Form of Government: Republic
Area: 576 500 sq km
Population: 42 079 547 inhab. (estimate 2019)
Density: 72.99 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 52° - 44° N; long. 22° - 40° E
Capital: Kiev=Kyiv (capital) 2 951 482 inhab. (2019);
Currency: hryvnia (100 kopiyok)
Human development index: 0.751 (rank: 88)
President: Volodymyr Zelensky (Servant of the People), elected 21 April 2019, in office since 20 May 2019
Prime Minister: Oleksiy Honcharuk (independent), since 29 August 2019
Parliament: seats based on the elections of 21 July 2019: Servant of the People (pro-European, anti-corruption), 254; Opposition Platform-For Life (pro-Russian), 43; All-Ukrainian Union “Fatherland” (conservative, pro-European), 26; European Solidarity (Petro Poroshenko movement, pro-European), 25; Voice (liberal pro-European), 20; Mixed group, 10; independents, 46; vacant, 26
Internet: www.ukrstat.gov.ua (State Statistics Service)
Member of Council of Europe, EBRD, OAS observer, OSCE, UN, WTO

Ukraine

Ukraina
Useful information

International license plate code UA
International dialling code 0038
Travel vaccinations requirement none
Electricity (Voltage) 220
Driving side rigth
Internet code .ua

GMT  +2
DST  +3
DST duration (start-end) late March-late October

Annual average temperature (°C) Kiev 7.9
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Kiev -7/20
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Kiev 9/1
Annual average precipitation (mm) Kiev 612
Days of rainfall (annual average) Kiev 115

Politics and current affairs

On 21 April 2019, Volodymyr Zelensky was elected president in the run-off, taking 77.2% of the votes, defeating the outgoing president, Petro Poroshenko (24.4%). Zelensky, a television presenter, promised to take a hard line on corruption. During the parliamentary elections on 21 July 2019, the new president’s party, Servant of the People, won by a landslide, taking 43.2% of the votes and 254 seats. The pro-Russian Opposition Platform — For Life won a lot less votes (13%), as did other parties from the political establishment.
The country also had to tackle the worsening crisis with Russia when, on 25 November 2018, Russian forces captured three Ukrainian ships in the Kerch Strait, near Crimea, on their way to the Sea of Azov, which is managed by the two countries. In response, then-president Poroshenko declared Martial Law on 26 November. Negotiations continue for the release of prisoners, while Russian influence in Crimea is increasing five years on from its annexation, with economic investments, the assignment of military planes and the opening of new power plants.
Tensions were further fed by the Ukrainian Orthodox Church’s separation from the Russian Orthodox Church, formalized on 6 January 2019.

Geography.
Ukraine is bordered by Russia to the east and north-east, by Moldova and Romania to the south-west, by Hungary and Slovakia to the west, by Poland and Belarus to the north-west and to the south by the Black Sea and the Azov Sea. The country includes a vast stretch of the East European Plain, broken up by the Donets Hills to the south-east and by the Podolian Upland to the west. The Carpathian mountains are at the western border. The main rivers are the Donets, the Dnieper, the Dniester and the Danube. The climate is semi-continental inland, with cold winters and hot, humid summers; it is milder in the southern coastal areas.

Government


A former Soviet republic, the Ukraine declared its independence on 24 August 1991. The country’s first president Leonid Kravchuk was followed in the role by another former member of the Soviet Communist Party, Leonid Kuchma, who was elected in 1994 and in 1999. At the presidential elections of 21 November 2004, the news of the victory of the pro-Russian candidate Viktor Yanukovych sparked mass public demonstrations by supporters of the pro-western candidate Viktor Yushchenko (the so-called “Orange Revolution”); on 27 November, Parliament declared that the elections were not valid, and the new elections of 26 December were won by Yushchenko. Following the legislative elections of 26 March 2006, which were won by the pro-Russian bloc, Yanukovych was elected Prime Minister, but friction between him and the President led to the calling of new elections (30 October 2007), after which a pro-western coalition led by Yulia Tymoshenko took office. Russia’s political and economic pressure led to new presidential elections in 2010, won again by V. Yanukovych. In 2012, Y. Tymoshenko, defeated in the ballot, was sentenced to seven years’ imprisonment for abuse of public funds. The European Court of Human Rights overturned the verdict and she was released on 22 February 2014.
In light of the suspension requested by Yanukovich of the procedure for the association agreement of the EU, protests and outbreaks of violence (Euromaidan) began in late 2013, culminating in Yanukovich’s flight on 22 February 2014.
The country’s pro-European turn provoked Russia into intervening in Crimea and backing the Russian-speaking republics in eastern Ukraine, leading to the current armed conflict and to secessionist claims by the eastern regions of Donbass, where general elections were held on 11 November 2018 which were not recognized by Ukraine or the international community. Starting in July 2019, Russia made it easier to obtain Russian citizenship for residents of the separatist regions.
The Association Agreement with the EU was officially ratified in July 2017 and has been in force since 1 September 2017.
According to the Constitution of 28 June 1996, amended in 2004 (the amendments were canceled in 2010 and then restored in 2014), the President of the Republic is elected by direct suffrage for a five-year term; the Prime Minister is appointed by the Parliament (the Supreme Council, consisting of 450 members, elected for five years). New presidential and parliamentary elections must take place by 2019.


Defence.
In 1994 the Ukraine ratified the START I Treaty (forcing it to transfer its nuclear weapons to Russia) and signed the Treaty of Non Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. In 2015, following the outbreak of conflict in the eastern provinces, the US sent about 300 extra troops to the Ukraine to train regular forces, and in 2017, they provided a new system of anti-tank missiles.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force26%2015
Army71.1%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes1 232.1per 100 000 pop.2017
Homicides3.8per 100 000 pop.2017
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Kiev=Kyiv2 951 482inhab.2019
Kharkiv1 450 082inhab.2018
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2018)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate8.62017
Death rate13.52017
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Ukrainian78.1%2001
Russian17.3%2001


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Orthodox68.2%2017
nonreligious/atheist12.6%2017


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Russian
Ukrainian (official)
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years15.9%2018
15-29 years16.5%2018


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Economy


Economic situation.
In 2018, economic growth hovered around 3.3%, in acceleration compared to 2017, favoured by good results in the agriculture sector and private consumption that was supported by increases in salaries, pensions and remittances. Many doubts remain, however, about future outlooks due to tensions with Russia, widespread corruption and a lack of transparency in governance in the banking and energy sectors. In absence of reforms, the World Bank believes that growth could drop below 2%.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)153.04index2016
Balance of trade-9 698M US$2018
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population17 939 500units2018
Active population, Females47.6%2018
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate8.8%2018
Unemployment rate, Females40.3%2018
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses985 851.8M LCU2018
Revenues928 114.9M LCU2018
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture15.3%2018
industry24.3%2018
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture12.1%2017
industry28.4%2017
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation400.12BN LCU2018
International reserves20 817.9M US$2018
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Agriculture


Primary sector.
The main agricultural products are cereal crops (wheat, barley, maize, rye, oats, millet) which have some international investment; there are also large amounts of potatoes, sugar beet, and various vegetables. Livestock is also important, especially cattle, pigs and sheep, providing meat, dairy products, eggs and wool.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land57.72%2015
forests16.67%2015
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley8 284.891000 t2017
cereals, total60 686.0331000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes22 208.221000 t2017
roots and tubers, total22 208.221000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages1 673.361000 t2017
carrots and turnips839.011000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry64.331000 t2017
beans, green31000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes409.611000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
rapeseed2 194.791000 t2017
soybeans3 899.371000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mustard seed311000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hops0.551000 t2017
sugar beet14 881.551000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
flax fibre and tow1.321000 t2017
linseed46.141000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hemp tow waste0.7481000 t2017
hempseed0.5861000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples1 076.181000 t2017
apricots86.681000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
almonds01000 t2017
hazelnuts0.011000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Others
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mushrooms14.991000 t2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley2 501.51000 ha2017
maize4 480.71000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes1 323.21000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages64.61000 ha2017
carrots and turnips42.71000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry40.41000 ha2017
beans, green0.141000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape41.31000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
rapeseed785.71000 ha2017
soybeans1 981.91000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mustard seed39.51000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hops0.41000 ha2017
sugar beet313.61000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
flax fibre and tow1.41000 ha2017
linseed47.51000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hemp tow waste1.5651000 ha2017
hempseed1.0431000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples91.21000 ha2017
apricots7.81000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
almonds01000 ha2017
hazelnuts0.051000 ha2017
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber18 337 0002017
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle3 682.31000 heads2017
cattle and buffaloes3 682.31000 heads2017
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs6 669.11000 heads2017
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep718.91000 heads2017
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats595.91000 heads2017
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses11.9741000 heads2017
asses and mules11.9741000 heads2017
Livestock - Camelids
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
camels0.8191000 heads2017
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds200 9701000 heads2017
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey66.5211000 t2014
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter113.5171000 t2014
cheese142.5231000 t2014
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
corals0t2016
crustaceans and molluscs10 509t2017
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Minerals


Secondary
sector
Minerals.
The country has large coal deposits in the Donets basin, as well as iron ore. The reserves of natural gas and crude oil, on the other hand, are largely insufficient to meet the internal consumption needs. Ukraine is a crucial transit country for natural gas moving from Russia to Europe, and it was at the centre of constant tension with the former, exacerbated by the current political crisis. The contract for the transit of gas is in a phase of renegotiation. The country is crossed by an extensive network of strategic gas pipelines to Europe, in addition to the Druzhba oil pipeline. Other important mineral resources include manganese, magnesite, ilmenite and rutile, uranium, graphite, sulfur, salt, gypsum and peat.
Energy.
Almost half of the electrical energy produced in Ukraine comes from nuclear power plants (15 reactors located in four nuclear power plants in Yuzhnoukrainsk, Rivne, Khmel’nyts’kyi and Zaporizhzhia); the Chernobyl plant (the site of the accident in 1986) ceased production in 2000.
Industry.
The ongoing crisis and armed conflict have reduced industrial production significantly. Heavy industry, especially steel and metal-working, is well developed. Steel production, in particular, is very high. The chemical and pharmaceutical industry, and the synthetic fibre production industry are also noteworthy. At Lysychans’k, Kremenchuk, Kherson, Drohobych, Nadvirna and Odessa there are oil refineries. There is some mechanical industry: cars, tractors, agricultural machinery, locomotives, and bicycles. Ship-building is concentrated at Odessa, Mykolaiv, Kiev and Kherson. The electronics industry is also important. At Amvrosiivka, Kramators’k and Dnipropetrovs’k there are cement works. Other important industries include textiles, timber, paper, tobacco, rubber and tanneries. Another important and developing industrial area is found at Kharkiv, in the north-east, where machinery, pharmaceuticals and food products are all produced.

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coal34 445.91000 t2018
coal, total34 445.91000 t2018
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ilmenite2301000 t2018
iron ore60 5001000 t2018
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bentonite2001000 t2018
feldspar33.61000 t2016
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
kaolin1 8001000 t2018
silicates521000 t2018
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- nuclear76 078M kWh2016
- thermal68 299.46M kWh2016
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal36 4751000 kW2016
- nuclear13 1071000 kW2016
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation153 552.46M kWh2016
total installed capacity57 2751000 kW2016
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
alumina1 6601000 t2017
aluminium251000 t2013
Industry - Machinery and transport equipment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bikes142 000no.2018
cars5 660no.2018
Industry - Precision and optical instruments
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
watches and clocks2 319no.2014
Industry - Electrical and electronics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
air conditioners79 000no.2016
computers5 741no.2016
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen1701000 t2018
petrol829.91000 t2014
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ammonia8011000 t2018
caustic soda62.91000 t2013
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
carpets3 5061000 m²2016
cotton fabrics7.9M m²2016
Industry - Clothing and footwear
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
footwear20 900 000pairs2018
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley2 422.41000 t2014
fish, frozen12.31000 t2016
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes84 100M units2018
cigars and cigarettes84 100M units2018
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
newsprint11000 t2017
other paper9231000 t2017
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement9 2001000 t2018
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production1 067.3M US$2016
food, beverages and tobacco production3 553M US$2016
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Trade


Tertiary sector
Foreign trade.
Due to trade restrictions with Russia and new agreements with the EU, the EU has become the country’s largest trading partner.


Main exports (M US$ - 2017) iron and steel 9 562, cereals 6 502, vegetable oils 4 514, iron ores 2 589, electrical and electronic equipment 2 548, oil seeds 2 060, machinery 1 693, timber 1 205, residues and wastes of food industry 1 052, chemicals 1 028, furniture and accessories 543, meat 532, apparel and accessories 501, plastics 466, paper 451, fruit and vegetables 432


Finance and banking.
Financial services are particularly important; there is an active stock exchange in Kiev.

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufactures48.808% of goods exports2018
food products39.125% of goods exports2018
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Russia3 660M US$2018
Poland3 259M US$2018
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Russia8 091M US$2018
China7 600M US$2018
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
201847 348M US$ -
201743 265M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
201857 046M US$ -
201749 609M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures7 543M US$2017
Number of arrivals14 230 000units2017
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown54 400 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried6 821.11000 units2017
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers125.542per 1000 pop.2017
Computers45.3per 1000 pop.2008
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling15years2014
Graduates404 116units2017
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level126 535units2017
Teachers, secondary level324 041units2017
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending40.6% of total expenses2016
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds7.3per 1000 pop.2017
Physicians4.4per 1000 pop.2017
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV0.9% of adults2017
HIV, total0.1%2005
Museums
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Museums574units2017
Museums, visitors16 400 000units2017
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.4% of GDP2017
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking95.73%2016
Access to electricity100%2017
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear5.4%2018
education1%2018
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