Form of Government: Republic
Area: 491 210 sq km
Population: 5 942 094 inhab. (estimate 2019)
Density: 12.1 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 43° - 35° N; long. 53° - 67° E
Capital: Aşgabat (capital) 810 186 inhab. (2018);
Currency: new manat (100 tennesi or tenge)
Human development index: 0.715 (rank: 111)
President and head of government: Gurbanguly Berdymuhammedov (TDP), elected 11 February 2007, last reconfirmed 12 February 2017
Internet: www.turkmenistan.gov.tm (Information site)
Member of CIS associated, EBRD, OIC, OSCE, UN, WTO observer

Turkmenistan

Türkmenistan
Useful information

International license plate code TM
International dialling code 00993
Travel vaccinations requirement none
Electricity (Voltage) 220
Driving side rigth
Internet code .tm

GMT  +5
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Aşgabat 16.1
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Aşgabat 2/31
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Aşgabat 11/4
Annual average precipitation (mm) Aşgabat 222
Days of rainfall (annual average) Aşgabat 52

Geography.
Turkmenistan is bordered to the north by Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan, to the southeast by Afghanistan, to the south by Iran and to the west lies the Caspian Sea. The southern border is marked by the Kopet Dag mountains, the country is largely desert (the Karakum Desert), watered by the Amu Darya, Tejen and Atrek rivers.
The Caspian coast is flat and with a landscape of dunes. The climate is of a continental type.

Government


A former soviet republic in the USSR, independence was proclaimed on 29 October 1991. The Democratic Party (TDP), heirs to the Communists, have kept their grip on all political and economic control in the country. Saparmyrat Niyazov (calling himself Türkmenbaşy, “father of the Turkmenis”) led the country for long time by means of an authoritarian and populist regime which continued even after his death in 2006. The Constitution of 1992 set up a presidential system with only one official party (the TDP); in 2008 it was amended to allow a multi-party system to begin, but opposition parties are still illegal. The President of the Republic, who is also the head of the executive, is elected by direct suffrage for a five-year term, at the same time as the National Assembly (125 members).

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force8.2%2015
Army90.4%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes95.7per 100 000 pop.2006
Homicides4.2per 100 000 pop.2015
TOP

Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Aşgabat810 186inhab.2018
Daşoguz301 000inhab.2014
TOP

Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2020)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE

The fertility index, once very high, has rapidly reduced.

Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate23.0662019
Death rate7.042019
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Turkmen85.6%2012
Uzbek5.8%2012


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Muslim89$%2015
Orthodox9$%2015


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Russian
Turkmen (official)
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years25$%2020
15-29 years26.1%2020


TOP

Economy


The growth rate is linked to hydrocarbon exports and is thus very sensitive to changes in prices on the international market. Agriculture is mainly concentrated in southern areas where there is irrigation. The main crops are cereals (wheat, rice, barley and maize), tomatoes, potatoes, fruit (watermelons, grapes, apples) and sugar beets. Cotton is widespread (in the areas of Mary, Tejen and Daşoguz), and Turkmenistan is one of the largest producers in the world. The breeding of thoroughbred horses and karakul sheep is an important industry, as is silk farming.
Turkmenistan has crude oil deposits in the Caspian Sea region and is extremely rich in natural gas both on the mainland (large reserves in eastern and southwestern parts of the country, in the Amu Darya and Murgap basins) and offshore (Caspian Sea). Gas is exported to China via a gas pipeline that travels through Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan; two pipelines to Iran and one to Russia are also active. A connection under the Caspian Sea between the Turkmenistan and Baku (Azerbaijan) resources is now being planned; it is the beginning of the gas pipeline that, through Georgia and Turkey, reaches the port of Ceyhan, in the Mediterranean. The connection with India through Afghanistan and Pakistan is under construction. Other resources are sulphur, mineral salts (bromine, sodium and iodine) and rock salt from the Karakum Desert. Industrial growth is limited: there are some refineries (Seidi e Türkmenbaşy), chemical works, with a significant production of fertilizers, cement works, metal machinery factories and textiles (Aşgabat). The traditional craft of carpet making is also significant. The main exports consist of natural gas, petroleum products, cotton, cotton textiles and fertilizers.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)102.03index2016
Agricultural prod. index (2014-16=100)95.26index2019
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population2 361 380units2020
Active population, Females41$%2019
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate4.4%2020
Unemployment rate, Females22.8%2019
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses21 657.2M LCU2019
Revenues21 168.7M LCU2019
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture19.9%2019
industry42.4%2019
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture8.921%2019
industry60.41%2019
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
International reserves13 221.5M US$2007
TOP

Agriculture

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land4.256%2018
forests8.782%2018
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley19.3571000 t2019
cereals, total1 689.3571000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes315.2731000 t2019
roots and tubers, total315.2731000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages63.4381000 t2019
carrots and turnips71.7171000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
peas, dry13.0581000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes246.7851000 t2019
raisins0.81000 t2006
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar beet245.0641000 t2019
tobacco3.2451000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton5821000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples66.5251000 t2019
apricots34.7691000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
almonds1.0771000 t2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley17.0561000 ha2019
maize33.6151000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes17.7491000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages3.8541000 ha2019
carrots and turnips2.131000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
peas, dry7.231000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape18.31000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar beet19.2631000 ha2019
tobacco1.5241000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton5151000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples5.8891000 ha2019
apricots2.591000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
almonds1.6051000 ha2019
TOP

Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber10 0002019
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle2 268.3321000 heads2019
cattle and buffaloes2 268.3321000 heads2019
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs9$1000 heads2019
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep14 067.6661000 heads2019
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats2 370.8881000 heads2019
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses24.8811000 heads2019
asses and mules24.8811000 heads2019
Livestock - Camelids
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
camels127.4051000 heads2019
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds17 4431000 heads2019
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey0.81000 t2019
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter2.9811000 t2018
cheese1.891000 t2018
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
freshwater fishes379t2019
marine fishes1$t2019
TOP

Minerals

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
natural gas58 961.4M m³2020
oil, crude9 969.21000 t2020
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bentonite9.41000 t2018
gypsum1101000 t2018
Mineral resources - Other minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
iodine600t2020
TOP

Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal21 182M kWh2018
non-renewable electricity generation99.986%2018
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal5 2001000 kW2018
- hydro1$1000 kW2019
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation21 185M kWh2018
total installed capacity5 2011000 kW2018
TOP

Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
steel, crude1441000 t2018
sulfur, rec.4501000 t2019
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
petrol3 551.51000 t2014
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ammonia6001000 t2019
nitric acid2121000 t2002
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
carpets1 4751000 m²2003
cotton fabrics78$M m²2002
Industry - Clothing and footwear
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
footwear300 000pairs2003
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cottonseed oil49.51000 t2018
soft drinks, excluding mineral waters4061000 hl2002
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement3 8001000 t2018
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufacturing production13 481.5M US$2012
TOP

Trade

Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20207 120M US$ -
20199 695M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20203 225M US$ -
20192 913M US$ -
TOP

Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Number of arrivals8 000units2007
TOP

Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown16 800 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried2 081.41000 units2019
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers0.868per 1000 pop.2017
Computers71.9per 1000 pop.2005
TOP

Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling12.933years2019
Gross enrolment ratio, primary - Female116.832index2019
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Students, primary level557 184units2019
Students, secondary level706 547units2019
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds4.03per 1000 pop.2014
Physicians2.22per 1000 pop.2014
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Tuberculosis45$per 100 000 pop.2019
Tuberculosis (prevalence)88$per 100 000 pop.2014
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking99.9%2019
Access to electricity99.9%2019
TOP