Form of Government: Republic
Area: 780 043 sq km
Population: 82 003 882 inhab. (estimate 2018)
Density: 105.13 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 42° - 36° N; long. 26° - 45° E
Capital: Ankara (capital) 4 875 803 inhab. (2018); Ankara 5 503 985 inhab. (2018), urban agglomeration
Currency: Turkish lira (100 kuruş)
Human development index: 0.791 (rank: 64)
President and head of government: Recep Tayyip Erdoğan (AKP), elected 10 August 2014, in office since 28 August 2014, reconfirmed 24 June 2018
Grand National Assembly: seats based on the elections of 24 June 2018: People’s Alliance (formed by AKP, Justice and Development Party, moderate Islamic, and MHP, Nationalist Movement Party), 344; Nation Alliance (led by CHP, Republican People’s Party, social democratic), 189; HDP (People’s Democratic Party, pro-Kurdish), 67
Internet: www.turkstat.gov.tr (Turkish Statistical Institute)
Member of Council of Europe, EBRD, NATO, OAS observer, OECD, OIC, OSCE, UN, WTO

Turkey

Türkiye, Türkiye Cumhuriyeti
Useful information

International license plate code TR
International dialling code 0090
Travel vaccinations requirement none
Electricity (Voltage) 230
Driving side rigth
Internet code .tr

GMT  +2
DST  +3
DST duration (start-end) late March-late October

Annual average temperature (°C) Ankara 11.7; İstanbul 14.2
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Ankara 0/22.5; İstanbul 5.5/23
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Ankara 11/3; İstanbul 10/2
Annual average precipitation (mm) Ankara 360; İstanbul 820
Days of rainfall (annual average) Ankara 68; İstanbul 90

Politics and current affairs

The alliance between President R.T. Erdoğan’s Justice and Development Party and the Nationalist Movement Party suffered in the administrative elections on 31 March 2019, when they lost control of Ankara, Istanbul and other cities to the candidates of the Republican People’s Party. Despite the vote being nullified in Istanbul, the opposition candidate won by an even wider margin in the repeat elections (23 June). The consultation was heavily affected by the negative economic situation of the country, which is experiencing a recession, high inflation rate and increase in unemployment.

Geography.
Turkey is bordered to the north-east by Georgia, to the east by Armenia, Iran and the Azeri exclave of Naxçıvan, to the south-east by Iran and Syria, and to the north-east lies continental Europe and the countries of Greece and Bulgaria. To the north the coastline lies on the Black Sea, to the southwest on the Mediterranean Sea and to the west on the Aegean Sea. Turkey extends into Europe, the eastern part of Thrace, separated from the rest of the country by the Sea of Marmara, the Dardanelles and the Bosphorus. Asian Turkey occupies the area known as Anatolia and consists of a vast plateau crossed by numerous mountain chains and enclosed by the Pontic Mountains to the north and the Taurus Mountains to the south. The main rivers are the River Kızılırmak and the River Yeşilırmak (which flow into the Black Sea), the River Tigris and the River Euphrates (which flow towards the Arabian Gulf) and the River Meander which flows into the Aegean. There are several lakes, mostly saltwater, such as Lake Van and Lake Tuz. The climate is Mediterranean on the coasts, continental inland and Alpine in the mountainous areas. Precipitation is generally rather low.

Government


The Turkish Republic was proclaimed by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk on 29 November 1923. In 1960 an initial army coup occurred that returned power to civilian hands a year later. In 1980, in a time of serious crisis, the armed forces dissolved parliament again, repealed the Constitution and formed a military government. The new Constitution which was approved in 1982 reinstated the parliamentary system, but the armed forces maintained their role as guardians of the political life of the country; government tensions increased following the 2002 election victory of the Justice and Development Party (AKP), led by R.T. Erdoğan, with an Islamic stance. Thanks to the strong support of the people, Erdoğan was able to centralize power, gradually adopting increasingly authoritative policies and changing the country to a presidential system though a referendum on 16 April 2017. The large Kurdish minority, residing in the centre-east of the country on the border with Iran and Iraq, has been subjected to repression and discrimination in terms of civil and social rights since 1923.
Since 1984, the PKK (Kurdistan Workers’ Party) has been active in the southeastern regions of the country, who have taken up arms to claim their independence; the conflict flared up again in 2015, increasing instability in the border zone with Syria, where the PKK is engaged against extremist militias and the Turkish government supports rebel groups against the Syrian regime and Kurdish militias.
According to the constitutional amendments adopted in 2017, the country is a presidential republic: the President, elected through direct voting and holding a five-year term, leads the government and has wide-ranging powers; the National Assembly is made up of 600 deputies elected for a term of five years.


Defence.
Conscription is compulsory (6-18 months).
The military police acts as the police force.


Justice.
The legal system dates to Mustafa Kemal Atatürk’s regime, based on European models. The authoritarian regression of the regime has considerably reduced civil liberties, limiting freedom of expression and leading to a vast campaign of arbitrary arrests.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force11.8%2015
Army78.7%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes2 518.2per 100 000 pop.2012
Homicides4.3per 100 000 pop.2012
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
İstanbul14 669 958inhab.2018
Ankara4 875 803inhab.2018
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
İstanbul15 067 724inhab.2018
Ankara5 503 985inhab.2018
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2018)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE

The country is an important transit stop before Europe for Syrian and Iraqi refugees; a negotiated agreement with the EU was signed in 2016 to block migratory flows.

Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate15.32018
Death rate5.22018
Foreigners
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Foreigners, total272 842units2013
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Turk70%2016
Kurd19%2016


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Muslim98%2017
other1%2017


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Arabic
Armenian
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years24.3%2018
15-29 years23.6%2018


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Economy


Economic situation.
The difficult political situation and insecurity have curbed tourism and foreign investment, on which the rapid growth of previous years was based. The growing deficit, together with the large current account deficit and the lack of reforms have undermined international confidence and, alongside the uncertainties of the global market and slowdown of the European economy, have caused a withdrawal of foreign capital. The lira quickly depreciated and the Turkish economy, strongly dependent on credit, was crushed under the weight of its debt.
In 2018, the country entered a recession, while the inflation rate and unemployment rose.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)129index2016
Balance of trade-55 079.3M US$2018
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population32 245 300units2018
Active population, Females32.4%2018
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate11%2018
Unemployment rate, Females40.9%2018
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses830 450M LCU2018
Revenues757 834M LCU2018
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture18.4%2018
industry26.7%2018
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture6.9%2017
industry32.9%2017
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation134.47BN LCU2018
International reserves92 982.6M US$2018
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Agriculture


Primary sector
Agriculture and forests.
Turkish agriculture, historically backward, based on smallholdings or large landed estates, has greatly developed, especially in terms of products for export. The main activity involves cereal crops (wheat, barley and maize). Turkey is one of the largest exporters of cotton, which is widely grown on the west coast. Citrus fruits and vines are also widely cultivated.
Along the southern coastal strip, Mediterranean crops are grown (vines, olives, figs, citrus fruits and almonds); particularly important from a commercial point of view is the production of raisins (sultanas and muscatel grapes) and dried figs.
On the Black Sea, tobacco and tea production is important, as is the production of hazelnuts, in which Turkey is the world leader. Inland, Anatolia opium poppies are also grown. There are also significant amounts of potatoes and tomatoes produced. Sugar beet and oil crops (sunflower and sesame seed) are grown on an industrial scale, as is the typical Turkish product of rose oil (distillation plants at Isparta).
There is also a small amount of timber production, especially in the areas near the Black Sea.
Livestock and fishing.
Livestock is an important resource, especially sheep, cattle and goats. Angora goats are very important as they provide the highly-prized mohair wool.
In western Anatolia and in Thrace, there is a traditional silkworm industry. Fishing (especially oily fish) is also practiced, mainly in the Sea of Marmara and in the Bosphorus.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land31.09%2015
forests15.22%2015
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley7 1001000 t2017
cereals, total36 126.1571000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes4 8001000 t2017
roots and tubers, total4 801.0311000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
artichokes38.4311000 t2017
asparagus0.1781000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry2391000 t2017
beans, green630.3471000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes4 2001000 t2017
raisins3761000 t2006
Agriculture - products - Olive
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
olives2 1001000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts165.331000 t2017
rapeseed601000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mustard seed01000 t2017
tea2341000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar beet20 828.3161000 t2017
tobacco801000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton2 4501000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
flax fibre and tow0.0031000 t2017
linseed01000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hemp tow waste0.0081000 t2017
hempseed0.0011000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples3 032.1641000 t2017
apricots9851000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
almonds901000 t2017
hazelnuts6751000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits4 769.7261000 t2017
citrus fruits, nes2.1241000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados2.7651000 t2017
bananas369.0091000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Others
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mushrooms40.8741000 t2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley2 418.3121000 ha2017
maize637.7261000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes142.8511000 ha2017
taro0.0521000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
artichokes2.9941000 ha2017
cabbages26.5031000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry89.6781000 ha2017
beans, green47.2691000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape416.9071000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Olive
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
olive846.0621000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts41.951000 ha2017
rapeseed16.4951000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mustard seed01000 ha2017
tea82.1081000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar beet338.8261000 ha2017
tobacco951000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton501.4781000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
linseed01000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hemp tow waste0.011000 ha2017
hempseed0.0021000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples175.3571000 ha2017
apricots125.0491000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
almonds34.051000 ha2017
hazelnuts439.0971000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits1401000 ha2017
citrus fruits, nes0.1741000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados0.5321000 ha2017
bananas6.8211000 ha2017
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber24 805 0002017
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle14 080.1551000 heads2017
cattle and buffaloes14 222.2281000 heads2017
Livestock - Buffaloes
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
buffaloes142.0731000 heads2017
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs1.2991000 heads2017
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep30 983.9331000 heads2017
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats10 345.2991000 heads2017
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses151.4391000 heads2017
asses and mules189.6681000 heads2017
Livestock - Camelids
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
camels1.5991000 heads2017
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds348 1431000 heads2017
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey103.5251000 t2014
Livestock - Silk farming
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
silk, raw0.051000 t2014
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter211.7441000 t2014
cheese203.9331000 t2014
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs54 811t2017
freshwater fishes23 316t2017
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Minerals


Secondary sector
Minerals.
The country has rich and very varied mineral resources. Of great strategic importance is the extraction of chromium, of which Turkey is one of the world’s largest producers (Guleman and districts around Bursa, Eskişehir, Fethiye and Antalya). The mining of iron ore is also important (at Divriği, Hekimhan, Cavdar-Torbali and Milas), copper (mines at Ergani and Maden near Diyarbakir and Murgul), bauxite, antimony, magnesite, manganese (Kepez, Marmaris, Fethiye and Antalya), sulfur, zinc (Çayeli) and lead (Hoça Çermis, Balya, Bulgar-Maden). Turkish specialty minerals include boracites from Bandirma and sepiolite (“sea foam”) from Eskişehir.
As far as energy resources are concerned, lignite and coal production are significant, even more so anthracite and fossil carbon in the area of Ereğli.
There is a small amount of oil produced, which is extracted in the south-eastern provinces (Selmo, Beykan, Raman and Germik).
Energy and industry.
Most of the electricity is produced by coal-fired power plants and hydroelectric plants (the largest are those of the Atatürk, Karakaya and Keban dams on the Euphrates, and of the Ilısu dam on the Tigris). A nuclear power plant is being built in Büyükeceli. The most important industries are cement production, metal-working, textiles and foodstuffs.
The private sector is very active, but the state still maintains a strong presence. The main oil refineries are at Aliağa, Batman (supplied by the Batman-Yumurtalik oil pipeline), İzmit, Kırıkkale. The Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan pipeline and the two Kirkūk-Ceyhan pipelines are operational, transporting oil from the Caspian Sea and Iraq to the Mediterranean.
In 2018, the Trans-Anatolian Natural Gas Pipeline (TANAP) was inaugurated, which is part of the corridor intended to carry natural gas from the Caspian Sea through Turkey all the way to Europe. In 2017, work began on the TurkStream pipeline, running between Russia and European Turkey, passing under the Black Sea. Regasification terminals are located in Aliağa, Dörtyol and Marmara Ereğlisi.
Iron and steel works can be found in Karabük, Ereğli and İskenderun, there are also significant metal-working plants for copper, lead and aluminium (at Maden, Murgul Boçka, İstanbul and Kırıkkale); at Zonguldak metallurgical coke is produced. Chemical plants (at İzmit, Karabük, Aliaga, Kütahya, Samsun, Elazığ, İskenderun and Yarimca) produce significant quantities of sulfuric acid, nitrogenous and phosphate fertilizers, ammonia and soda. The cement industry is also important, encouraged by large public plants at Arslan, Kartal, Çanakkale, Gebze-Kocaeli, Ankara, Sivas, Adana, Afyon, Balıkesir, Çorum, Elazığ, Gaziantep, Pinarhisar and Söke. At Keçiborlu there is a sulfur-refining plant. As far as the machine industry is concerned, there are railway construction plants at Sivas and İzmit and aircraft construction at Kayseri. The automobile industry is growing (İstanbul, Bursa), thanks to joint ventures, often with foreign partners. The ship-building industry has yards at İstanbul and İzmir. In the textiles sector, cotton is the leading product with numerous production areas (Bakırköy-İstanbul, İzmit, Adana, Mersin, İzmir, Tarsus, Kayseri, Ereğli-Konya, Halkapınar, Nazilli and Malatya). Wool production is centred on İstanbul, Ankara, İzmit, Kütahya, Hereke, Defterdar, Bursa, Isparta, İzmir and Bünyan.
At Gemlik there are several factories producing synthetic fibres. Bursa is widely known for yarns and mohair textiles. Silk reeling and weaving and the production of quality carpets are also worthy of mention. Other industries include paper (at İzmit), glass (at Paşabahçe), tanning and leather, ceramics, rubber, beer and tobacco. There are many sugar factories, which works sugar beets and are largely state-owned.

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coal2 5441000 t2017
coal, total84 546.51000 t2018
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
alumina5051000 t2016
antimony21000 t2018
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asphalt, natural1 567.31000 t2016
barite2901000 t2018
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
basalt24 883.21000 t2016
diatomite601000 t2018
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gold24 030kg2016
silver376 640kg2016
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal172 420.44M kWh2016
- hydro66 686M kWh2016
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal43 9131000 kW2016
- hydro26 6811000 kW2016
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation261 879.44M kWh2016
total installed capacity78 4971000 kW2016
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
aluminium801000 t2017
coke, metall.4 2391000 t2016
Industry - Machinery and transport equipment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bikes1 289 988no.2017
cars1 026 461no.2018
Industry - Precision and optical instruments
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
watches and clocks10 319 000no.2016
Industry - Electrical and electronics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
air conditioners3 281 472no.2017
fridges8 821 814no.2017
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen3 4361000 t2016
petrol8 384.51000 t2014
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ammonia3831000 t2016
artificial tow29.21000 t2017
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
carpets518 775.61000 m²2017
cotton fabrics1 576.8M m²2017
Industry - Clothing and footwear
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
footwear267 833 000pairs2016
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley1 002.11000 t2014
cottonseed oil54.61000 t2017
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes156 881.3M units2017
cigars and cigarettes156 881.3M units2017
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemical pulp701000 t2017
chemi-mechanical pulp701000 t2017
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement84 0001000 t2018
sheet glass3 7901000 m²2016
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production9 613.4M US$2016
food, beverages and tobacco production17 976.4M US$2016
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Trade


Tertiary sector
Foreign trade.
There is a trade deficit. Imports consist largely of raw materials, machinery, consumer goods and fuels.
The main trading partners are the EU, Russia, China, Iraq and the USA.


Main exports (M US$ - 2017) 
apparel and accessories 14 801, iron and steel 13 841, machinery and home appliances 13 831, vehicles and parts 
thereof 12 131, cars 11 815, electrical and electronic equipment 8 097, 
gold 6 606, plastics 5 476, fruit and vegetables 4 943, jewels and precious stones 4 272, petroleum products 3 722


Finance and banking.
The banking system is regulated by a central bank (Merkez Bankası), which acts under the direct control of the government. A stock exchange has its headquarters in İstanbul.

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufactures80.206% of goods exports2017
food products11.028% of goods exports2017
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Germany16 144M US$2018
United Kingdom11 113M US$2018
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Russia21 990M US$2018
China20 719M US$2018
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
2018167 967M US$ -
2017156 993M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
2018223 047M US$ -
2017233 800M US$ -
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Tourism


Tourism. It is a very important national resource, but it reached a critical point in wake of the country’s political situation in 2015-16. The greatest attractions are the seaside areas, the numerous historic cities and archeological sites, amongst which are Ephesus, Miletus and Troy.

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures5 181M US$2017
Number of arrivals37 601 000units2017
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Communications


Transport.
The road and rail networks are extensive and have a satisfactory level of efficiency, especially in western areas. There is a high speed railway between Ankara-Konya and Ankara-İstanbul. The Ankara-Sivas and Ankara-İzmir lines are under construction. In 2013, a rail tunnel under the Bosphorus to Istanbul was inaugurated; other infrastructures are planned, such as the construction of a navigable canal connecting the Black Sea and the Aegean Sea, as an alternative to the Bosphorus.

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown161 200 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried107 917.31000 units2017
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers147.686per 1000 pop.2017
Computers61per 1000 pop.2008
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Social and welfare


Education, culture & research.
Education is compulsory and free between the ages of 6 and 18. The private education sector is growing fast.


Social security and health.
The National Health Service offers basic cover for all. There has recently been an increase in applications for supplementary health insurance.

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling17.7years2016
Gradautes, percentage20%2017
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level295 252units2015
Teachers, secondary level594 443units2015
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending30.4% of total expenses2016
Social protection spending12.9% of GDP2016
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds2.8per 1000 pop.2017
Physicians1.9per 1000 pop.2017
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV-0.1% of adults2011
Malaria214cases2017
Museums
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Museums438units2017
Museums, visitors30 661 676units2017
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.96% of GDP2017
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to electricity100%2017
Access to improved drinking-water source100%2015
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear7.2%2017
education1.6%2017
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