Form of Government: Republic
Area: 93 023 sq km
Population: 9 778 371 inhab. (estimate 2018)
Density: 105.12 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 49° - 46° N; long. 16° - 23° E
Capital: Budapest (capital) 1 749 734 inhab. (2018); Budapest 2 587 904 inhab. (2016), urban agglomeration
Currency: forint (100 fillér)
Human development index: 0.838 (rank: 45)
President: János Áder (Fidesz), since 2 May 2012, re-elected 13 March 2017
Prime Minister: Viktor Orbán (Fidesz), since 29 May 2012, re-elected 8 April 2018
National Assembly: seats (August 2019 update): Fidesz-KDNP (Hungarian Civic Union-Christian Democratic People’s party, right-wing), 133; Jobbik (Movement for a better Hungary, extreme right-wing), 22; MSzP-Dialogue (coalition led by socialists and greens, centre-left), 20; DK (liberal, democrats), 8; LMP (green-liberal), 6; others, 10
Internet: portal.ksh.hu (Hungarian Central Statistical Office)
Member of Council of Europe, EBRD, EU, NATO, OAS observer, OECD, OSCE, UN, WTO

Hungary

Magyarország
Useful information

International license plate code H
International dialling code 0036
Travel vaccinations requirement none
Electricity (Voltage) 230
Driving side rigth
Internet code .hu

GMT  +1
DST  +2
DST duration (start-end) late March-late October

Annual average temperature (°C) Budapest 11.2
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Budapest -1.5/22
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Budapest 9/1
Annual average precipitation (mm) Budapest 610
Days of rainfall (annual average) Budapest 90

Politics and current affairs

Despite the European Parliament rebuking its policies on 12 September 2018, Orbán’s government (Fidesz) established a new administrative court on 12 December 2018 that is nominated by the government, undermining judicial independence. The decision was met with widespread protests, as well as a new law that increases the cap on overtime. Orbán’s strong political positions, including closing a university founded by investor George Soros and measures to criminalize immigration, led to his party’s suspension from the European People’s Party. However, Orbán was awarded in the European elections on 26 May 2019, during which Fidesz took 52.3% of the votes.

Geography.
Hungary is bordered to the north by Slovakia, to the north-east by the Ukraine, to the east by Romania, to the south by Serbia, to the southwest by Croatia and Slovenia and to the west by Austria. The country contains the northern part of the Pannonian basin. To the west the Bakony Forest meets Lake Balaton, while in the south there is the Mecsek, an isolated group of hills. The country is crossed by the River Danube from north to south; the River Tisza flows to the east and the River Drava flows through the south-west. The climate is continental, characterized by hot, rainy summers and cold winters.

Government


Formerly part of the Austro-Hungarian empire, Hungary has been independent since 16 November 1918. A People’s Republic from 1947, it withdrew from the Soviet bloc in 1988-89 and in 1990, after free elections, democratic institutions were set up. On 1 May 2004 Hungary joined the EU.
According to the Constitution of 1 January 2012, which replaced the one drawn up in 1949 (amended in 1989), executive power lies in the hands of the Prime Minister and his ministers, who are responsible to the National Assembly (199 deputies elected by direct suffrage for a four-year term); this body elects the President of the Republic, who serves a five-year term. In March 2013 the National Assembly adopted amendments to the Constitution that limited the power of the Constitutional Court as well as certain political and civil freedoms.


Defence and justice.
Military service is voluntary.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force22.2%2015
Army38.9%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes2 043.6per 100 000 pop.2018
Homicides1.9per 100 000 pop.2016
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Budapest1 749 734inhab.2018
Debrecen202 214inhab.2018
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Budapest2 587 904inhab.2016
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2018)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate9.22018
Death rate13.42018
Foreigners
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Foreigners, total161 809units2018
Romanians22 747units2018
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hungarian85.6%2011
other8.1%2011


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Catholic38.9%2011
other28%2011


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Hungarian
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years14.7%2018
15-29 years17.1%2018


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Economy


Economic situation.
Following a peak in growth in 2018 (+4.9%), the economy should slow to 3.7% in 2019 and 2.8% in 2020. A new fiscal stimulus and a policy of child benefits were introduced.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)88.1index2016
Balance of trade4 591.1M US$2018
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population4 641 600units2018
Active population, Females45.4%2018
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate3.7%2018
Unemployment rate, Females48.8%2018
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses14 012 198M LCU2018
Revenues13 026 177M LCU2018
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture4.8%2018
industry32.4%2018
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture4.3%2018
industry31.2%2018
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation6 116.8BN LCU2018
International reserves31 366.6M US$2018
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Agriculture


Primary sector
Agriculture and livestock.
The most important crops are cereals (wheat and maize); other industrial scale production worthy of note includes sugar beets and tobacco. Wine production is concentrated in western and northern areas, with the highly-prized wine (Tokaji) which is widely produced and exported.
The most prevalent oil crops are sunflower seeds, soya beans and rapeseed. Livestock is mostly extensive farming and the cattle roam free (in the Puszta and Alföld areas).

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land50.65%2015
forests22.85%2015
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley1 404.3561000 t2017
cereals, total14 029.4341000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes402.8531000 t2017
roots and tubers, total402.8531000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asparagus5.0121000 t2017
cabbages54.5441000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry1.8431000 t2017
beans, green23.0361000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes404.91000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts0.0031000 t2017
rapeseed881.9611000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mustard seed31000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hops0.0031000 t2017
sugar beet1 075.6251000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
flax fibre and tow0.0161000 t2017
linseed0.9911000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hemp tow waste0.3321000 t2017
hempseed0.4161000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples459.6121000 t2017
apricots22.1281000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
almonds0.2251000 t2017
hazelnuts0.0491000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Others
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mushrooms31.0021000 t2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley266.3081000 ha2017
maize988.061000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes16.3641000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages2.3621000 ha2017
carrots and turnips2.0121000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry0.9251000 ha2017
beans, green1.8121000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape68.1151000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts0.0031000 ha2017
rapeseed256.5341000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mustard seed4.111000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hops0.0011000 ha2017
sugar beet15.9411000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
flax fibre and tow0.0351000 ha2017
linseed1.1681000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hemp tow waste0.2561000 ha2017
hempseed1.4031000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples32.0851000 ha2017
apricots4.9071000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
almonds0.1961000 ha2017
hazelnuts0.1451000 ha2017
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber5 586 1692017
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle8521000 heads2017
cattle and buffaloes8521000 heads2017
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs2 9071000 heads2017
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep1 1411000 heads2017
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats811000 heads2017
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses41000 heads2017
asses and mules4.1771000 heads2017
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds40 1851000 heads2017
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey171000 t2014
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter4.311000 t2014
cheese93.0821000 t2014
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
freshwater fishes23 703.2t2017
total catch23 864.5t2017
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Minerals


Secondary sector
Minerals.
There are deposits of oil, natural gas and lignite, whose exploitation is stable, but reduced compared to the past. Other mineral resources include bauxite, manganese, bentonite, dolomite and limestone.
Energy and industry.
Nearly half the energy consumption relies on sources of imported energy, in particular on oil and gas that are transported from Russia across a gas pipeline network and the Druzhba oil pipeline, whose flow was temporarily interrupted in April 2019 due to the presence of contaminants. At Páks there is a nuclear power plant with four reactors, which generate half of the electricity produced in the country, and that the government planned to implement through the construction of two new reactors, also thanks to Russian investments.
The largest sectors of industry are machinery and chemical manufacturing, while the steel industry and metalworking have lost most of their importance. At Budapest, Debrecen and Tiszavasvári there are some pharmaceutical plants. Oil refineries are in operation at Tiszaújváros and Százhalombatta. The automotive sector plays a primary role, thanks to factories and huge investments from major companies such as Audi, General Motors and Mercedes, which nevertheless faced a wave of strikes in 2018-19.
The electronics industry is also important, with several factories operated by foreign multinationals (Philips, IBM, Matsushita). In terms of food production the most notable areas include sugar production and distilleries. There are also important export industries, sausages (Hungarian salami) and preserves. Noteworthy are the manufacture of tobacco products, the rubber industry and paper mills.

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coal, total7 9121000 t2018
lignite7 9121000 t2018
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
alumina501000 t2015
bauxite171000 t2016
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bentonite81000 t2016
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
diatomite11000 t2017
dolomite6 9071000 t2016
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- nuclear15 183M kWh2016
- thermal11 562M kWh2016
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal5 6331000 kW2016
- nuclear1 8891000 kW2016
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation30 224M kWh2016
total installed capacity8 6391000 kW2016
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
aluminium471000 t2014
coke, metall.8911000 t2016
Industry - Machinery and transport equipment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bikes144 000no.2016
cars430 988no.2018
Industry - Electrical and electronics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
air conditioners1 810 000no.2015
computers206 000no.2016
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen5181000 t2016
petrol1 532.91000 t2014
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ammonia3651000 t2016
caustic soda282.61000 t2014
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
carpets3281000 m²2016
cotton fabrics10.5M m²2016
Industry - Clothing and footwear
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
footwear7 718 000pairs2017
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley623.91000 t2014
cottonseed oil0.31000 t2014
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes12 118.6M units2004
cigars and cigarettes12 118.6M units2004
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
other paper8061000 t2017
paper8061000 t2017
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement2 0001000 t2016
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production2 936.2M US$2016
food, beverages and tobacco production2 383.2M US$2016
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Trade


Tertiary sector
Foreign trade.
The main trading partners are Germany, Slovakia, Italy, Austria and Poland.


Main exports (M US$ - 2017) electrical and electronic equipment 19 767, machinery and home appliances 17 332, cars 11 270, vehicles and parts thereof 8 023, pharmaceuticals 5 209, plastics 4 365, technical and electro-medical appliances 4 171, computers and accessories 3 377, telecommunications equipment 3 295, chemicals 3 281, iron and steel 3 155, tyres and rubber articles 2 554, furniture and accessories 1 786, cereals 1 731, aluminium 1 502, petroleum products 1 434, meat 1 096


Finance and banking.
Most of the banking segment is foreign owned. There is a stock exchange in Budapest.

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufactures87.027% of goods exports2018
food products7.654% of goods exports2018
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Germany33 729M US$2018
Slovakia6 417M US$2018
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Germany29 392M US$2018
Austria7 148M US$2018
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
2018125 864M US$ -
2017113 806M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
2018121 273M US$ -
2017107 519M US$ -
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Tourism


Tourism. The main tourist destinations are Budapest and Lake Balaton.

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures2 975M US$2017
Number of arrivals5 650 000units2017
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown52 300 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried26 066.31000 units2017
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers304.126per 1000 pop.2017
Computers256per 1000 pop.2008
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Social and welfare


Education, culture & research.
Education is compulsory between the ages of 6 and 18.

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling15.1years2016
Gradautes, percentage24.1%2017
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level36 632units2016
Teachers, secondary level80 741units2016
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending31% of total expenses2016
Social protection spending19.4% of GDP2018
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds7per 1000 pop.2018
Physicians4.1per 1000 pop.2018
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV-0.1% of adults2017
HIV, total0.02%2001
Museums
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Museums686units2017
Museums, visitors10 782 000units2017
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending1.35% of GDP2017
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking100%2016
Access to electricity100%2017
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear3.8%2017
education1.6%2017
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