Form of Government: Republic
Area: 241 551 sq km
Population: 39 040 900 inhab. (estimate 2018)
Density: 161.63 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 4° N - 1° S; long. 29° - 35° E
Capital: Kampala (capital) 1 620 600 inhab. (2018);
Currency: Uganda shilling (100 cents)
Human development index: 0.516 (rank: 162)
President and head of government: Yoweri Museveni (NRM), since 29 January 1986, elected 9 May 1996, last reconfirmed 18 February 2016
Prime Minister: Ruhakana Rugunda (NRM), since 18 September 2014
National Assembly: seats based on the elections of 18 February 2016: NRM (National Resistance Movement), 293; FDC (Forum for Democratic Change), 36; DP (Democratic Party), 15; UPC (Uganda People's Congress), 6; independents, 66; military, 10
Internet: www.ubos.org (Uganda Bureau of Statistics)
Member of AU, COMESA, Commonwealth, EAC, OIC, UN, WTO
International license plate code EAU
International dialling code 00256
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (recommended; it is also required if traveling from a country with risk of transmission); malaria prophylaxis (recommended)
Electricity (Voltage) 240
Driving side left
Internet code .ug
DST not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Kampala 21.5
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Kampala 22/20.5
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Kampala 6/7
Annual average precipitation (mm) Kampala 1580
Days of rainfall (annual average) Kampala 127
Politics and current affairs
On 20 December 2017, Parliament eliminated the age limit for the presidency, allowing Y. Museveni to run in the upcoming elections.
Uganda is bordered by South Sudan to the north, Kenya to the east, Tanzania to the south, Rwanda to the southwest and the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the west. The country consists of a vast plateau which rises in the west until it reaches the peak of Mount Ruwenzori (5109 m). There are parts of various large lakes within Uganda: Lake Victoria to the south; Lake Edward and Lake Albert to the west and the whole of Lake Kyoga.
The main river is the White Nile.
The climate is equatorial, varying slightly with altitude.
A former British colony, Uganda became independent within the Commonwealth on 9 October 1962 and the republic was declared on 9 October 1963. On 15 April 1966 the Prime Minister, Milton Obote, took over the Presidency, a position previously reserved for the King of Buganda, which gave rise to a unitary Constitution. From 1971 to 1979 the country was ruled by the dictator Idi Amin Dada, who was later forced to flee. The current political structure of the country stems from the victory on 25 January 1985 of the guerrilla National Resistance Movement led by Yoweri Museveni, which had been fighting since 1981, firstly against Obote (who came back to power in 1980) and then against the army (in power from 1985). The authoritarian regime imposed by Museveni has governed the country for almost 30 years.
A multi-party electoral system, which was thrown out in 2000, was introduced following a referendum on 30 July 2005.
The President of the Republic, who is also the head of the executive, is elected by direct suffrage for a five-year term. The Parliament has 426 members elected for five years, of whom 289 are directly elected, 112 are women members, 25 represent social categories (10 representing the military, 5 representing workers, 5 representing the disabled and 5 representing young people) and 13 ex officio members.
|Kampala||1 620 600||inhab.||2018|
|Population by age and gender (% - 2018)|
In 2018-19, the positive trend of harvests and the expansion of the IT and telecommunications sector drove growth. Low revenue and increased expenditure raised the public deficit. The country is investing in boosting exports and improving infrastructure through foreign financers (especially Chinese).
|Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)||91.78||index||2016|
|Balance of trade||-3 486.1||M US$||2018|
|Active population||16 532 793||units||2018|
|Active population, Females||48.1||%||2018|
|Unemployment rate, Females||52.4||%||2017|
|Expenses||20 480 300||M LCU||2018|
|Revenues||15 698 800||M LCU||2018|
|Currency in circulation||5 125.79||BN LCU||2018|
|International reserves||3 358.5||M US$||2018|
Agriculture and forests.
Agriculture is the most important sector of the economy, favoured by the climate and the fertile soils.
Uganda is one of the world’s largest producers of coffee and tea, which is mostly exported. Other commercial crops grown include cotton, sugar cane, tobacco, oil palm, peanuts and sesame seeds. It has increased the importance of maize and rice, produced for domestic consumption as well as export, and floriculture.
The main subsistence-level crops are bananas, cassava, potatoes and sweet potatoes, sorghum, millet and dried beans. Forests are also an important resource providing mahogany and other types of hardwood and a small amount of rubber.
Livestock and fishing.
There is livestock farming, using rather backward farming methods, but with a good number of cattle, goats, sheep and pigs.
Fishing, which takes place on inland waters (especially Lake Victoria), is an important source of food.
|cereals, total||3 831.448||1000 t||2017|
|maize||3 015.316||1000 t||2017|
|cassava||2 436.857||1000 t||2017|
|chillies and peppers||3.8||1000 t||2008|
|onions, dry||344.261||1000 t||2017|
|beans, dry||1 024.742||1000 t||2017|
|chick peas||5.168||1000 t||2017|
|castor oil seed||1||1000 t||2017|
|sugar cane||3 858.456||1000 t||2017|
|seed cotton||78.963||1000 t||2017|
|fruits, total||5 221.839||1000 t||2014|
|maize||1 185.006||1000 ha||2017|
|cassava||1 187.9||1000 ha||2017|
|chillies and peppers||4.2||1000 ha||2008|
|onions, dry||86.457||1000 ha||2017|
|beans, dry||633.226||1000 ha||2017|
|chick peas||8.357||1000 ha||2017|
|castor oil seed||3||1000 ha||2017|
|sugar cane||57.13||1000 ha||2017|
|seed cotton||66.517||1000 ha||2017|
|timber||47 625 521||m³||2017|
|cattle||15 393.187||1000 heads||2017|
|cattle and buffaloes||15 393.187||1000 heads||2017|
|pigs||2 636.415||1000 heads||2017|
|sheep||2 058.771||1000 heads||2017|
|goats||15 666.68||1000 heads||2017|
|asses and mules||19.459||1000 heads||2017|
|birds||35 683||1000 heads||2017|
|freshwater fishes||501 972.6||t||2017|
|total catch||501 972.6||t||2017|
Secondary and tertiary sector.
Mining has been developing thanks to the involvement of foreign companies.
Gold is extracted using artisanal methods (in Ntungamo). Large quantities of cobalt are mined in the waste accumulated in the now-inactive copper mine in Kilembe. Other minerals found include tungsten (Kabale), iron ore (Kanungu), pozzolan (Kabarole, Kapchorwa) and vermiculite (Manafwa).
At Sukulu, near Tororo, there is apatite, which is used for the production of fertilizers. There is some salt production (Lake Katwe, Kasenyi, and Lake Albert). Uranium deposits have been found (in the Gamba Hills, in Karamoja, at Kabale and in Bunyoro). Test-boring in the south-east of the country (Kaiso-Tonya) and in the Alberto lake basin has shown there are plenty of crude oil deposits, about to be exploited.
There is a great deal of potential for hydroelectric power in Uganda (Isimba and Owen Falls power stations, with one more under construction at Karuma Falls).
Industry is concentrated mainly on processing the local agricultural products. The main cement works are in Hima, Namataba and Tororo, where there is also a plant producing fertilizers. Steel processing is concentrated at Jinja. Textiles, beer (at Jinja), cigarettes, sugar (at Lugazi, Kakira and Sango Bay) and paper are also important products. Uganda exports mostly coffee, fish, maize, tea, cotton and flowers.
Imports include machinery and vehicles, chemical products and foodstuffs.
|iron ore||2.3||1000 t||2017|
|limestone||1 231.9||1000 t||2017|
|- hydro||3 210||M kWh||2016|
|- thermal||215||M kWh||2016|
|- hydro||706||1000 kW||2016|
|- thermal||200||1000 kW||2016|
|total net generation||3 463||M kWh||2016|
|total installed capacity||1 020||1000 kW||2016|
|cotton fabrics||13.6||M m²||2005|
|footwear||46 313 000||pairs||2005|
|beer of barley||347||1000 t||2014|
|cottonseed oil||4||1000 t||2014|
|cigarettes||1 215||M units||2005|
|cement||2 494||1000 t||2016|
|chemicals production||5.3||M US$||2002|
|food, beverages and tobacco production||51.7||M US$||2004|
|food products||65.717||% of goods exports||2018|
|manufactures||22.525||% of goods exports||2018|
|Number of arrivals||1 402 000||units||2017|
Social and welfare
|Expected years of schooling||10||years||2011|
|Teachers, primary level||207 238||units||2017|
|Teachers, secondary level||63 957||units||2014|
|Social protection spending||3.8||% of total expenses||2015|
|Hospital beds||1.2||per 1000 pop.||2017|
|Physicians||0.1||per 1000 pop.||2015|
|HIV||5.9||% of adults||2017|
|Research and development spending||0.17||% of GDP||2014|
|Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking||0.77||%||2016|
|Access to electricity||22||%||2017|