Form of Government: Republic
Area: 241 551 sq km
Population: 41 583 600 inhab. (estimate 2020)
Density: 172.15 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 4° N - 1° S; long. 29° - 35° E
Capital: Kampala (capital) 1 680 600 inhab. (2020);
Currency: Uganda shilling (100 cents)
Human development index: 0.544 (rank: 159)
President and head of government: Yoweri Museveni (NRM), since 29 January 1986, elected 9 May 1996, last reconfirmed 14 January 2021
Prime Minister: Robinah Nabbanja (NRM), since 8 June 2021
National Assembly: seats based on the elections of 14 January 2021: NRM (National Resistance Movement), 336; NUP (National Unity Platform), 57; FDC (Forum for Democratic Change), 32; DP (Democratic Party), 9; UPC (Uganda People's Congress), 9; others, 2; independents, 74; armed forces, 10
Internet: www.ubos.org (Uganda Bureau of Statistics)
Member of AU, COMESA, Commonwealth, EAC, OIC, UN, WTO

Uganda

Uganda, Republic of Uganda, Jamhuri ya Uganda
Useful information

International license plate code EAU
International dialling code 00256
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (recommended; it is also required if traveling from a country with risk of transmission); malaria prophylaxis (recommended)
Electricity (Voltage) 240
Driving side left
Internet code .ug

GMT  +3
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Kampala 21.5
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Kampala 22/20.5
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Kampala 6/7
Annual average precipitation (mm) Kampala 1580
Days of rainfall (annual average) Kampala 127

Politics and current affairs

Serious violence broke out and violations of the rule of law occurred in the lead up to the elections held on 14 January 2021, which resulted in the confirmation of President Y. Museveni.

Geography.
Uganda is bordered by South Sudan to the north, Kenya to the east, Tanzania to the south, Rwanda to the southwest and the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the west. The country consists of a vast plateau which rises in the west until it reaches the peak of Mount Ruwenzori (5109 m). There are parts of various large lakes within Uganda: Lake Victoria to the south; Lake Edward and Lake Albert to the west and the whole of Lake Kyoga.
The main river is the White Nile.
The climate is equatorial, varying slightly with altitude.

Government


A former British colony, Uganda became independent within the Commonwealth on 9 October 1962 and the republic was declared on 9 October 1963. On 15 April 1966 the Prime Minister, Milton Obote, took over the Presidency, a position previously reserved for the King of Buganda, which gave rise to a unitary Constitution. From 1971 to 1979 the country was ruled by the dictator Idi Amin Dada, who was later forced to flee. The current political structure of the country stems from the victory on 25 January 1985 of the guerrilla National Resistance Movement led by Yoweri Museveni, which had been fighting since 1981, firstly against Obote (who came back to power in 1980) and then against the army (in power from 1985). The authoritarian regime imposed by Museveni has been ruling the country ever since. A multi-party electoral system, which was thrown out in 2000, was introduced following a referendum on 30 July 2005. The President of the Republic, who is also the head of the executive, is elected by direct suffrage for a five-year term. The Parliament has 529 members elected for five years, of whom 353 are directly elected, 146 are women, 30 represent social categories (10 military, 5 workers, 5 disabled, 5 young people, 5 elderly) and 19 ex officio members.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Army100%2017
Military expenditure2.05% of GDP2019
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes669.1per 100 000 pop.2017
Homicides11.8per 100 000 pop.2017
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Kampala1 680 600inhab.2020
Nansana532 800inhab.2020
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2020)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate37.3772019
Death rate6.3812019
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
other32.1%2014
Baganda16.5%2014


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Catholic39.3%2014
Anglican32$%2014


Languages
DESCRIPTION
English (official)
Luganda
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years48.2%2020
15-29 years27.6%2020


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Economy


Economic situation.
In 2021, the growth rate was positive again after COVID-19 containment measures, which restricted many activities and impacted the already suffering public accounts. In recent years, good harvests and the development of the IT and telecommunications sector have driven growth. The country is investing in boosting exports and improving infrastructure through foreign financers (especially Chinese).

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)91.78index2016
Agricultural prod. index (2014-16=100)99.54index2019
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population16 514 678units2020
Active population, Females49.3%2020
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate2.4%2020
Unemployment rate, Females61.4%2019
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses23 789 000M LCU2019
Revenues17 905 400M LCU2019
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture72.7%2019
industry6.6%2019
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture22.707%2019
industry23.828%2019
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation6 411.511BN LCU2020
International reserves3 358.5M US$2018
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Agriculture


Primary sector
Agriculture and forests.
Agriculture is the most important sector of the economy, favoured by the climate and the fertile soils.
Uganda is one of the world’s largest producers of coffee and tea, which is mostly exported. Other commercial crops grown include cotton, sugar cane, tobacco, oil palm, peanuts and sesame seeds. It has increased the importance of maize and rice, produced for domestic consumption as well as export, and floriculture. The main subsistence-level crops are bananas, cassava, potatoes and sweet potatoes, sorghum, millet and dried beans. Forests are also an important resource providing mahogany and other types of hardwood and a small amount of rubber.
Livestock and fishing.
There is livestock farming, using rather backward farming methods, but with a good number of cattle, goats, sheep and pigs.
Fishing, which takes place on inland waters (especially Lake Victoria), is an important source of food.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land45.382%2018
forests12.071%2018
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cereals, total3 461.6871000 t2019
maize2 5751000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava2 841.6251000 t2019
potatoes181.9041000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chillies and peppers3.81000 t2008
onions, dry371.5991000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry979.7891000 t2019
chick peas5.5491000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
castor oil seed1.0131000 t2019
groundnuts1601000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cocoa35$1000 t2019
coffee254.0881000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane4 892.0471000 t2019
tobacco31.921000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton1031000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sisal0.0051000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fruits, total4 025.121000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bananas544.6291000 t2019
pineapples4.0721000 t2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
maize951.0811000 ha2019
millet173.4171000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava1 255.1071000 ha2019
potatoes43.9531000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chillies and peppers4.21000 ha2008
onions, dry93.9181000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry539.661000 ha2019
chick peas8.7871000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
castor oil seed3.0441000 ha2019
groundnuts3201000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cocoa72.3691000 ha2019
coffee469.3641000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane70.9641000 ha2019
tobacco25.1271000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton90$1000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sisal0.0021000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bananas130.2241000 ha2019
pineapples0.4811000 ha2019
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber49 507 0582019
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle16 334.3371000 heads2019
cattle and buffaloes16 334.3371000 heads2019
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs2 746.4531000 heads2019
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep2 069.5831000 heads2019
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats16 701.1721000 heads2019
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses19.5871000 heads2019
asses and mules19.5871000 heads2019
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds37 0381000 heads2019
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter0.4811000 t2018
condensed milk288t2018
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
freshwater fishes706 166.7t2019
total catch706 166.7t2019
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Minerals


Secondary and tertiary sector.
Mining has been developing thanks to the involvement of foreign companies.
Gold is extracted using artisanal methods (in Ntungamo). Large quantities of cobalt are mined in the waste accumulated in the now-inactive copper mine in Kilembe. Other minerals found include tungsten (Kabale), iron ore (Kanungu), pozzolan (Kabarole, Kapchorwa) and vermiculite (Manafwa).
At Sukulu, near Tororo, there is apatite, which is used for the production of fertilizers. There is some salt production (Lake Katwe, Kasenyi, and Lake Albert). Uranium deposits have been found (in the Gamba Hills, in Karamoja, at Kabale and in Bunyoro). Test-boring in the south-east of the country (Kaiso-Tonya) and in the Alberto lake basin has shown there are plenty of crude oil deposits, about to be exploited. There is a great deal of potential for hydroelectric power in Uganda (Isimba and Owen Falls power stations, with one more under construction at Karuma Falls).
Industry is concentrated mainly on processing the local agricultural products. The main cement works are in Hima, Namataba and Tororo, where there is also a plant producing fertilizers. Steel processing is concentrated at Jinja. Gold, mostly of foreign origin, is refined in Entebbe. Textiles, beer (at Jinja), cigarettes, sugar (at Lugazi, Kakira and Sango Bay) and paper are also important products. Uganda exports mostly gold, coffee, fish, maize, tea, cotton and flowers. Imports include machinery and vehicles, chemical products and foodstuffs.

Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beryllium0.0011000 t2020
columbite-tantalite0.3t2019
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
salt15$1000 t2017
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
granite0.0771000 t2018
kaolin17$1000 t2019
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gold12$kg2018
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro3 601.62M kWh2018
- other renew.577M kWh2018
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro7231000 kW2019
- thermal2121000 kW2018
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation4 453.1M kWh2018
total installed capacity1 070.61000 kW2018
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cobalt0.3761000 t2013
gold, metal160kg2013
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
soap102.91000 t2006
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cotton fabrics13.6M m²2005
Industry - Clothing and footwear
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
footwear46 313 000pairs2005
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley3301000 t2018
cottonseed oil10.51000 t2018
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes1 215M units2005
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
paper3$1000 t2011
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement2 5001000 t2018
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production5.3M US$2002
food, beverages and tobacco production51.7M US$2004
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Trade


Principali esportazioni

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
food products55.515% of goods exports2018
manufactures18.27% of goods exports2018
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20203 636M US$ -
20193 472M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20207 480M US$ -
20197 518M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures364M US$2019
Number of arrivals1 850 000units2018
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown2 700 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried19.81000 units2019
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers2.323per 1000 pop.2018
Computers17$per 1000 pop.2008
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling10$years2011
Gradautes, percentage3.4%2006
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Students, primary level8 840 589units2017
Students, secondary level1 370 583units2017
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending1.458% of total expenses2019
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds1.19per 1000 pop.2018
Physicians0.17per 1000 pop.2017
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV5.8% of adults2019
HIV, total6.4%2005
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.144% of GDP2014
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking0.5%2019
Access to electricity41.3%2019
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear2.5%2016-17
education7.8%2016-17
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