Form of Government: Republic
Area: 576 363 sq km
Population: 41 487 960 inhab. (estimate 2021)
Density: 71.98 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 52° - 44° N; long. 22° - 40° E
Capital: Kiev=Kyiv (capital) 2 958 669 inhab. (2021);
Currency: hryvnia (100 kopiyok)
Human development index: 0.779 (rank: 74)
President: Volodymyr Zelensky (Servant of the People), elected 21 April 2019, in office since 20 May 2019
Prime Minister: Denys Shmyhal (independent), since 4 March 2020
Parliament: seats (August 2021 update): Servant of the People (pro-European, anti-corruption), 243; Opposition Platform-For Life (pro-Russian), 44; European Solidarity (Petro Poroshenko movement, pro-European), 27; All-Ukrainian Union “Fatherland” (conservative, pro-European), 25; For the Future (independents), 22; Voice (liberal pro-European), 20; Trust (independents), 20; not affiliated, 20; vacant, 29
Internet: www.ukrstat.gov.ua (State Statistics Service)
Member of Council of Europe, EBRD, OAS observer, OSCE, UN, WTO

Ukraine

Ukraina
Useful information

International license plate code UA
International dialling code 0038
Travel vaccinations requirement none
Electricity (Voltage) 220
Driving side rigth
Internet code .ua

GMT  +2
DST  +3
DST duration (start-end) late March-late October

Annual average temperature (°C) Kiev 7.9
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Kiev -7/20
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Kiev 9/1
Annual average precipitation (mm) Kiev 612
Days of rainfall (annual average) Kiev 115

Politics and current affairs

The Ukraine was affected by two new waves of COVID-19 between autumn 2020 and summer 2021, putting the country’s health service under severe strain. After having refused the Sputnik-V vaccine offered by Russia, on 24 February 2021 the vaccination campaign began using doses from the COVAX programme. In July 2021, the US donated 2 million doses of the Moderna vaccine to the Ukraine.
Clashes continue in the eastern Donbass region. In April, Russia deployed tens of thousands of soldiers along the border, which were later withdrawn after causing alarm in the EU and US. On 21 July 2021, the US withdrew its opposition to the construction of the Nord Stream 2 pipeline, which will connect Russia and Germany in the Baltic Sea and double Nord Stream capacity. Zelensky’s government has been reassured by the Americans and Germans, who pledged financial aid for the energy transition and support for the Ukraine in negotiations to ensure the passage of Russian gas through the country beyond the 2024 deadline. In 2020, the Ukraine received 2.1 billion dollars from Gazprom to guarantee the passage of gas.

Geography.
Ukraine is bordered by Russia to the east and north-east, by Moldova and Romania to the south-west, by Hungary and Slovakia to the west, by Poland and Belarus to the north-west and to the south by the Black Sea and the Azov Sea. The country includes a vast stretch of the East European Plain, broken up by the Donets Hills to the south-east and by the Podolian Upland to the west. The Carpathian mountains are at the western border. The main rivers are the Donets, the Dnieper, the Dniester and the Danube. The climate is semi-continental inland, with cold winters and hot, humid summers; it is milder in the southern coastal areas.

Government


A former Soviet republic, the Ukraine declared its independence on 24 August 1991. The country’s first president Leonid Kravchuk was followed in the role by another former member of the Soviet Communist Party, Leonid Kuchma. At the presidential elections in 2004, the victory in the ballot (21 November) of the pro-Russian candidate Viktor Yanukovych sparked mass public demonstrations by supporters of the pro-western candidate Viktor Yushchenko (the so-called “Orange Revolution”); on 27 November, Parliament declared that the elections were not valid, and the new elections of 26 December were won by Yushchenko. Following the legislative elections in 2006, which were won by the pro-Russian bloc, Yanukovych was elected Prime Minister, but friction between him and the President led to the calling of new elections (held in 2007), after which a pro-western coalition led by Yulia Tymoshenko took office. Russia’s political and economic pressure led to new presidential elections in 2010, won again by V. Yanukovych. In 2012, Y. Tymoshenko was sentenced to seven years’ imprisonment for abuse of public funds. The European Court of Human Rights overturned the verdict and she was released on 22 February 2014.
In light of the suspension requested by Yanukovich of the procedure for the association agreement of the EU, protests and outbreaks of violence (Euromaidan) began in late 2013, culminating in Yanukovich’s flight on 22 February 2014.
The country’s pro-European turn provoked Russia into intervening in Crimea and backing the Russian-speaking republics in eastern Ukraine, leading to the current armed conflict and to secessionist claims by the eastern regions of Donbass, where general elections were held on 11 November 2018 which were not recognized by Ukraine or the international community. In 2019, Russia therefore granted Russian passports to some 125 000 residents of eastern Ukraine. The Association Agreement with the EU was officially ratified in July 2017 and has been in force since 1 September 2017.
According to the Constitution of 28 June 1996, amended in 2004 (the amendments were canceled in 2010 and then restored in 2014), the President of the Republic is elected by direct suffrage for a five-year term; the Prime Minister is appointed by the Parliament (the Supreme Council, consisting of 450 members, elected for five years). New presidential and parliamentary elections must take place by 2019.


Defence.
In 1994 the Ukraine ratified the START I Treaty (forcing it to transfer its nuclear weapons to Russia) and signed the Treaty of Non Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. In 2015, following the outbreak of conflict in the eastern provinces, the US sent about 300 extra troops to the Ukraine to train regular forces. The country continues to stay close to NATO with the joint training mission, Sea Breeze, in the Black Sea in June 2021.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force26$%2015
Army71.1%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes1 232.1per 100 000 pop.2017
Homicides3.6per 100 000 pop.2019
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Kiev=Kyiv2 958 669inhab.2021
Kharkiv1 443 207inhab.2020
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2020)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate8.12019
Death rate14.72019
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Ukrainian78.1%2001
Russian17.3%2001


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Orthodox62.3%2020
nonreligious/atheist15.2%2020


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Russian
Ukrainian (official)
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years16.1%2020
15-29 years15.6%2020


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Economy


Economic situation.
In 2020, the GDP fell by 4.2% due to the effects of the pandemic. The country has received support from the IMF since June 2020 (5 billion dollars). The government’s objectives for 2021-22 include reducing the deficit (from 5.1 to 3.5% of the GDP) and lowering inflation (approx. 9% in 2021).

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)153.04index2016
Agricultural prod. index (2014-16=100)109.25index2019
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population19 454 894units2020
Active population, Females47.7%2019
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate9.5%2020
Unemployment rate, Females45.7%2019
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses1 075 122.1M LCU2019
Revenues998 344.9M LCU2019
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture14.5%2019
industry24.6%2019
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture10.476%2019
industry26.237%2019
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation558.48BN LCU2020
International reserves29 137.541M US$2020
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Agriculture


Primary sector.
The main agricultural products are cereal crops (wheat, barley, maize, rye, oats, millet) which have some international investment; there are also large amounts of potatoes, sugar beet, and various vegetables. Livestock is also important, especially cattle, pigs and sheep, providing meat, dairy products, eggs and wool.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land58.846%2018
forests16.874%2018
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley8 916.781000 t2019
cereals, total74 442.161000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes20 269.191000 t2019
roots and tubers, total20 269.191000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages1 732.921000 t2019
carrots and turnips869.451000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry64.281000 t2019
beans, green3.1691000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes366.31000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
rapeseed3 280.321000 t2019
soybeans3 698.711000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mustard seed39.531000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hops0.511000 t2019
sugar beet10 204.531000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
flax fibre and tow0.541000 t2019
linseed15.391000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hemp tow waste0.6471000 t2019
hempseed0.651000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples1 153.971000 t2019
apricots83.661000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
almonds0$1000 t2017
hazelnuts0.051000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Others
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mushrooms16.061000 t2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley2 609.21000 ha2019
maize4 986.91000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes1 308.81000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages65.91000 ha2019
carrots and turnips43$1000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry42$1000 ha2019
beans, green0.1661000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape39.51000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
rapeseed1 279.21000 ha2019
soybeans1 612.81000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mustard seed48.31000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hops0.41000 ha2019
sugar beet221.31000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
flax fibre and tow0.81000 ha2019
linseed16.91000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hemp tow waste1.3331000 ha2019
hempseed1.1761000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples87.71000 ha2019
apricots7.61000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
almonds0$1000 ha2017
hazelnuts0.51000 ha2019
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber17 886 6002019
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle3 332.91000 heads2019
cattle and buffaloes3 332.91000 heads2019
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs6 025.31000 heads2019
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep698.51000 heads2019
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats570.11000 heads2019
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses11.8891000 heads2019
asses and mules11.8891000 heads2019
Livestock - Camelids
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
camels0.8361000 heads2019
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds209 5151000 heads2019
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey69.9371000 t2019
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter91.61000 t2019
cheese179.61000 t2019
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs34 299.23t2019
freshwater fishes41 864.213t2019
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Minerals


Secondary sector
Minerals.
The country has large coal deposits in the Donets basin, as well as iron ore. The reserves of natural gas and crude oil, on the other hand, are largely insufficient to meet the internal consumption needs. Ukraine is a crucial transit country for natural gas moving from Russia to Europe, and it was at the centre of constant tension with the former, exacerbated by the current political crisis. The contract for the transit of gas was renewed for 5 years at the end of 2019, averting the risk of interruptions in the flow to the west. The country is crossed by an extensive network of strategic gas pipelines to Europe, in addition to the Druzhba oil pipeline. Other important mineral resources include manganese, magnesite, ilmenite and rutile, uranium, graphite, sulfur, salt, gypsum and peat.
Energy.
Over half of the electricity produced in Ukraine comes from nuclear power plants (15 reactors located in four nuclear power plants in Yuzhnoukrainsk, Rivne, Khmel’nyts’kyi and Zaporizhzhia); the Chernobyl plant (the site of the accident in 1986) ceased production in 2000; in 2020, widespread fires near the plant caused concern.
Industry.
The ongoing crisis and armed conflict have reduced industrial production significantly. Heavy industry, especially steel and metal-working, is well developed. Steel production, in particular, is very high. The chemical and pharmaceutical industry, and the synthetic fibre production industry are also noteworthy. At Lysychans’k, Kremenchuk, Kherson, Drohobych, Nadvirna and Odessa there are oil refineries. There is some mechanical industry: cars, tractors, agricultural machinery, locomotives, and bicycles. Ship-building is concentrated at Odessa, Mykolaiv, Kiev and Kherson. Also of note are the electrical engineering industry and the manufacturing of cement. Other important industries include textiles, timber, paper, tobacco, rubber and tanneries. Another important and developing industrial area is found at Kharkiv, where machinery, pharmaceuticals and food products are all produced.

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coal24 060.91000 t2020
coal, total24 060.91000 t2020
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ilmenite4701000 t2020
iron ore62 0001000 t2020
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bentonite1801000 t2020
feldspar35$1000 t2018
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
kaolin1 8001000 t2020
silicates60$1000 t2020
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- nuclear78 144M kWh2019
- thermal54 274.66M kWh2019
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal29 7531000 kW2018
- nuclear13 1071000 kW2019
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation142 851.01M kWh2019
total installed capacity51 758.621000 kW2018
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
alumina1 6901000 t2019
aluminium25$1000 t2013
Industry - Machinery and transport equipment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bikes128 000no.2019
cars4 202no.2020
Industry - Precision and optical instruments
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
watches and clocks18 707no.2019
Industry - Electrical and electronics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
air conditioners159 291no.2019
computers5 741no.2016
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen23.11000 t2019
petrol829.91000 t2014
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ammonia1 5001000 t2020
caustic soda62.91000 t2013
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
carpets5 8811000 m²2019
cotton fabrics7.9M m²2016
Industry - Clothing and footwear
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
footwear23 600 000pairs2019
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley1 818.521000 t2018
fish, frozen11.21000 t2019
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes68 500M units2019
cigars and cigarettes68 500M units2019
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
newsprint1$1000 t2019
other paper9781000 t2019
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement9 2001000 t2019
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production946.342M US$2018
food, beverages and tobacco production4 487.715M US$2018
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Trade


Tertiary sector
Foreign trade.
Due to trade restrictions with Russia and new agreements with the EU, the EU has become the country’s largest trading partner.


Main exports (M US$ - 2017) iron and steel 9 562, cereals 6 502, vegetable oils 4 514, iron ores 2 589, electrical and electronic equipment 2 548, oil seeds 2 060, machinery 1 693, timber 1 205, residues and wastes of food industry 1 052, chemicals 1 028, furniture and accessories 543, meat 532, apparel and accessories 501, plastics 466, paper 451, fruit and vegetables 432


Finance and banking.
Financial services are particularly important; there is an active stock exchange in Kiev.

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufactures47.242% of goods exports2018
food products39.126% of goods exports2018
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
China7 117M US$2020
Poland3 275M US$2020
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
China8 254M US$2020
Germany5 332M US$2020
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
202049 220M US$ -
201950 066M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
202053 929M US$ -
201960 607M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures8 907M US$2019
Number of arrivals13 438 000units2019
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown54 400 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried7 604.51000 units2019
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers161.591per 1000 pop.2019
Computers45.3per 1000 pop.2008
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling14.9years2014
Graduates438 771units2018
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Students, primary level1 724 664units2019
Students, secondary level2 444 548units2019
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending36.427% of total expenses2019
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds7.3per 1000 pop.2017
Physicians4.4per 1000 pop.2017
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV1$% of adults2019
HIV, total0.1%2005
Museums
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Museums574units2017
Museums, visitors16 400 000units2017
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.43% of GDP2019
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking95.2%2019
Access to electricity100%2019
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear5.5%2019
education1.1%2019
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