Form of Government: Republic
Area: 241 551 sq km
Population: 41 583 600 inhab. (estimate 2020)
Density: 172.15 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 4° N - 1° S; long. 29° - 35° E
Capital: Kampala (capital) 1 680 600 inhab. (2020);
Currency: Uganda shilling (100 cents)
Human development index: 0.544 (rank: 159)
President and head of government: Yoweri Museveni (NRM), since 29 January 1986, elected 9 May 1996, last reconfirmed 14 January 2021
Prime Minister: Robinah Nabbanja (NRM), since 8 June 2021
National Assembly: seats based on the elections of 14 January 2021: NRM (National Resistance Movement), 336; NUP (National Unity Platform), 57; FDC (Forum for Democratic Change), 32; DP (Democratic Party), 9; UPC (Uganda People's Congress), 9; others, 2; independents, 74; armed forces, 10
Internet: www.ubos.org (Uganda Bureau of Statistics)
Member of AU, COMESA, Commonwealth, EAC, OIC, UN, WTO
International license plate code EAU
International dialling code 00256
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (recommended; it is also required if traveling from a country with risk of transmission); malaria prophylaxis (recommended)
Electricity (Voltage) 240
Driving side left
Internet code .ug
DST not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Kampala 21.5
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Kampala 22/20.5
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Kampala 6/7
Annual average precipitation (mm) Kampala 1580
Days of rainfall (annual average) Kampala 127
Politics and current affairs
Serious violence broke out and violations of the rule of law occurred in the lead up to the elections held on 14 January 2021, which resulted in the confirmation of President Y. Museveni.
Uganda is bordered by South Sudan to the north, Kenya to the east, Tanzania to the south, Rwanda to the southwest and the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the west. The country consists of a vast plateau which rises in the west until it reaches the peak of Mount Ruwenzori (5109 m). There are parts of various large lakes within Uganda: Lake Victoria to the south; Lake Edward and Lake Albert to the west and the whole of Lake Kyoga.
The main river is the White Nile.
The climate is equatorial, varying slightly with altitude.
A former British colony, Uganda became independent within the Commonwealth on 9 October 1962 and the republic was declared on 9 October 1963. On 15 April 1966 the Prime Minister, Milton Obote, took over the Presidency, a position previously reserved for the King of Buganda, which gave rise to a unitary Constitution. From 1971 to 1979 the country was ruled by the dictator Idi Amin Dada, who was later forced to flee. The current political structure of the country stems from the victory on 25 January 1985 of the guerrilla National Resistance Movement led by Yoweri Museveni, which had been fighting since 1981, firstly against Obote (who came back to power in 1980) and then against the army (in power from 1985). The authoritarian regime imposed by Museveni has been ruling the country ever since. A multi-party electoral system, which was thrown out in 2000, was introduced following a referendum on 30 July 2005. The President of the Republic, who is also the head of the executive, is elected by direct suffrage for a five-year term. The Parliament has 529 members elected for five years, of whom 353 are directly elected, 146 are women, 30 represent social categories (10 military, 5 workers, 5 disabled, 5 young people, 5 elderly) and 19 ex officio members.
|Kampala||1 680 600||inhab.||2020|
|Population by age and gender (% - 2020)|
In 2021, the growth rate was positive again after COVID-19 containment measures, which restricted many activities and impacted the already suffering public accounts. In recent years, good harvests and the development of the IT and telecommunications sector have driven growth. The country is investing in boosting exports and improving infrastructure through foreign financers (especially Chinese).
|Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)||91.78||index||2016|
|Agricultural prod. index (2014-16=100)||99.54||index||2019|
|Active population||16 514 678||units||2020|
|Active population, Females||49.3||%||2020|
|Unemployment rate, Females||61.4||%||2019|
|Expenses||23 789 000||M LCU||2019|
|Revenues||17 905 400||M LCU||2019|
|Currency in circulation||6 411.511||BN LCU||2020|
|International reserves||3 358.5||M US$||2018|
Agriculture and forests.
Agriculture is the most important sector of the economy, favoured by the climate and the fertile soils.
Uganda is one of the world’s largest producers of coffee and tea, which is mostly exported. Other commercial crops grown include cotton, sugar cane, tobacco, oil palm, peanuts and sesame seeds. It has increased the importance of maize and rice, produced for domestic consumption as well as export, and floriculture. The main subsistence-level crops are bananas, cassava, potatoes and sweet potatoes, sorghum, millet and dried beans. Forests are also an important resource providing mahogany and other types of hardwood and a small amount of rubber.
Livestock and fishing.
There is livestock farming, using rather backward farming methods, but with a good number of cattle, goats, sheep and pigs.
Fishing, which takes place on inland waters (especially Lake Victoria), is an important source of food.
|cereals, total||3 461.687||1000 t||2019|
|maize||2 575||1000 t||2019|
|cassava||2 841.625||1000 t||2019|
|chillies and peppers||3.8||1000 t||2008|
|onions, dry||371.599||1000 t||2019|
|beans, dry||979.789||1000 t||2019|
|chick peas||5.549||1000 t||2019|
|castor oil seed||1.013||1000 t||2019|
|sugar cane||4 892.047||1000 t||2019|
|seed cotton||103||1000 t||2019|
|fruits, total||4 025.12||1000 t||2019|
|cassava||1 255.107||1000 ha||2019|
|chillies and peppers||4.2||1000 ha||2008|
|onions, dry||93.918||1000 ha||2019|
|beans, dry||539.66||1000 ha||2019|
|chick peas||8.787||1000 ha||2019|
|castor oil seed||3.044||1000 ha||2019|
|sugar cane||70.964||1000 ha||2019|
|seed cotton||90$||1000 ha||2019|
|timber||49 507 058||m³||2019|
|cattle||16 334.337||1000 heads||2019|
|cattle and buffaloes||16 334.337||1000 heads||2019|
|pigs||2 746.453||1000 heads||2019|
|sheep||2 069.583||1000 heads||2019|
|goats||16 701.172||1000 heads||2019|
|asses and mules||19.587||1000 heads||2019|
|birds||37 038||1000 heads||2019|
|freshwater fishes||706 166.7||t||2019|
|total catch||706 166.7||t||2019|
Secondary and tertiary sector.
Mining has been developing thanks to the involvement of foreign companies.
Gold is extracted using artisanal methods (in Ntungamo). Large quantities of cobalt are mined in the waste accumulated in the now-inactive copper mine in Kilembe. Other minerals found include tungsten (Kabale), iron ore (Kanungu), pozzolan (Kabarole, Kapchorwa) and vermiculite (Manafwa).
At Sukulu, near Tororo, there is apatite, which is used for the production of fertilizers. There is some salt production (Lake Katwe, Kasenyi, and Lake Albert). Uranium deposits have been found (in the Gamba Hills, in Karamoja, at Kabale and in Bunyoro). Test-boring in the south-east of the country (Kaiso-Tonya) and in the Alberto lake basin has shown there are plenty of crude oil deposits, about to be exploited. There is a great deal of potential for hydroelectric power in Uganda (Isimba and Owen Falls power stations, with one more under construction at Karuma Falls).
Industry is concentrated mainly on processing the local agricultural products. The main cement works are in Hima, Namataba and Tororo, where there is also a plant producing fertilizers. Steel processing is concentrated at Jinja. Gold, mostly of foreign origin, is refined in Entebbe. Textiles, beer (at Jinja), cigarettes, sugar (at Lugazi, Kakira and Sango Bay) and paper are also important products. Uganda exports mostly gold, coffee, fish, maize, tea, cotton and flowers. Imports include machinery and vehicles, chemical products and foodstuffs.
|- hydro||3 601.62||M kWh||2018|
|- other renew.||577||M kWh||2018|
|- hydro||723||1000 kW||2019|
|- thermal||212||1000 kW||2018|
|total net generation||4 453.1||M kWh||2018|
|total installed capacity||1 070.6||1000 kW||2018|
|cotton fabrics||13.6||M m²||2005|
|footwear||46 313 000||pairs||2005|
|beer of barley||330||1000 t||2018|
|cottonseed oil||10.5||1000 t||2018|
|cigarettes||1 215||M units||2005|
|cement||2 500||1000 t||2018|
|chemicals production||5.3||M US$||2002|
|food, beverages and tobacco production||51.7||M US$||2004|
|food products||55.515||% of goods exports||2018|
|manufactures||18.27||% of goods exports||2018|
|Number of arrivals||1 850 000||units||2018|
Social and welfare
|Expected years of schooling||10$||years||2011|
|Students, primary level||8 840 589||units||2017|
|Students, secondary level||1 370 583||units||2017|
|Social protection spending||1.458||% of total expenses||2019|
|Hospital beds||1.19||per 1000 pop.||2018|
|Physicians||0.17||per 1000 pop.||2017|
|HIV||5.8||% of adults||2019|
|Research and development spending||0.144||% of GDP||2014|
|Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking||0.5||%||2019|
|Access to electricity||41.3||%||2019|