Form of Government: Republic
Area: 780 043 sq km
Population: 83 154 997 inhab. (estimate 2019)
Density: 106.60 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 42° - 36° N; long. 26° - 45° E
Capital: Ankara (capital) 5 036 238 inhab. (2019); Ankara 5 639 076 inhab. (2019), urban agglomeration
Currency: Turkish lira (100 kuruş)
Human development index: 0.807 (rank: 59)
President and head of government: Recep Tayyip Erdoğan (AKP), elected 10 August 2014, in office since 28 August 2014, reconfirmed 24 June 2018
Grand National Assembly: seats based on the elections of 24 June 2018: People’s Alliance (formed by AKP, Justice and Development Party, moderate Islamic, and MHP, Nationalist Movement Party), 344; Nation Alliance (led by CHP, Republican People’s Party, social democratic), 189; HDP (People’s Democratic Party, pro-Kurdish), 67
Internet: www.turkstat.gov.tr (Turkish Statistical Institute)
Member of Council of Europe, EBRD, NATO, OAS observer, OECD, OIC, OSCE, UN, WTO

Turkey

Türkiye, Türkiye Cumhuriyeti
Useful information

International license plate code TR
International dialling code 0090
Travel vaccinations requirement none
Electricity (Voltage) 230
Driving side rigth
Internet code .tr

GMT  +2
DST  +3
DST duration (start-end) late March-late October

Annual average temperature (°C) Ankara 11.7; İstanbul 14.2
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Ankara 0/22.5; İstanbul 5.5/23
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Ankara 11/3; İstanbul 10/2
Annual average precipitation (mm) Ankara 360; İstanbul 820
Days of rainfall (annual average) Ankara 68; İstanbul 90

Politics and current affairs

President R. T. Erdoğan’s desire to present his country as a focal point for the Sunni world - evidenced not least by the recent reopening of the mosque of Santa Sofia on 10 July 2020 - is borne out by an active presence at nearby scenes of crisis. In October 2019 Turkey launched an offensive to drive Kurdish forces from a strip of land near the border and prevent the Kurds founding an independent state there. In February and March 2020 the Turkish army clashed directly with Asad’s soldiers, who have the support of Russia and Iran, in the province of Idlib. Following Parliament’s approval, troops were also sent to Libya to support the Tripoli government’s counteroffensive.

Geography.
Turkey is bordered to the north-east by Georgia, to the east by Armenia, Iran and the Azeri exclave of Naxçıvan, to the south-east by Iran and Syria, and to the north-east lies continental Europe and the countries of Greece and Bulgaria. To the north the coastline lies on the Black Sea, to the southwest on the Mediterranean Sea and to the west on the Aegean Sea. Turkey extends into Europe, the eastern part of Thrace, separated from the rest of the country by the Sea of Marmara, the Dardanelles and the Bosphorus. Asian Turkey occupies the area known as Anatolia and consists of a vast plateau crossed by numerous mountain chains and enclosed by the Pontic Mountains to the north and the Taurus Mountains to the south. The main rivers are the River Kızılırmak and the River Yeşilırmak (which flow into the Black Sea), the River Tigris and the River Euphrates (which flow towards the Arabian Gulf) and the River Meander which flows into the Aegean. There are several lakes, mostly saltwater, such as Lake Van and Lake Tuz. The climate is Mediterranean on the coasts, continental inland and Alpine in the mountainous areas. Precipitation is generally rather low.

Government


The Turkish Republic was proclaimed by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk on 29 November 1923. In 1960 an initial army coup occurred that returned power to civilian hands a year later. In 1980, in a time of serious crisis, the armed forces dissolved parliament again, repealed the Constitution and formed a military government. The new Constitution which was approved in 1982 reinstated the parliamentary system, but the armed forces maintained their role as guardians of the political life of the country; government tensions increased following the 2002 election victory of the Justice and Development Party (AKP), led by R.T. Erdoğan, with an Islamic stance. Thanks to the strong support of the people, Erdoğan was able to centralize power, gradually adopting increasingly authoritative policies and changing the country to a presidential system though a referendum on 16 April 2017. The large Kurdish minority, residing in the centre-east of the country on the border with Iran and Iraq, has been subjected to repression and discrimination in terms of civil and social rights since 1923.
Since 1984, the PKK (Kurdistan Workers’ Party) has been active in the southeastern regions of the country, who have taken up arms to claim their independence; the conflict flared up again in 2015, increasing instability in the border zone with Syria, where the PKK is engaged against extremist militias and the Turkish government supports rebel groups against the Syrian regime and Kurdish militias.
According to the constitutional amendments adopted in 2017, the country is a presidential republic: the President, elected through direct voting and holding a five-year term, leads the government and has wide-ranging powers; the National Assembly is made up of 600 deputies elected for a term of five years.


Defence.
Conscription is compulsory (6-18 months).
The military police acts as the police force.


Justice.
The legal system dates to Mustafa Kemal Atatürk’s regime, based on European models. The authoritarian regression of the regime has considerably reduced civil liberties, limiting freedom of expression and leading to a vast campaign of arbitrary arrests.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force11.8%2015
Army78.7%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes2 518.2per 100 000 pop.2012
Homicides4.3per 100 000 pop.2012
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
İstanbul15 113 808inhab.2019
Ankara5 036 238inhab.2019
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
İstanbul15 519 267inhab.2019
Ankara5 639 076inhab.2019
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2018)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE

The country is an important transit stop before Europe for Syrian and Iraqi refugees; a negotiated agreement with the EU was signed in 2016 to block migratory flows.

Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate14.32019
Death rate5.32019
Foreigners
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Foreigners, total272 842units2013
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Turk70%2016
Kurd19%2016


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Muslim98%2017
other1%2017


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Arabic
Armenian
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years24.3%2018
15-29 years23.6%2018


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Economy


Economic situation.
The difficult political situation and insecurity, aggravated by the COVID-19 pandemic, have further curbed tourism and foreign investment, on which the rapid growth of previous years was based. The growing deficit, together with the lack of reforms have undermined international confidence and, alongside the uncertainties of the global market, have caused a withdrawal of foreign capital. The lira continued to depreciate and the Turkish economy, strongly dependent on credit, was crushed under the weight of its debt. The unemployment rate, already high, is rising steadily.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)129index2016
Balance of trade-29 476M US$2019
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population32 524 900units2019
Active population, Females32.8%2019
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate13.7%2019
Unemployment rate, Females39.4%2019
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses999 489M LCU2019
Revenues875 796M LCU2019
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture18.1%2019
industry25.3%2019
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture6.9%2018
industry33%2018
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation153.362BN LCU2019
International reserves104 152.4M US$2019
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Agriculture


Primary sector
Agriculture and forests.
Turkish agriculture, historically backward, based on smallholdings or large landed estates, has greatly developed, especially in terms of products for export. The main activity involves cereal crops (wheat, barley and maize). Turkey is one of the largest exporters of cotton, which is widely grown on the west coast. Citrus fruits and vines are also widely cultivated.
Along the southern coastal strip, Mediterranean crops are grown (vines, olives, figs, citrus fruits and almonds); particularly important from a commercial point of view is the production of raisins (sultanas and muscatel grapes) and dried figs.
On the Black Sea, tobacco and tea production is important, as is the production of hazelnuts, in which Turkey is the world leader. Inland, Anatolia opium poppies are also grown. There are also significant amounts of potatoes and tomatoes produced. Sugar beet and oil crops (sunflower and sesame seed) are grown on an industrial scale, as is the typical Turkish product of rose oil (distillation plants at Isparta).
There is also a small amount of timber production, especially in the areas near the Black Sea.
Livestock and fishing.
Livestock is an important resource, especially sheep, cattle and goats. Angora goats are very important as they provide the highly-prized mohair wool.
In western Anatolia and in Thrace, there is a traditional silkworm industry. Fishing (especially oily fish) is also practiced, mainly in the Sea of Marmara and in the Bosphorus.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land31.09%2015
forests15.22%2015
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley7 0001000 t2018
cereals, total34 395.6281000 t2018
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes4 5501000 t2018
roots and tubers, total4 551.0291000 t2018
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
artichokes39.4771000 t2018
asparagus0.1691000 t2018
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry2201000 t2018
beans, green580.9491000 t2018
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes3 9331000 t2018
raisins3761000 t2006
Agriculture - products - Olive
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
olives1 500.4671000 t2018
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts173.8351000 t2018
rapeseed1251000 t2018
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mustard seed01000 t2017
tea2701000 t2018
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar beet18 9001000 t2018
tobacco80.21000 t2018
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton2 5701000 t2018
Agriculture - products - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
flax fibre and tow0.0041000 t2018
linseed01000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hemp tow waste0.0091000 t2018
hempseed0.0031000 t2018
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples3 625.961000 t2018
apricots7501000 t2018
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
almonds1001000 t2018
hazelnuts5151000 t2018
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits4 902.0521000 t2018
citrus fruits, nes2.0521000 t2018
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados3.1641000 t2018
bananas498.8881000 t2018
Agriculture - products - Others
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mushrooms46.1441000 t2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley2 601.2071000 ha2018
maize591.5441000 ha2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes135.9041000 ha2018
taro0.0531000 ha2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
artichokes3.0651000 ha2018
cabbages25.6921000 ha2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry84.7861000 ha2018
beans, green42.5421000 ha2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape417.0411000 ha2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Olive
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
olive864.4281000 ha2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts44.291000 ha2018
rapeseed37.8461000 ha2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mustard seed01000 ha2017
tea83.6111000 ha2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar beet307.0671000 ha2018
tobacco92.9371000 ha2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton518.6341000 ha2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
linseed01000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hemp tow waste0.011000 ha2018
hempseed0.0061000 ha2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples174.691000 ha2018
apricots125.7561000 ha2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
almonds42.1911000 ha2018
hazelnuts728.3811000 ha2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits143.6741000 ha2018
citrus fruits, nes0.1851000 ha2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados0.5561000 ha2018
bananas7.6161000 ha2018
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber28 154 2502018
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle15 943.5861000 heads2018
cattle and buffaloes16 105.0251000 heads2018
Livestock - Buffaloes
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
buffaloes161.4391000 heads2018
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs1.3611000 heads2018
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep33 677.6361000 heads2018
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats10 634.6721000 heads2018
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses141.3751000 heads2018
asses and mules175.7351000 heads2018
Livestock - Camelids
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
camels1.7031000 heads2018
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds359 2171000 heads2018
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey114.1131000 t2018
Livestock - Silk farming
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
silk, raw0.051000 t2014
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter71.71000 t2019
cheese698.41000 t2019
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs64 884t2018
freshwater fishes21 725t2018
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Minerals


Secondary sector
Minerals.
The country has rich and very varied mineral resources. Of great strategic importance is the extraction of chromium, of which Turkey is one of the world’s largest producers (Guleman and districts around Bursa, Eskişehir, Fethiye and Antalya). The mining of iron ore is also important (at Divriği, Hekimhan, Cavdar-Torbali and Milas), copper (mines at Ergani and Maden near Diyarbakir and Murgul), bauxite, antimony, magnesite, manganese (Kepez, Marmaris, Fethiye and Antalya), sulfur, zinc (Çayeli) and lead (Hoça Çermis, Balya, Bulgar-Maden). Turkish specialty minerals include boracites from Bandirma and sepiolite (“sea foam”) from Eskişehir.
As far as energy resources are concerned, lignite and coal production are significant, even more so anthracite and fossil carbon in the area of Ereğli.
There is a small amount of oil produced, which is extracted in the south-eastern provinces (Selmo, Beykan, Raman and Germik).
Energy and industry.
Most of the electricity is produced by coal-fired power plants and hydroelectric plants (the largest are those of the Atatürk, Karakaya and Keban dams on the Euphrates, and of the Ilısu dam on the Tigris). A nuclear power plant with two reactors is being built in Büyükeceli. The most important industries are cement production, metal-working, textiles and foodstuffs.
The private sector is very active, but the state still maintains a strong presence. The main oil refineries are at Aliağa, Batman (supplied by the Batman-Yumurtalik oil pipeline), İzmit, Kırıkkale. The Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan pipeline and the two Kirkūk-Ceyhan pipelines are operational, transporting oil from the Caspian Sea and Iraq to the Mediterranean.
In 2018, the Trans-Anatolian Natural Gas Pipeline (TANAP) was inaugurated, which is part of the corridor intended to carry natural gas from the Caspian Sea through Turkey all the way to Europe. In 2017, work began on the TurkStream pipeline, running between Russia and European Turkey, passing under the Black Sea. Regasification terminals are located in Aliağa, Dörtyol and Marmara Ereğlisi.
Iron and steel works can be found in Karabük, Ereğli and İskenderun, there are also significant metal-working plants for copper, lead and aluminium (at Maden, Murgul Boçka, İstanbul and Kırıkkale); at Zonguldak metallurgical coke is produced. Chemical plants (at İzmit, Karabük, Aliaga, Kütahya, Samsun, Elazığ, İskenderun and Yarimca) produce significant quantities of sulfuric acid, nitrogenous and phosphate fertilizers, ammonia and soda. The cement industry is also important, encouraged by large public plants at Arslan, Kartal, Çanakkale, Gebze-Kocaeli, Ankara, Sivas, Adana, Afyon, Balıkesir, Çorum, Elazığ, Gaziantep, Pinarhisar and Söke. At Keçiborlu there is a sulfur-refining plant. As far as the machine industry is concerned, there are railway construction plants at Sivas and İzmit and aircraft construction at Kayseri. The automobile industry is growing (İstanbul, Bursa), thanks to joint ventures, often with foreign partners. The ship-building industry has yards at İstanbul and İzmir. In the textiles sector, cotton is the leading product with numerous production areas (Bakırköy-İstanbul, İzmit, Adana, Mersin, İzmir, Tarsus, Kayseri, Ereğli-Konya, Halkapınar, Nazilli and Malatya). Wool production is centred on İstanbul, Ankara, İzmit, Kütahya, Hereke, Defterdar, Bursa, Isparta, İzmir and Bünyan.
At Gemlik there are several factories producing synthetic fibres. Bursa is widely known for yarns and mohair textiles. Silk reeling and weaving and the production of quality carpets are also worthy of mention. Other industries include paper (at İzmit), glass (at Paşabahçe), tanning and leather, ceramics, rubber, beer and tobacco. There are many sugar factories, which works sugar beets and are largely state-owned.

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coal2 5871000 t2018
coal, total84 048.71000 t2019
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
antimony31000 t2019
bauxite1 0001000 t2017
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asphalt, natural1 567.31000 t2016
barite2501000 t2019
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
basalt24 883.21000 t2016
diatomite1701000 t2019
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gold21 000kg2017
silver376 640kg2016
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal193 650M kWh2018
- hydro59 157M kWh2018
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal46 2841000 kW2017
- hydro28 2911000 kW2018
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation289 211M kWh2018
total installed capacity85 2011000 kW2017
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
alumina3001000 t2017
aluminium801000 t2018
Industry - Machinery and transport equipment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bikes1 184 376no.2019
cars982 642no.2019
Industry - Precision and optical instruments
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
watches and clocks10 319 000no.2016
Industry - Electrical and electronics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
air conditioners2 897 640no.2019
fridges8 998 242no.2019
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen3 4961000 t2017
petrol8 384.51000 t2014
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ammonia3801000 t2017
artificial tow16.11000 t2019
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
carpets550 126.11000 m²2019
cotton fabrics1 766.3M m²2019
Industry - Clothing and footwear
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
footwear267 833 000pairs2016
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley1 002.11000 t2014
cottonseed oil54.61000 t2017
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes166 985M units2019
cigars and cigarettes166 985M units2019
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemical pulp701000 t2017
chemi-mechanical pulp701000 t2018
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement59 178.31000 t2019
sheet glass3 7901000 m²2016
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production11 129.4M US$2018
food, beverages and tobacco production16 735.2M US$2018
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Trade


Tertiary sector
Foreign trade.
The trade balance is structurally in deficit. Imports consist largely of raw materials, machinery, consumer goods and fuels.


Main exports (M US$ - 2017) 
apparel and accessories 14 801, iron and steel 13 841, machinery and home appliances 13 831, vehicles and parts thereof 12 131, cars 11 815, electrical and electronic equipment 8 097, gold 6 606, plastics 5 476, fruit and vegetables 4 943, jewels and precious stones 4 272, petroleum products 3 722


Finance and banking.
The banking system is regulated by a central bank (Merkez Bankası), which acts under the direct control of the government. A stock exchange has its headquarters in İstanbul.

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufactures80.878% of goods exports2018
food products10.468% of goods exports2018
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Germany16 618M US$2019
United Kingdom11 279M US$2019
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Russia23 115M US$2019
Germany19 279M US$2019
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
2019180 871M US$ -
2018177 169M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
2019210 347M US$ -
2018231 153M US$ -
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Tourism


Tourism. It is a very important national resource, but it reached a critical point in wake of the country’s political situation in 2015-16. The greatest attractions are the seaside areas, the numerous historic cities and archeological sites, amongst which are Ephesus, Miletus and Troy.

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures4 993M US$2018
Number of arrivals45 768 000units2018
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Communications


Transport.
The road and rail networks are extensive and have a satisfactory level of efficiency, especially in western areas. There is a high speed railway between Ankara-Konya and Ankara-İstanbul. The Ankara-Sivas and Ankara-İzmir lines are under construction. In 2013, a rail tunnel under the Bosphorus to Istanbul was inaugurated; other infrastructures are planned, such as the construction of a navigable canal connecting the Black Sea and the Aegean Sea, as an alternative to the Bosphorus.

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown161 200 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried115 595.51000 units2018
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers162.827per 1000 pop.2018
Computers61per 1000 pop.2008
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Social and welfare


Education, culture & research.
Education is compulsory and free between the ages of 6 and 18. The private education sector is growing fast.


Social security and health.
The National Health Service offers basic cover for all. There has recently been an increase in applications for supplementary health insurance.

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling18years2017
Gradautes, percentage20.8%2018
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level292 878units2017
Teachers, secondary level657 390units2017
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending31.1% of total expenses2019
Social protection spending12.3% of GDP2017
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds2.83per 1000 pop.2018
Physicians1.87per 1000 pop.2018
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV-0.1% of adults2011
Malaria214cases2017
Museums
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Museums451units2018
Museums, visitors40 647 844units2018
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.96% of GDP2017
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to electricity100%2018
Access to improved drinking-water source98.875%2017
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear7.2%2018
education1.5%2018
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