Form of Government: Republic
Area: 93 024 sq km
Population: 9 730 772 inhab. (estimate 2021)
Density: 104.61 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 49° - 46° N; long. 16° - 23° E
Capital: Budapest (capital) 1 752 286 inhab. (2019); Budapest 2 608 485 inhab. (2018), urban agglomeration
Currency: forint (100 fillér)
Human development index: 0.854 (rank: 40)
President: János Áder (Fidesz), since 2 May 2012, re-elected 13 March 2017
Prime Minister: Viktor Orbán (Fidesz), since 29 May 2012, re-elected 8 April 2018
National Assembly: seats (August 2021 update): Fidesz-KDNP (Hungarian Civic Union-Christian Democratic People’s party, right-wing), 133; MSzP-Dialogue (coalition led by socialists and greens, centre-left), 20; Jobbik (Movement for a better Hungary, extreme right-wing), 17; DK (liberal, democrats), 9; LMP (green-liberal), 6; others, 14
Internet: portal.ksh.hu (Hungarian Central Statistical Office)
Member of Council of Europe, EBRD, EU, NATO, OAS observer, OECD, OSCE, UN, WTO

Hungary

Magyarország
Useful information

International license plate code H
International dialling code 0036
Travel vaccinations requirement none
Electricity (Voltage) 230
Driving side rigth
Internet code .hu

GMT  +1
DST  +2
DST duration (start-end) late March-late October

Annual average temperature (°C) Budapest 11.2
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Budapest -1.5/22
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Budapest 9/1
Annual average precipitation (mm) Budapest 610
Days of rainfall (annual average) Budapest 90

Politics and current affairs

Clashes persist between Viktor Orbán (Fidesz) and the EU. In June 2021, the Hungarian parliament approved a controversial law proposed by the government to prohibit the “promotion of homosexuality and gender fluidity” in schools and in children’s films and books. The European Commission has started two infringement procedures against the law. The decision to administer Chinese (Sinopharm, with which Orbán was vaccinated) and Russian vaccines (Sputnik-V) without the approval of the European Medicines Agency has been hotly debated.
In March 2021, Fidesz left the PPE (European People’s Party). In view of the 2022 elections, various opposition parties are expected to form an electoral alliance. The primaries are expected to take place in the autumn.

Geography.
Hungary is bordered to the north by Slovakia, to the north-east by the Ukraine, to the east by Romania, to the south by Serbia, to the southwest by Croatia and Slovenia and to the west by Austria. The country contains the northern part of the Pannonian basin. To the west the Bakony Forest meets Lake Balaton, while in the south there is the Mecsek, an isolated group of hills. The country is crossed by the River Danube from north to south; the River Tisza flows to the east and the River Drava flows through the south-west. The climate is continental, characterized by hot, rainy summers and cold winters.

Government


Formerly part of the Austro-Hungarian empire, Hungary has been independent since 16 November 1918. A People’s Republic from 1947, it withdrew from the Soviet bloc in 1988-89 and in 1990, after free elections, democratic institutions were set up. On 1 May 2004 Hungary joined the EU.
According to the Constitution of 1 January 2012, which replaced the one drawn up in 1949 (amended in 1989), executive power lies in the hands of the Prime Minister and his ministers, who are responsible to the National Assembly (199 deputies elected by direct suffrage for a four-year term); this body elects the President of the Republic, who serves a five-year term. In March 2013 the National Assembly adopted amendments to the Constitution that limited the power of the Constitutional Court as well as certain political and civil freedoms. Since December 2020, the constitutional definition of “family” applies solely to a union between a man and a woman.


Defence and justice.
Military service is voluntary.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force22.2%2015
Army38.9%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes1 662.5per 100 000 pop.2020
Homicides0.9per 100 000 pop.2018
TOP

Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Budapest1 752 286inhab.2019
Debrecen201 432inhab.2019
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Budapest2 608 485inhab.2018
TOP

Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2020)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate9.52020
Death rate14.52020
Foreigners
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Foreigners, total194 491units2021
Ukrainians27 380units2021
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hungarian85.6%2011
other8.1%2011


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Catholic38.9%2011
other28$%2011


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Hungarian
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years14.6%2020
15-29 years16.7%2020


TOP

Economy


Economic situation.
The sizeable economic slump in 2020 due to the international health crisis (-5%) follows years of strong growth. The economy is expected to return to grow in 2021 (+4.3%).

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)88.1index2016
Agricultural prod. index (2014-16=100)96.86index2019
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population4 658 500units2020
Active population, Females44.9%2020
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate4.3%2020
Unemployment rate, Females47.5%2020
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses18 628 068M LCU2020
Revenues15 158 388M LCU2020
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture4.757%2020
industry31.905%2020
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture4.082%2020
industry29.868%2020
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation7 290.709BN LCU2020
International reserves41 349.416M US$2020
TOP

Agriculture


Primary sector
Agriculture & livestock.
The most important crops are cereals (wheat and maize); other industrial scale production worthy of note includes sugar beets and tobacco. Wine production is concentrated in western and northern areas, with the highly-prized wine (Tokaji) which is widely produced and exported. The most prevalent oil crops are sunflower seeds, soya beans and rapeseed. Livestock is mostly extensive farming and the cattle roam free.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land50.888%2018
forests23.265%2018
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley1 383.261000 t2019
cereals, total15 650.011000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes343.541000 t2019
roots and tubers, total343.541000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
artichokes0.041000 t2019
asparagus5.851000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry1.5621000 t2018
beans, green14.981000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes457.251000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts0.0041000 t2018
rapeseed912.121000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mustard seed3.541000 t2018
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hops0.0031000 t2017
sugar beet823.51000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
flax fibre and tow0.0161000 t2017
linseed1.481000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hemp tow waste0.131000 t2019
hempseed0.391000 t2018
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples498.331000 t2019
apricots25.491000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
almonds0.131000 t2019
hazelnuts0.171000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Others
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mushrooms26.911000 t2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley247.371000 ha2019
maize1 027.591000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes13.291000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
artichokes0.011000 ha2019
cabbages2.551000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry0.831000 ha2018
beans, green1.551000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape64.921000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts0.0061000 ha2018
rapeseed300.61000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mustard seed4.31000 ha2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hops0.0011000 ha2017
sugar beet14.081000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
flax fibre and tow0.0351000 ha2017
linseed1.071000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hemp tow waste0.111000 ha2019
hempseed1.6061000 ha2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples30.971000 ha2019
apricots4.991000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
almonds0.311000 ha2019
hazelnuts0.371000 ha2019
TOP

Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber5 856 0042019
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle9091000 heads2019
cattle and buffaloes9151000 heads2019
Livestock - Buffaloes
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
buffaloes6$1000 heads2019
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs2 6341000 heads2019
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep1 0611000 heads2019
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats63$1000 heads2019
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses4$1000 heads2018
asses and mules4.1761000 heads2018
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds40 6331000 heads2018
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey29$1000 t2018
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter6.3591000 t2018
cheese109.9171000 t2018
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
freshwater fishes21 925.54t2019
total catch22 099.305t2019
TOP

Minerals


Secondary sector
Minerals.
There are deposits of oil, natural gas and lignite, whose exploitation is stable, but reduced compared to the past. Other mineral resources include bauxite, manganese, bentonite, dolomite and limestone.
Energy and industry.
Nearly half the energy consumption relies on sources of imported energy, in particular on oil and gas that are transported from Russia across a gas pipeline network and the Druzhba oil pipeline. The country has joined the project to extend the TurkStream gas pipeline to central Europe. At Páks there is a nuclear power plant with four reactors, which generate almost half of the electricity produced in the country, and that the government planned to implement through the construction of two new reactors, also thanks to Russian investments (Rosatom). The largest sectors of industry are machinery and chemical manufacturing, while the steel industry and metalworking have lost most of their importance. At Budapest, Debrecen and Tiszavasvári there are some pharmaceutical plants. An oil refinery is in operation at Százhalombatta. The automotive sector plays a primary role, thanks to factories and huge investments from major companies such as Audi, General Motors and Mercedes. The electronics industry is also important, with several factories operated by foreign multinationals (Philips, IBM, Matsushita). In terms of food production the most notable areas include sugar production and distilleries. There are also important export industries, sausages (Hungarian salami) and preserves. Noteworthy are the manufacture of tobacco products, the rubber industry and paper mills.

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coal, total6 1251000 t2020
lignite6 1251000 t2020
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bauxite5$1000 t2019
manganese19$1000 t2016
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bentonite18$1000 t2019
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
diatomite1$1000 t2019
dolomite6 1001000 t2018
TOP

Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- nuclear15 414.83M kWh2019
- thermal12 054.56M kWh2019
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal5 5581000 kW2018
- other renew.2 1711000 kW2019
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation32 413.4M kWh2019
total installed capacity9 1371000 kW2018
TOP

Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
alumina2701000 t2019
aluminium47$1000 t2014
Industry - Machinery and transport equipment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bikes144 000no.2016
cars406 497no.2020
Industry - Electrical and electronics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
air conditioners1 810 000no.2015
computers206 000no.2016
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen4041000 t2018
petrol1 532.91000 t2014
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ammonia3701000 t2019
caustic soda282.61000 t2014
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
carpets3281000 m²2016
cotton fabrics1$M m²2018
Industry - Clothing and footwear
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
footwear7 347 000pairs2018
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley6501000 t2018
cottonseed oil0.21000 t2017
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes12 118.6M units2004
cigars and cigarettes12 118.6M units2004
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
other paper846.7631000 t2019
paper846.7631000 t2019
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement1 6701000 t2018
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production3 920.634M US$2018
food, beverages and tobacco production2 896.753M US$2018
TOP

Trade


Tertiary sector
Foreign trade.
The main trading partner is Germany, followed by Slovakia, Italy, Romania, China and Austria.


Main exports (M US$ - 2017) electrical and electronic equipment 19 767, machinery and home appliances 17 332, cars 11 270, vehicles and parts thereof 8 023, pharmaceuticals 5 209, plastics 4 365, technical and electro-medical appliances 4 171, computers and accessories 3 377, telecommunications equipment 3 295, chemicals 3 281, iron and steel 3 155


Finance and banking.
Most of the banking segment is foreign owned. There is a stock exchange in Budapest.

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufactures86.86% of goods exports2019
food products7.976% of goods exports2019
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Germany33 383M US$2020
Slovakia6 388M US$2020
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Germany27 876M US$2020
China8 720M US$2020
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
2020120 365M US$ -
2019123 797M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
2020115 480M US$ -
2019120 590M US$ -
TOP

Tourism


Tourism. The main tourist destinations are Budapest and Lake Balaton.

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures3 391M US$2019
Number of arrivals16 937 000units2019
TOP

Communications


Transport.
China has financed the renewal of the Budapest-Belgrade railway line.

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown52 300 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried39 803.41000 units2019
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers329.354per 1000 pop.2019
Computers256per 1000 pop.2008
TOP

Social and welfare


Education, culture & research.
Education is compulsory between the ages of 6 and 18.

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling15.129years2018
Gradautes, percentage25.982%2019
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Students, primary level373 837units2018
Students, secondary level808 569units2018
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending28.539% of total expenses2018
Social protection spending18.098% of GDP2019
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds6.94per 1000 pop.2019
Physicians4.23per 1000 pop.2019
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV-0.1% of adults2018
HIV, total0.02%2001
Museums
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Museums700units2019
Museums, visitors11 563 000units2019
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending1.48% of GDP2019
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking100%2019
Access to electricity100%2019
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear3.6%2019
education1.7%2019
TOP