Form of Government: Constitutional monarchy
Area: 748 sq km
Population: 104 494 inhab. (estimate 2019)
Density: 139.7 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 15° - 23° S; long. 177° - 170° W
Capital: Nuku’alofa (capital) 23 221 inhab. (2016); Nuku’alofa 35 184 inhab. (2016), urban agglomeration
Currency: pa'anga (100 seniti)
Human development index: 0.725 (rank: 104)
Sovereign: King Tupou VI, since 19 March 2012
Prime Minister: Pohiva Tu‘i‘onetoa (People‘s Party), since 27 September 2019
Internet: //tongastats.gov.to (Tonga Statistics Department)
Member of Commonwealth, SPC, UN, WTO

Tonga

Tonga, Kingdom of Tonga, Pule‘anga Tonga
Useful information

International license plate code TO
International dialling code 00676
Travel vaccinations requirement none
Electricity (Voltage) 240
Driving side left
Internet code .to

GMT  +13
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Nuku'alofa 23.5
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Nuku'alofa 25.5/21.5
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Nuku'alofa 6/6
Annual average precipitation (mm) Nuku'alofa 1680
Days of rainfall (annual average) Nuku'alofa 121

Geography.
The archipelago in the southern Pacific Ocean is made up of about 150 islands which are mostly volcanic or coral. Tonga has a tropical climate.

Government


A former British protectorate, Tonga (The Friendly Islands) has been independent since 4 June 1970. The Legislative Assembly is made up of 26 members (with 9 seats reserved for nobles) elected for a four-year term. The elections of 16 November 2017 were won by the Democratic Party.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Military expenditure0.9% of GDP2012
Military personnel600units2016
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes2 281.8per 100 000 pop.2007
Homicides0.9per 100 000 pop.2012
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Administrative division

Administrative division
DivisionAREAINHABITANTSYEAR
Eua87$ sq km4 945 inhab.2016
Ha’apai109 sq km6 125 inhab.2016
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Nuku’alofa23 221inhab.2016
Kolofo'ou8 265inhab.2016
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Nuku’alofa35 184inhab.2016
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2020)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate24.012019
Death rate7.1022019
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Tongan97.4%2016
other1.5%2016


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Methodist35$%2016
other Christian29.5%2016


Languages
DESCRIPTION
English (official)
Tongan (official)
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years31.8%2020
15-29 years27.3%2020


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Economy


The main sources of wealth are farming products, which fuel exports (pumpkins, coconuts, cassava, tobacco and vanilla). Remittances from emigrants are important, as is tourism, the granting of fishing rights and international aid (especially from Australia).

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)136.61index2016
Agricultural prod. index (2014-16=100)90.79index2019
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population31 566units2020
Active population, Females39$%2019
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate4.4%2020
Unemployment rate, Females70.9%2019
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses413M LCU2019
Revenues514.8M LCU2019
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture24.2%2019
industry29.1%2019
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture23.37%2019
industry17.992%2019
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation0.117BN LCU2020
International reserves298.948M US$2020
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Agriculture

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land43.056%2018
forests12.431%2018
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava6.6921000 t2019
roots and tubers, total23.7971000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
squashes20.2311000 t2019
tomatoes0.9361000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts0.8441000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts36.9241000 t2019
copra1.51000 t2005
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coffee0.0161000 t2019
vanilla0.1811000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fruits, total8.451000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits3.0271000 t2019
lemons2.1981000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bananas0.8971000 t2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava0.4181000 ha2019
sweet potatoes0.6511000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pumpkins and squashes2.2751000 ha2019
tomatoes0.0261000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts1.3871000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts1.781000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coffee0.0111000 ha2019
vanilla0.2431000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits1.3831000 ha2019
lemons1.1531000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bananas0.6121000 ha2019
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber4 0612019
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle11.9791000 heads2019
cattle and buffaloes11.9791000 heads2019
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs81.9951000 heads2019
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats13.5571000 heads2019
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
equines, total11.8421000 heads2019
horses11.8421000 heads2019
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds3471000 heads2019
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey0.0111000 t2019
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
eggs0.1461000 t2019
hides and skins0.0551000 t2019
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs5$t2019
marine fishes1 213t2019
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
non-renewable electricity generation100%2018
- thermal55$M kWh2018
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal18$1000 kW2018
- other renew.6.221000 kW2019
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation55$M kWh2018
total installed capacity24.221000 kW2018
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Industry

Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconut oil6.6471000 t2018
groundnut oil0.1811000 t2018
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production0.1M US$2000
food, beverages and tobacco production4.3M US$2000
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Trade

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
food products364.697% of goods exports2014
manufactures29.235% of goods exports2014
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
202014$M US$ -
201920$M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
2020214M US$ -
2019238M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures51$M US$2019
Number of arrivals94 000units2019
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown1 500 000km flown2004
Merchant fleet32$units2021
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers35.437per 1000 pop.2019
Computers58.9per 1000 pop.2005
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling13.7years2006
Gross enrolment ratio, primary - Female115.99index2015
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Students, primary level16 982units2015
Students, secondary level15 800units2015
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds2.6per 1000 pop.2010
Physicians0.54per 1000 pop.2013
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Tuberculosis11$per 100 000 pop.2019
Tuberculosis (prevalence)21$per 100 000 pop.2014
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking76.4%2019
Access to electricity98.4%2019
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear2.4%2009
education1.8%2009
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