Form of Government: Republic
Area: 491 210 sq km
Population: 5 758 075 inhab. (estimate 2017)
Density: 11.72 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 43° - 35° N; long. 53° - 67° E
Capital: Aşgabat (capital) 810 186 inhab. (2018);
Currency: new manat (100 tennesi or tenge)
Human development index: 0.706 (rank: 108)
President and head of government: Gurbanguly Berdymuhammedov (TDP), elected 11 February 2007, last reconfirmed 12 February 2017
Internet: www.turkmenistan.gov.tm (Information site)
Member of CIS associated, EBRD, OIC, OSCE, UN

Turkmenistan

Türkmenistan
Useful information

International license plate code TM
International dialling code 00993
Travel vaccinations requirement none
Electricity (Voltage) 220
Driving side rigth
Internet code .tm

GMT  +5
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Aşgabat 16.1
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Aşgabat 2/31
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Aşgabat 11/4
Annual average precipitation (mm) Aşgabat 222
Days of rainfall (annual average) Aşgabat 52

Geography.
Turkmenistan is bordered to the north by Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan, to the southeast by Afghanistan, to the south by Iran and to the west lies the Caspian Sea. The southern border is marked by the Kopet Dag mountains, the country is largely desert (the Karakum Desert), watered by the Amu Darya, Tejen and Atrek rivers.
The Caspian coast is flat and with a landscape of dunes. The climate is of a continental type.

Government


A former soviet republic in the USSR, independence was proclaimed on 29 October 1991. The Democratic Party (TDP), heirs to the Communists, have kept their grip on all political and economic control in the country. Saparmyrat Niyazov (calling himself Türkmenbaşy, “father of the Turkmenis”) led the country for long time by means of an authoritarian and populist regime which continued even after his death in 2006. The Constitution of 1992 set up a presidential system with only one official party (the TDP); in 2008 it was amended to allow a multi-party system to begin, but opposition parties are still illegal. The President of the Republic, who is also the head of the executive, is elected by direct suffrage for a five-year term, at the same time as the National Assembly (125 members).

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force8.2%2015
Army90.4%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes95.7per 100 000 pop.2006
Homicides4.2per 100 000 pop.2015
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Aşgabat810 186inhab.2018
Daşoguz301 000inhab.2014
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2018)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE

The fertility index, once very high, has rapidly reduced and is now comparable with the indices of European countries.

Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate24.62017
Death rate7.12017
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Turkmen85.6%2012
Uzbek5.8%2012


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Muslim89%2015
Orthodox9%2015


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Russian
Turkmen (official)
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years25.7%2018
15-29 years27.6%2018


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Economy


The growth rate is linked to hydrocarbon exports and is thus very sensitive to changes in prices on the international market. Agriculture is mainly concentrated in southern areas where there is irrigation. The main crops are cereals (wheat, rice, barley and maize), tomatoes, potatoes, fruit (watermelons, grapes, apples) and sugar beets. Cotton is widespread (in the areas of Mary and Tejen), and Turkmenistan is one of the largest producers in the world. The breeding of thoroughbred horses and karakul sheep is an important industry, as is silk farming.
Turkmenistan has crude oil deposits in the Caspian Sea region and is extremely rich in natural gas both on the mainland (large reserves in eastern and southwestern parts of the country, in the Amu Darya and Murgap basins) and offshore (Caspian Sea). Gas is exported to China via a gas pipeline that travels through Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan; the pipelines linked with Iran and Russia are inactive.
A connection under the Caspian Sea between the Turkmenistan and Baku (Azerbaijan) resources is now being planned; it is the beginning of the gas pipeline that, through Georgia and Turkey, reaches the port of Ceyhan, in the Mediterranean. The connection with India through Afghanistan and Pakistan is under construction. Other resources are sulphur, mineral salts (bromine, sodium and iodine) and rock salt from the Karakum Desert.
Industrial growth is limited: there are some refineries (Seidi e Türkmenbaşy), chemical works, cement works, metal machinery factories and textiles (Aşgabat). The traditional craft of carpet making is also significant. The main exports consist of natural gas, cotton, cotton textiles and chemical products. Public debt is rapidly increasing.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)102.03index2016
Balance of trade7 500M US$2018
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population2 636 948units2018
Active population, Females41.6%2018
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate3.8%2018
Unemployment rate, Females23.3%2018
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses17 832M LCU2016
Revenues18 571M LCU2016
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture22.8%2018
industry33.7%2018
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture8.9%2017
industry60.2%2017
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
International reserves13 221.5M US$2007
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Agriculture

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land4.26%2015
forests8.78%2015
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley13.6461000 t2017
cereals, total1 191.7191000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes314.1161000 t2017
roots and tubers, total314.1161000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages76.2461000 t2017
carrots and turnips95.8291000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
peas, dry13.5781000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes292.111000 t2017
raisins0.81000 t2006
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar beet242.1131000 t2017
tobacco3.2241000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton483.1881000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples95.8791000 t2017
apricots48.3741000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
almonds1.0861000 t2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley9.521000 ha2017
maize35.3551000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes15.2431000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages4.6641000 ha2017
carrots and turnips2.8731000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
peas, dry7.3591000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape19.8211000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar beet18.7241000 ha2017
tobacco1.4981000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton531.6651000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples6.4211000 ha2017
apricots3.3821000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
almonds1.6031000 ha2017
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber02016
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle2 419.9941000 heads2017
cattle and buffaloes2 419.9941000 heads2017
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs9.51000 heads2017
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep13 970.8261000 heads2017
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats2 373.8431000 heads2017
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses24.8981000 heads2017
asses and mules24.8981000 heads2017
Livestock - Camelids
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
camels125.3831000 heads2017
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds17 0621000 heads2017
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey0.7461000 t2014
Livestock - Silk farming
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
silk, raw4.51000 t2014
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter31000 t2014
cheese1.91000 t2014
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
freshwater fishes364t2017
total catch15 050t2017
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Minerals

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
natural gas79 770M m³2017
oil, crude12 185.81000 t2018
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bentonite8.41000 t2016
gypsum1101000 t2016
Mineral resources - Other minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
iodine540t2018
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal21 181.96M kWh2016
non-renewable electricity generation99.985%2016
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal4 0001000 kW2016
- hydro11000 kW2016
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation21 184.96M kWh2016
total installed capacity4 0011000 kW2016
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
steel, crude1401000 t2016
sulfur, rec.6101000 t2018
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
petrol3 551.51000 t2014
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ammonia3091000 t2016
nitric acid2121000 t2002
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
carpets1 4751000 m²2003
cotton fabrics78M m²2002
Industry - Clothing and footwear
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
footwear300 000pairs2003
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cottonseed oil49.91000 t2014
soft drinks, excluding mineral waters4061000 hl2002
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement3 5001000 t2016
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufacturing production13 481.5M US$2012
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Trade

Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
201810 000M US$ -
20177 458M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20182 500M US$ -
20174 571M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Number of arrivals8 000units2007
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown16 800 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried1 279.91000 units2017
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers0.706per 1000 pop.2016
Computers71.9per 1000 pop.2005
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling10.8years2014
Gross enrolment ratio, primary - Female88index2014
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, tertiary level8 159units2014
Students, primary level359 064units2014
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds7.4per 1000 pop.2013
Physicians2.3per 1000 pop.2014
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Tuberculosis43per 100 000 pop.2017
Tuberculosis (prevalence)88per 100 000 pop.2014
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking99.32%2016
Access to electricity100%2017
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