Form of Government: Republic
Area: 780 043 sq km
Population: 83 614 362 inhab. (estimate 2020)
Density: 107.19 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 42° - 36° N; long. 26° - 45° E
Capital: Ankara (capital) 5 036 238 inhab. (2019); Ankara 5 663 322 inhab. (2020), urban agglomeration
Currency: Turkish lira (100 kuruş)
Human development index: 0.82 (rank: 54)
President and head of government: Recep Tayyip Erdoğan (AKP), elected 10 August 2014, in office since 28 August 2014, reconfirmed 24 June 2018
Grand National Assembly: seats based on the elections of 24 June 2018: People’s Alliance (formed by AKP, Justice and Development Party, moderate Islamic, and MHP, Nationalist Movement Party), 344; Nation Alliance (led by CHP, Republican People’s Party, social democratic), 189; HDP (People’s Democratic Party, pro-Kurdish), 67
Internet: www.turkstat.gov.tr (Turkish Statistical Institute)
Member of Council of Europe, EBRD, NATO, OAS observer, OECD, OIC, OSCE, UN, WTO

Turkey

Türkiye, Türkiye Cumhuriyeti
Useful information

International license plate code TR
International dialling code 0090
Travel vaccinations requirement none
Electricity (Voltage) 230
Driving side rigth
Internet code .tr

GMT  +2
DST  +3
DST duration (start-end) late March-late October

Annual average temperature (°C) Ankara 11.7; İstanbul 14.2
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Ankara 0/22.5; İstanbul 5.5/23
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Ankara 11/3; İstanbul 10/2
Annual average precipitation (mm) Ankara 360; İstanbul 820
Days of rainfall (annual average) Ankara 68; İstanbul 90

Politics and current affairs

On 20 March 2021, with a presidential decree, the country withdrew from the Istanbul Convention to combat violence against women. On 21 June, the Constitutional Court accepted an indictment against the People’s Democratic Party (HDP), the main opposition, and must make a decision about shutting it down. These gestures are aimed at placating the more conservative sectors of Turkish politics, whose support is necessary for President R.T. Erdoğan.
In July and August, at the height of the tourist season, fires fomented by strong winds and high temperatures devastated large areas of the country, especially in the southwest, leading to deaths and serious environmental and economic damage.

Geography.
Turkey is bordered to the north-east by Georgia, to the east by Armenia, Iran and the Azeri exclave of Naxçıvan, to the south-east by Iran and Syria, and to the north-east lies continental Europe and the countries of Greece and Bulgaria. To the north the coastline lies on the Black Sea, to the southwest on the Mediterranean Sea and to the west on the Aegean Sea. Turkey extends into Europe, the eastern part of Thrace, separated from the rest of the country by the Sea of Marmara, the Dardanelles and the Bosphorus. Asian Turkey occupies the area known as Anatolia and consists of a vast plateau crossed by numerous mountain chains and enclosed by the Pontic Mountains to the north and the Taurus Mountains to the south. The main rivers are the River Kızılırmak and the River Yeşilırmak (which flow into the Black Sea), the River Tigris and the River Euphrates (which flow towards the Arabian Gulf) and the River Meander which flows into the Aegean. There are several lakes, mostly saltwater, such as Lake Van and Lake Tuz. The climate is Mediterranean on the coasts, continental inland and Alpine in the mountainous areas. Precipitation is generally rather low.

Government


The Turkish Republic was proclaimed by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk on 29 November 1923. In 1960 an initial army coup occurred that returned power to civilian hands a year later. In 1980, in a time of serious crisis, the armed forces dissolved parliament again, repealed the Constitution and formed a military government. The new Constitution which was approved in 1982 reinstated the parliamentary system, but the armed forces maintained their role as guardians of the political life of the country; government tensions increased following the 2002 election victory of the Justice and Development Party (AKP), led by R.T. Erdoğan, with an Islamic stance. Thanks to the strong support of the people, Erdoğan was able to centralize power, gradually adopting increasingly authoritative policies and changing the country to a presidential system though a referendum on 16 April 2017. The large Kurdish minority, residing in the centre-east of the country on the border with Iran and Iraq, has been subjected to repression and discrimination in terms of civil and social rights since 1923. Since 1984, the PKK (Kurdistan Workers’ Party) has been active in the southeastern regions of the country, who have taken up arms to claim their independence; the conflict flared up again in 2015, increasing instability in the border zone with Syria, where the PKK is engaged against extremist militias and the Turkish government supports rebel groups against the Syrian regime and Kurdish militias.In October 2019, Turkey launched an offensive to drive Kurdish forces from a strip of land near the border and prevent the Kurds founding an independent state there. According to the constitutional amendments adopted in 2017, the country is a presidential republic: the President, elected through direct voting and holding a five-year term, leads the government and has wide-ranging powers; the National Assembly is made up of 600 deputies elected for a term of five years.


Defence.
Conscription is compulsory (6-18 months).
The military police acts as the police force.


Justice.
The legal system dates to Mustafa Kemal Atatürk’s regime, based on European models. The authoritarian regression of the regime has considerably reduced civil liberties, limiting freedom of expression and leading to a vast campaign of arbitrary arrests.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force11.8%2015
Army78.7%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes2 518.2per 100 000 pop.2012
Homicides4.3per 100 000 pop.2012
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
İstanbul15 113 808inhab.2019
Ankara5 036 238inhab.2019
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
İstanbul15 462 452inhab.2020
Ankara5 663 322inhab.2020
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2020)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE

The country is an important transit stop before Europe for Syrian and Iraqi refugees; a negotiated agreement with the EU was signed in 2016 to block migratory flows.

Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate14.32019
Death rate5.32019
Foreigners
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Foreigners, total1 333 410units2020
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Turk70$%2016
Kurd19$%2016


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Muslim89.5%2019
nonreligious/atheist8.9%2019


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Arabic
Armenian
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years23.3%2020
15-29 years23.1%2020


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Economy


Economic situation.
Despite the recovery in 2021, following the recession caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, the economic situation remains critical. The growing deficit, together with the lack of reforms have undermined international confidence and, alongside the uncertainties of the global market, have caused a withdrawal of foreign capital, on which, together with tourism, the growth of previous years had been based. The lira continued to depreciate and the Turkish economy, strongly dependent on credit, was crushed under the weight of its debt. To contain the devaluation, after resorting to monetary reserves, the interest rates were hiked up in 2021, which President Erdoğan had always opposed, resulting in the dismissal of the governor of the central bank on 20 March. The unemployment rate, already high especially among young people, is rising steadily.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)129index2016
Agricultural prod. index (2014-16=100)110.74index2019
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population30 850 000units2020
Active population, Females31.6%2020
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate13.2%2020
Unemployment rate, Females35.8%2020
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses1 202 236M LCU2020
Revenues1 029 493M LCU2020
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture17.555%2020
industry26.241%2020
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture7.416%2020
industry31.216%2020
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation188.369BN LCU2020
International reserves93 511.563M US$2020
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Agriculture


Primary sector
Agriculture and forests.
Turkish agriculture, historically backward, based on smallholdings or large landed estates, has greatly developed, especially in terms of products for export. The main activity involves cereal crops (wheat, barley and maize), especially in central and south-eastern Anatolia. Turkey is one of the world’s largest cotton producers (Aegean and south-eastern Anatolia). Citrus fruits and vines are also widely cultivated. Along the southern coastal strip, Mediterranean crops are grown (vines, olives, figs, citrus fruits and almonds); particularly important from a commercial point of view is the production of raisins (sultanas and muscatel grapes) and dried figs. On the Black Sea, tobacco and tea production is important, as is the production of hazelnuts, in which Turkey is the world leader. Inland, Anatolia opium poppies are also grown. There are also significant amounts of potatoes and tomatoes produced. Sugar beet and oil crops (sunflower and sesame seed) are grown on an industrial scale, as is the typical Turkish product of rose oil (distillation plants at Isparta). There is also a small amount of timber production, especially in the areas near the Black Sea.
Livestock and fishing.
Livestock is an important resource, especially sheep, cattle and goats. Angora goats are very important as they provide the highly-prized mohair wool. In western Anatolia and in Thrace, there is a traditional silkworm industry. Fishing (especially oily fish) is also practiced, mainly in the Sea of Marmara and in the Bosphorus.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land30.125%2018
forests28.466%2018
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley7 6001000 t2019
cereals, total34 398.6981000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes4 979.8241000 t2019
roots and tubers, total4 980.7271000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
artichokes39.0711000 t2019
asparagus0.1741000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry2251000 t2019
beans, green596.0741000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes4 1001000 t2019
raisins3761000 t2006
Agriculture - products - Olive
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
olives1 5251000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts169.3281000 t2019
rapeseed1801000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mustard seed0$1000 t2017
tea2611000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar beet18 085.5281000 t2019
tobacco70$1000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton2 2001000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
flax fibre and tow0.0021000 t2019
linseed0$1000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hemp tow waste0.0271000 t2019
hempseed0.021000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples3 618.7521000 t2019
apricots846.6061000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
almonds1501000 t2019
hazelnuts776.0461000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits4 301.4151000 t2019
citrus fruits, nes2.231000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados4.2091000 t2019
bananas548.3231000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Others
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mushrooms49.3641000 t2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley2 860.8891000 ha2019
maize638.0651000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes140.7661000 ha2019
taro0.0521000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
artichokes3.0171000 ha2019
cabbages27.011000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry88.8991000 ha2019
beans, green43.7021000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape405.4391000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Olive
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
olive879.1771000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts42.2181000 ha2019
rapeseed52.511000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mustard seed0$1000 ha2017
tea84.881000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar beet310.11000 ha2019
tobacco81.0351000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton477.8071000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
linseed0$1000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hemp tow waste0.0281000 ha2019
hempseed0.0481000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples174.4391000 ha2019
apricots131.1781000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
almonds47.0881000 ha2019
hazelnuts734.4091000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits174.2451000 ha2019
citrus fruits, nes0.2021000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados0.9491000 ha2019
bananas8.4881000 ha2019
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber28 450 0002019
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle17 042.5061000 heads2019
cattle and buffaloes17 220.9031000 heads2019
Livestock - Buffaloes
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
buffaloes178.3971000 heads2019
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs1.6361000 heads2019
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep35 194.9721000 heads2019
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats10 922.4271000 heads2019
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses133.9531000 heads2019
asses and mules164.791000 heads2019
Livestock - Camelids
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
camels1.7081000 heads2019
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds348 7851000 heads2019
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey109.331000 t2019
Livestock - Silk farming
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
silk, raw0.011000 t2018
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter71.71000 t2019
cheese698.41000 t2019
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs63 538t2019
freshwater fishes22 471t2019
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Minerals


Secondary sector
Minerals.
The country has rich and very varied mineral resources. Of great strategic importance is the extraction of chromium, of which Turkey is one of the world’s largest producers (Guleman and districts around Bursa, Eskişehir, Fethiye and Antalya). The mining of iron ore is also important (at Divriği, Hekimhan, Cavdar-Torbali and Milas), copper (mines at Ergani and Maden near Diyarbakir and Murgul), bauxite, antimony, magnesite, manganese (Kepez, Marmaris, Fethiye and Antalya), sulfur, zinc (Çayeli) and lead (Hoça Çermis, Balya, Bulgar-Maden). Turkish specialty minerals include boracites from Bandirma and sepiolite (“sea foam”) from Eskişehir. As far as energy resources are concerned, lignite and coal production are significant, even more so anthracite and fossil carbon in the area of Ereğli. There is a small amount of oil produced, which is extracted in the south-eastern provinces (Selmo, Beykan, Raman and Germik).
Energy & industry.
Most of the electricity is produced by coal-fired power plants and hydroelectric plants (the largest are those of the Atatürk, Karakaya and Keban dams on the Euphrates, and of the Ilısu dam on the Tigris). A nuclear power plant with three reactors is being built in Büyükeceli. Geothermal production is also noteworthy.
The most important industries are cement production, metal-working, textiles and foodstuffs. The private sector is very active, but the state still maintains a strong presence. The main oil refineries are at Aliağa, Batman (supplied by the Batman-Yumurtalik oil pipeline), İzmit, Kırıkkale. The Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan pipeline and the two Kirkūk-Ceyhan pipelines are operational, transporting oil from the Caspian Sea and Iraq to the Mediterranean. In 2018, the Trans-Anatolian Natural Gas Pipeline (TANAP) was inaugurated, which is part of the corridor conveying natural gas from the Caspian Sea through Turkey all the way to Europe. The TurkStream gas pipeline between Russia and European Turkey across the Black Sea has been in operation since 2020. Regasification terminals are located in Aliağa, Dörtyol and Marmara Ereğlisi. Iron and steel works can be found in Karabük, Ereğli and İskenderun, there are also significant metal-working plants for copper, lead and aluminium (at Maden, Murgul Boçka, İstanbul and Kırıkkale); at Zonguldak metallurgical coke is produced. Chemical plants (at İzmit, Karabük, Aliaga, Kütahya, Samsun, Elazığ, İskenderun and Yarimca) produce significant quantities of sulfuric acid, nitrogenous and phosphate fertilizers, ammonia and soda.
The cement industry is also important, encouraged by large public plants at Arslan, Kartal, Çanakkale, Gebze-Kocaeli, Ankara, Sivas, Adana, Afyon, Balıkesir, Çorum, Elazığ, Gaziantep, Pinarhisar and Söke. At Keçiborlu there is a sulfur-refining plant. As far as the machine industry is concerned, there are railway construction plants at Sivas and İzmit and aircraft construction at Kayseri. The automobile industry is growing (İstanbul, Bursa), thanks to joint ventures, often with foreign partners. The ship-building industry has yards at İstanbul and İzmir. In the textiles sector, cotton is the leading product with numerous production areas (Bakırköy-İstanbul, İzmit, Adana, Mersin, İzmir, Tarsus, Kayseri, Ereğli-Konya, Halkapınar, Nazilli and Malatya). Wool production is centred on İstanbul, Ankara, İzmit, Kütahya, Hereke, Defterdar, Bursa, Isparta, İzmir and Bünyan.
At Gemlik there are several factories producing synthetic fibres. Bursa is widely known for yarns and mohair textiles. Silk reeling and weaving and the production of quality carpets are also worthy of mention. Other industries include paper (at İzmit), glass (at Paşabahçe), tanning and leather, ceramics, rubber, beer and tobacco. There are many sugar factories, which works sugar beets and are largely state-owned.

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coal2 7171000 t2019
coal, total70 798.51000 t2020
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
antimony2$1000 t2020
bauxite1 0001000 t2019
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asphalt, natural1 567.31000 t2016
barite1301000 t2020
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
basalt27 513.51000 t2018
diatomite1701000 t2020
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gold27 100kg2018
silver197 320kg2018
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal160 236.25M kWh2019
- hydro87 997.14M kWh2019
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal46 090.131000 kW2018
- hydro28 5031000 kW2019
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation290 442.07M kWh2019
total installed capacity88 468.631000 kW2018
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
alumina3001000 t2019
aluminium80$1000 t2019
Industry - Machinery and transport equipment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bikes1 184 376no.2019
cars855 043no.2020
Industry - Precision and optical instruments
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
watches and clocks10 319 000no.2016
Industry - Electrical and electronics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
air conditioners2 897 640no.2019
fridges8 998 242no.2019
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen2 9811000 t2018
petrol8 384.51000 t2014
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ammonia3801000 t2017
artificial tow16.11000 t2019
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
carpets550 126.11000 m²2019
cotton fabrics1 766.3M m²2019
Industry - Clothing and footwear
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
footwear267 833 000pairs2016
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley964.7521000 t2018
cottonseed oil211.91000 t2018
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes166 985M units2019
cigars and cigarettes166 985M units2019
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mechanical pulp70$1000 t2019
other paper2 799.9911000 t2019
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement66 0001000 t2020
sheet glass3 7901000 m²2016
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production11 226.095M US$2018
food, beverages and tobacco production16 880.677M US$2018
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Trade


Tertiary sector
Foreign trade.
The trade balance is structurally in deficit. Imports consist largely of raw materials, machinery, consumer goods and fuels.


Main exports (M US$ - 2017) 
apparel and accessories 14 801, iron and steel 13 841, machinery and home appliances 13 831, vehicles and parts thereof 12 131, cars 11 815, electrical and electronic equipment 8 097, gold 6 606, plastics 5 476, fruit and vegetables 4 943, jewels and precious stones 4 272, petroleum products 3 722


Finance and banking.
The banking system is regulated by a central bank (Merkez Bankası), which acts under the direct control of the government. A stock exchange has its headquarters in İstanbul.

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufactures78.165% of goods exports2019
food products10.725% of goods exports2019
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Germany15 980M US$2020
United Kingdom11 236M US$2020
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
China23 040M US$2020
Germany21 732M US$2020
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
2020169 482M US$ -
2019180 833M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
2020219 397M US$ -
2019210 345M US$ -
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Tourism


Tourism. It is a very important national resource, but it reached a critical point in wake of the country’s political situation in 2015-16. The greatest attractions are the seaside areas, the numerous historic cities and archeological sites, amongst which are Ephesus, Miletus and Troy.

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures4 900M US$2019
Number of arrivals51 192 000units2019
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Communications


Transport.
The road and rail networks are extensive and have a satisfactory level of efficiency, especially in western areas. There is a high speed railway between Ankara-Konya and Ankara-İstanbul. The Ankara-Sivas and Ankara-İzmir lines are under construction. In 2013, a rail tunnel under the Bosphorus to Istanbul was inaugurated; other infrastructures are planned, such as the construction of a navigable canal connecting the Black Sea and the Aegean Sea, as an alternative to the Bosphorus.

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown161 200 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried111 028.61000 units2019
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers170.587per 1000 pop.2019
Computers61$per 1000 pop.2008
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Social and welfare


Education, culture & research.
Education is compulsory and free between the ages of 6 and 18. The private education sector is growing fast.


Social security, health and other social indicators.
The National Health Service offers basic cover for all. There has recently been an increase in applications for supplementary health insurance.

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling18.158years2018
Gradautes, percentage21.951%2019
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Students, primary level5 104 599units2018
Students, secondary level11 279 561units2018
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending30.584% of total expenses2019
Social protection spending11.991% of GDP2019
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds2.83per 1000 pop.2018
Physicians1.87per 1000 pop.2018
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV-0.1% of adults2011
Malaria214cases2017
Museums
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Museums451units2018
Museums, visitors40 647 844units2018
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending1.06% of GDP2019
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking95.1%2019
Access to electricity100%2019
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear7.3%2019
education1.5%2019
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