Form of Government: Republic
Area: 5 127 sq km
Population: 1 366 725 inhab. (estimate 2020)
Density: 266.57 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 12° - 10° N; long. 62° - 60° W
Capital: Port of Spain (capital) 37 074 inhab. (2011); Port of Spain 544 417 inhab. (2018), urban agglomeration
Currency: Trinidad and Tobago dollar (100 cents)
Human development index: 0.796 (rank: 67)
President: Paula-Mae Weekes (independent), elected 19 January 2018, in office since 19 March 2018
Prime Minister: Keith Rowley (PNM), since 9 September 2015
House of Representatives: seats based on the elections of 10 August 2020: PNM (People’s National Movement, conservative), 22; UNC (United National Congress, social democrat), 19
Internet: www.cso.gov.tt (Central Statistical Office)
Member of Caricom, Commonwealth, OAS, UN, WTO

Trinidad and Tobago

Trinidad and Tobago, Republic of Trinidad and Tobago
Useful information

International license plate code TT
International dialling code 001868
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (recommended for some areas of Trinidad; it is also required if traveling from a country with risk of transmission)
Electricity (Voltage) 115
Driving side left
Internet code .tt

GMT  -4
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Port of Spain 25.8
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Port of Spain 24/26
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Port of Spain 7/7
Annual average precipitation (mm) Port of Spain 1390
Days of rainfall (annual average) Port of Spain 173

Geography.
Trinidad and Tobago are two islands in the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of Venezuela, Trinidad, the larger of the two, is mostly flat and covered by forests.
The small island of Tobago is more mountainous.
The climate is sub-equatorial.

Government


A former British colony in the West Indies Federation (1958-61), Trinidad and Tobago has been an independent state since 1962 and was proclaimed a republic on 1 August 1976. Since 1995 the government has alternated between the UNC (the party representing the descendants of Indian immigrants) and the PNM (the party representing the descendants of African slaves), already leading the country since independence. The President of the Republic is elected by Parliament for a five-year term. Legislative power is exercised in the two chambers of Parliament: the House of Representatives (41 elected members) and the Senate (31 members, including 9 members appointed by the President, 16 by the majority and 6 by the opposition), in office for 5 years. Tobago has its own parliamentary assembly and has some administrative autonomy.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Army74.1%2015
Military expenditure0.736% of GDP2019
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Homicides30.9per 100 000 pop.2015
Police personnel485.6per 100 000 pop.2015
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Chaguanas83 516inhab.2011
San Fernando48 838inhab.2011
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Port of Spain544 417inhab.2018
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2020)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate12.5782019
Death rate8.52019
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Indian35.4%2011
black34.2%2011


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Protestant26.2%2011
Catholic21.6%2011


Languages
DESCRIPTION
English
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years18.7%2020
15-29 years17.4%2020


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Economy


Largely reliant on hydrocarbons, which account for most of its exports and feed a sovereign wealth fund, the country has attempted to diversify its economy by focusing on tourism, telecommunications and financial activities.
Fruit (pineapple, coconut) is the main trading crop. Bananas, taro and cassava are the main subsistence crops.
The most important sector is hydrocarbons: two oil pipelines take crude oil from the wells at Tabaquite and in the south-west of Trinidad to Claxton Bay and Point Fortin, where there is also natural gas liquefaction plant. The Pitch Lake at La Brea is a large natural deposit of asphalt.
Electricity production is based on gas-powered thermo-electric plants. Industry includes petrochemical works (Pointe-à-Pierre, Point Fortin and La Brea), chemical facilities, sugar refineries, a cement plant (Claxton Bay), beer, rum and non-alcoholic drink factories and cigarette manufacturing plants. Angostura bitters, made from the bark of the Angostura trifoliata, is a typical production.
There is a stock exchange in Port of Spain. Tourism activities are mostly centred on the Island of Tobago (tourists come largely from the USA).

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)96.01index2016
Agricultural prod. index (2014-16=100)104.31index2019
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population637 047units2020
Active population, Females42.5%2019
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate6.7%2020
Unemployment rate, Females44.8%2019
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses46 910.3M LCU2019
Revenues45 586.3M LCU2019
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture3$%2019
industry26.7%2019
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture1.04%2019
industry40.818%2019
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation8.412BN LCU2020
International reserves7 071.773M US$2020
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Agriculture

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land9.162%2018
forests44.645%2018
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cereals, total6$1000 t2019
maize5$1000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava2.3551000 t2019
roots and tubers, total9.4821000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages0.6281000 t2019
cauliflowers0.161000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts15.0391000 t2019
copra1$1000 t2006
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cocoa0.2281000 t2019
coffee0.0231000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane8101000 t2009
tobacco0.2061000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fruits, total72.7441000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits15.2991000 t2019
citrus fruits, nes7.541000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados0.6611000 t2019
bananas2.2491000 t2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
maize3$1000 ha2019
rice2$1000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava0.4141000 ha2019
sweet potatoes0.3141000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages0.091000 ha2019
cauliflowers0.0231000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts1.9171000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cocoa2.8341000 ha2019
coffee0.1571000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane15$1000 ha2009
tobacco0.151000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits2.9651000 ha2019
citrus fruits, nes0.6581000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados0.1231000 ha2019
bananas0.7811000 ha2019
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber196 9702019
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle35.2921000 heads2019
cattle and buffaloes41.411000 heads2019
Livestock - Buffaloes
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
buffaloes6.1181000 heads2019
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs20.0711000 heads2019
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep13.6171000 heads2019
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats8.2261000 heads2019
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses2.3541000 heads2019
asses and mules4.4021000 heads2019
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds38 4381000 heads2019
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey0.0571000 t2019
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
condensed milk516t2018
eggs3.551000 t2019
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs847.482t2019
freshwater fishes53$t2019
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Minerals

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
natural gas29 465.3M m³2020
oil, crude2 816.51000 t2020
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asphalt, natural16.21000 t2010
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal8 666.8M kWh2018
non-renewable electricity generation99.942%2018
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal2 0461000 kW2018
- other renew.8.011000 kW2019
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation8 671.8M kWh2018
total installed capacity2 054.011000 kW2018
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pig iron1 5401000 t2018
steel, crude36$1000 t2017
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen11$1000 t2018
petrol1 3681000 t2014
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ammonia4 3001000 t2020
fertilizers6 1041000 t2019
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley56.91000 t2018
coconut oil0.9781000 t2018
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes - t5.21000 t2008
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
other paper15$1000 t2019
paper15$1000 t2019
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement678.31000 t2019
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production396.7M US$2006
food, beverages and tobacco production113.9M US$2006
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Trade

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fuels48.866% of goods exports2015
manufactures43.607% of goods exports2015
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
United States4 962M US$2009
Jamaica476M US$2009
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
United States2 159M US$2009
Colombia690M US$2009
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20204 613M US$ -
20197 192M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20204 995M US$ -
20196 327M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures133M US$2019
Number of arrivals389 000units2019
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown26 500 000km flown2006
Civil aviation, passengers carried2 583.61000 units2019
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers243.259per 1000 pop.2019
Computers132.1per 1000 pop.2008
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling12.3years2007
Graduates3 176units2004
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Students, primary level131 350units2010
Students, secondary level95 275units2008
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending24.605% of total expenses2018
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds3.02per 1000 pop.2017
Physicians4.17per 1000 pop.2018
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV0.7% of adults2019
HIV, total2.6%2005
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.084% of GDP2018
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking100%2019
Access to electricity100%2019
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
food, non-alcoholic beverages18$%2003
housing, energy26.2%2003
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