Form of Government: Republic
Area: 5 127 sq km
Population: 1 359 193 inhab. (estimate 2018)
Density: 265.11 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 12° - 10° N; long. 62° - 60° W
Capital: Port of Spain (capital) 37 074 inhab. (2011); Port of Spain 544 417 inhab. (2018), urban agglomeration
Currency: Trinidad and Tobago dollar (100 cents)
Human development index: 0.784 (rank: 69)
President: Paula-Mae Weekes (independent), elected 19 January 2018, in office since 19 March 2018
Prime Minister: Keith Rowley (PNM), since 9 September 2015
House of Representatives: seats based on the elections of 17 September 2015: PNM (People’s National Movement, conservative), 23; UNC (United National Congress), 17; COP (Congress Of The People), 1
Internet: www.cso.gov.tt (Central Statistical Office)
Member of Caricom, Commonwealth, OAS, UN, WTO

Trinidad and Tobago

Trinidad and Tobago, Republic of Trinidad and Tobago
Useful information

International license plate code TT
International dialling code 001868
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (recommended for some areas of Trinidad; it is also required if traveling from a country with risk of transmission)
Electricity (Voltage) 115
Driving side left
Internet code .tt

GMT  -4
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Port of Spain 25.8
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Port of Spain 24/26
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Port of Spain 7/7
Annual average precipitation (mm) Port of Spain 1390
Days of rainfall (annual average) Port of Spain 173

Geography.
Trinidad and Tobago are two islands in the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of Venezuela, Trinidad, the larger of the two, is mostly flat and covered by forests.
The small island of Tobago is more mountainous.
The climate is sub-equatorial.

Government


A former British colony in the West Indies Federation (1958-61), Trinidad and Tobago has been an independent state since 1962 and was proclaimed a republic on 1 August 1976. Since 1995 the government has alternated between the UNC (the party representing the descendants of Indian immigrants) and the PNM (the party representing the descendants of African slaves), already leading the country since independence. The President of the Republic is elected by Parliament for a five-year term. Legislative power is exercised in the two chambers of Parliament: the House of Representatives (41 elected members) and the Senate (31 members, including 9 members appointed by the President, 16 by the majority and 6 by the opposition), in office for 5 years. Tobago has its own parliamentary assembly and has some administrative autonomy.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Army74.1%2015
Military expenditure0.9% of GDP2017
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Homicides30.9per 100 000 pop.2015
Police personnel485.6per 100 000 pop.2015
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Chaguanas83 516inhab.2011
San Fernando48 838inhab.2011
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Port of Spain544 417inhab.2018
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2018)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate12.72018
Death rate8.62018
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Indian35.4%2011
black34.2%2011


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Protestant26.2%2011
Catholic21.6%2011


Languages
DESCRIPTION
English
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years19.2%2018
15-29 years18.4%2018


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Economy


Largely reliant on hydrocarbons, which account for most of its exports and feed a sovereign wealth fund, the country has attempted to diversify its economy by focusing on tourism, telecommunications and financial activities.
Fruit (pineapple, coconut) is the main trading crop. Bananas, taro and cassava are the main subsistence crops.
The most important sector is hydrocarbons: two oil pipelines take crude oil from the wells at Tabaquite and in the south-west of Trinidad to Claxton Bay and Point Fortin, where there is also natural gas liquefaction plant. The Pitch Lake at La Brea is a large natural deposit of asphalt.
Electricity production is based on gas-powered thermo-electric plants. Industry includes petrochemical works (Pointe-à-Pierre, Point Fortin and La Brea), chemical facilities, sugar refineries, a cement plant (Claxton Bay), beer, rum and non-alcoholic drink factories and cigarette manufacturing plants. Angostura bitters, made from the bark of the Galipea officinalis, is also produced.
There is a stock exchange in Port of Spain. Tourism activities are mostly centred on the Island of Tobago (tourists come largely from the USA).

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)96.01index2016
Balance of trade2 555M US$2018
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population660 786units2018
Active population, Females42.5%2018
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate2.8%2018
Unemployment rate, Females45.2%2018
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses44 197.3M LCU2018
Revenues41 411M LCU2018
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture3.2%2018
industry27.3%2018
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture0.5%2017
industry38.9%2017
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation9.387BN LCU2018
International reserves8 108.5M US$2018
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Agriculture

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land9.16%2015
forests45.71%2015
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cereals, total5.5211000 t2017
maize3.2211000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava2.8021000 t2017
roots and tubers, total11.3251000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages0.3941000 t2017
cauliflowers0.1911000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts18.7651000 t2017
copra11000 t2006
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cocoa0.321000 t2017
coffee0.0391000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane8101000 t2009
tobacco0.2131000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fruits, total69.081000 t2014
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits10.3571000 t2017
citrus fruits, nes4.1281000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados0.6341000 t2017
bananas3.1131000 t2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
maize1.3241000 ha2017
rice2.71000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava0.321000 ha2017
sweet potatoes0.4981000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages0.061000 ha2017
cauliflowers0.021000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts2.511000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cocoa41000 ha2017
coffee0.2741000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane151000 ha2009
tobacco0.1251000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits2.4011000 ha2017
citrus fruits, nes0.5831000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados0.1221000 ha2017
bananas1.3511000 ha2017
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber197 5532017
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle35.8951000 heads2017
cattle and buffaloes41.7521000 heads2017
Livestock - Buffaloes
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
buffaloes5.8571000 heads2017
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs28.2071000 heads2017
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep13.071000 heads2017
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats7.7111000 heads2017
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses2.3251000 heads2017
asses and mules4.3581000 heads2017
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds37 0341000 heads2017
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey0.0351000 t2014
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
condensed milk500t2014
eggs3.251000 t2017
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs758t2017
freshwater fishes15t2017
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Minerals

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
natural gas35 425M m³2017
oil, crude3 166.81000 t2018
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asphalt, natural16.21000 t2010
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal10 069.28M kWh2016
non-renewable electricity generation99.960%2016
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal2 6001000 kW2016
- other renew.81000 kW2016
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation10 073.28M kWh2016
total installed capacity2 6081000 kW2016
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
steel, crude361000 t2016
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen91000 t2016
petrol1 3681000 t2014
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ammonia4 1001000 t2018
fertilizers5 4311000 t2018
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley431000 t2014
coconut oil1.51000 t2014
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes - t5.21000 t2008
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
other paper151000 t2017
paper151000 t2017
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement662.61000 t2018
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production396.7M US$2006
food, beverages and tobacco production113.9M US$2006
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Trade

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fuels48.865% of goods exports2015
manufactures43.606% of goods exports2015
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
United States4 962M US$2009
Jamaica476M US$2009
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
United States2 159M US$2009
Colombia690M US$2009
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
201810 075M US$ -
20178 863M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20187 520M US$ -
20176 425M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures147M US$2017
Number of arrivals395 000units2017
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown26 500 000km flown2006
Civil aviation, passengers carried2 5831000 units2017
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers238.675per 1000 pop.2017
Computers132.1per 1000 pop.2008
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling12.3years2007
Graduates3 176units2004
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level7 447units2010
Teachers, secondary level7 045units2008
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending17.8% of total expenses2015
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds3per 1000 pop.2014
Physicians1.2per 1000 pop.2013
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV1.1% of adults2017
HIV, total2.6%2005
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.1% of GDP2016
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking99.26%2016
Access to electricity100%2017
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
food, non-alcoholic beverages18%2003
housing, energy26.2%2003
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