Form of Government: Constitutional monarchy
Area: 748 sq km
Population: 108 020 inhab. (estimate 2017)
Density: 144.41 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 15° - 23° S; long. 177° - 170° W
Capital: Nuku’alofa (capital) 23 221 inhab. (2016); Nuku’alofa 35 184 inhab. (2016), urban agglomeration
Currency: pa'anga (100 seniti)
Human development index: 0.726 (rank: 98)
Sovereign: King Tupou VI, since 19 March 2012
Interim Prime Minister: Sēmisi Sika (Democratic Party), since 12 September 2019
Internet: //tonga.prism.spc.int (Tonga Department of Statistics)
Member of Commonwealth, SPC, UN, WTO

Tonga

Tonga, Kingdom of Tonga, Pule‘anga Tonga
Useful information

International license plate code TO
International dialling code 00676
Travel vaccinations requirement none
Electricity (Voltage) 240
Driving side left
Internet code .to

GMT  +13
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Nuku'alofa 23.5
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Nuku'alofa 25.5/21.5
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Nuku'alofa 6/6
Annual average precipitation (mm) Nuku'alofa 1680
Days of rainfall (annual average) Nuku'alofa 121

Geography.
The archipelago in the southern Pacific Ocean is made up of about 150 islands which are mostly volcanic or coral. Tonga has a tropical climate.

Government


A former British protectorate, Tonga (The Friendly Islands) has been independent since 4 June 1970. The Legislative Assembly is made up of 26 members (with 9 seats reserved for nobles) elected for a four-year term. The elections of 16 November 2017 were won by the Democratic Party.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Military expenditure0.9% of GDP2012
Military personnel600units2016
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes2 281.8per 100 000 pop.2007
Homicides0.9per 100 000 pop.2012
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Administrative division

Administrative division
DivisionAREAINHABITANTSYEAR
Eua87 sq km4 945 inhab.2016
Ha’apai109 sq km6 125 inhab.2016
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Nuku’alofa23 221inhab.2016
Kolofo'ou8 265inhab.2016
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Nuku’alofa35 184inhab.2016
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2018)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate23.62017
Death rate62017
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Tongan97.4%2016
other1.5%2016


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Methodist35%2016
other Christian29.5%2016


Languages
DESCRIPTION
English (official)
Tongan (official)
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years33.3%2018
15-29 years27.1%2018


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Economy


The main sources of wealth are farming products, which fuel exports (pumpkins, coconuts, cassava, tobacco and vanilla). Remittances from emigrants are important, as is tourism, the granting of fishing rights and international aid (especially from Australia).

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)136.61index2016
Balance of trade- 255M US$2018
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population41 852units2018
Active population, Females38.7%2018
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate1%2018
Unemployment rate, Females74%2018
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses470.6M LCU2017
Revenues418.8M LCU2017
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture30.5%2018
industry29.7%2018
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture19.5%2017
industry19%2017
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation0.093BN LCU2018
International reserves227.2M US$2018
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Agriculture

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land40.28%2015
forests12.5%2015
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava6.2591000 t2017
roots and tubers, total22.9181000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
squashes19.4091000 t2017
tomatoes0.8851000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts1.0951000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts145.9721000 t2017
copra1.51000 t2005
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coffee0.0161000 t2017
vanilla0.1811000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fruits, total8.5291000 t2014
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits3.3291000 t2017
lemons2.4061000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bananas0.81000 t2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava0.3981000 ha2017
sweet potatoes0.6031000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pumpkins and squashes2.0651000 ha2017
tomatoes0.0271000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts1.8361000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts7.4241000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coffee0.0111000 ha2017
vanilla0.2591000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits1.1921000 ha2017
lemons0.971000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bananas0.5291000 ha2017
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
natural rubber2 100t2001
timber4 0792017
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle11.9051000 heads2017
cattle and buffaloes11.9051000 heads2017
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs82.0071000 heads2017
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats13.4421000 heads2017
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
equines, total11.7751000 heads2017
horses11.7751000 heads2017
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds3431000 heads2017
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey0.0121000 t2014
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
eggs0.3441000 t2017
hides and skins0.0581000 t2013
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs5t2017
marine fishes1 395t2017
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
non-renewable electricity generation100%2016
- thermal52M kWh2016
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal171000 kW2016
- other renew.3.31000 kW2016
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation52M kWh2016
total installed capacity20.31000 kW2016
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Industry

Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconut oil6.31000 t2014
groundnut oil0.21000 t2014
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production0.1M US$2000
food, beverages and tobacco production4.3M US$2000
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Trade

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
food products364.696% of goods exports2014
manufactures29.235% of goods exports2014
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
201815M US$ -
201719M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
2018270M US$ -
2017238M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures38M US$2017
Number of arrivals62 500units2017
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown1 500 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried75.41000 units2004
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers28.005per 1000 pop.2016
Computers58.9per 1000 pop.2005
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling13.7years2006
Gross enrolment ratio, primary - Female105index2015
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level785units2015
Teachers, secondary level1 086units2015
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds2.6per 1000 pop.2010
Physicians0.6per 1000 pop.2010
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Tuberculosis12per 100 000 pop.2017
Tuberculosis (prevalence)21per 100 000 pop.2014
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking59.17%2016
Access to electricity97.967%2017
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear2.4%2009
education1.8%2009
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