and iron ore reserves are being exploited. Offshore oil prospecting is under way. There are two pipelines connecting the country to Argentine gas fields.
The most important industries are food processing, mechanical, wood pulp and paper production. At La Teja there is an oil refinery; cement plants are active at Montevideo, Minas, Pan de Azúcar, Paysandú.
Uruguay exports meat, soya, flour and malt, cellulose, wool, dairy products and other food products. Several tax-free zones have been created to attract new investments.
The main trading partners are China, Brazil and Argentina. The Central Bank of Uruguay is the national bank.
In 2007 the central bank took part in the setting up of the Banco del Sur, a credit institution aimed at financing development projects. Banking privacy laws are enforced in Uruguay. There is a stock exchange in Montevideo. Tourism is also important (seaside resorts in Punta del Este and Piriápolis); about 60% of tourists come from Argentina.

Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
iron ore2.51000 t2017
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bentonite6.61000 t2017
clay2.41000 t2017
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
dolomite15.11000 t2017
granite2.81000 t2017
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gold2 000kg2017
precious stones - kg13 030 000kg2017
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro7 764M kWh2016
- other renew.4 953M kWh2016
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- other renew.1 7401000 kW2016
- hydro1 5381000 kW2016
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation13 133.42M kWh2016
total installed capacity4 8081000 kW2016
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
steel, crude601000 t2018
sulfur, rec.31000 t2010
Industry - Machinery and transport equipment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mopeds16 816no.2013
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen40.91000 t2016
petrol656.41000 t2014
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
phosphate fertilizers201000 t2016
superphosphates1001000 t2016
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley971000 t2014
fish, frozen69.71000 t2003
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes5 718M units2003
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemical pulp2 6441000 t2017
chemi-mechanical pulp2 6441000 t2017
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement7401000 t2016
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production725.5M US$2014
food, beverages and tobacco production3 057.1M US$2014
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Trade

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
food products63.490% of goods exports2017
manufactures20.220% of goods exports2017
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Brazil1 099M US$2009
Argentina346M US$2009
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Argentina1 628M US$2009
Brazil1 460M US$2009
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20187 498M US$ -
20177 888M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20188 893M US$ -
20178 458M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures1 356M US$2017
Number of arrivals3 674 000units2017
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown7 600 000km flown2006
Civil aviation, passengers carried744.21000 units2010
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers274.817per 1000 pop.2017
Computers136.1per 1000 pop.2005
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling16.3years2016
Graduates12 665units2016
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level27 832units2016
Teachers, secondary level25 390units2010
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending56.5% of total expenses2001
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds2.8per 1000 pop.2014
Physicians3.6per 1000 pop.2017
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV0.6% of adults2017
HIV, total0.2%2001
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.36% of GDP2015
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking97.97%2016
Access to electricity100%2017
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
food, non-alcoholic beverages19.5%2005-06
health12.1%2005-06
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