Form of Government: Constitutional monarchy (currently administered by a military junta)
Area: 513 140 sq km
Population: 68 128 000 inhab. (estimate 2020)
Density: 132.77 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 20° - 5° N; long. 97° - 105° E
Capital: Bangkok=Krung Thep (capital) 5 666 264 inhab. (2019); Bangkok=Krung Thep 8 865 600 inhab. (2020), urban agglomeration
Currency: baht (100 satang)
Human development index: 0.777 (rank: 79)
Sovereign: King Vajiralongkorn (Rama X), since 1 December 2016
Prime Minister: Prayut Chan-o-cha, since 25 August 2014
House of Representatives: seats based on the elections of 24 March 2019: PTP (Pheu Thai Party, populist), 136; PPP (Palang Pracharath, People’s State Power Party, conservative nationalist), 116; Future Forward Party (progressive), 81; Democrat Party (liberal), 53; BJT (Bhumjaithai Party, Thai Pride Party, populist), 51; others, 63
Internet: web.nso.go.th (National Statistical Office)
Member of APEC, ASEAN, OAS observer, OIC observer, UN, WTO

Thailand

Prathet Thai, Ratcha Anachak Thai
Useful information

International license plate code THA
International dialling code 0066
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (required only if traveling from a country with risk of transmission, including travelers having transited more than 12 hours through the airport of a country with risk of transmission); malaria prophylaxis (recommended for some areas)
Electricity (Voltage) 220
Driving side left
Internet code .th

GMT  +7
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Bangkok 28.3
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Bangkok 26.5/28.5
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Bangkok 5/9
Annual average precipitation (mm) Bangkok 1547
Days of rainfall (annual average) Bangkok 136

Politics and current affairs

A rapid rise in COVID-19 cases since April 2021 has put the military government under pressure, which is accused of not having prepared an effective vaccination campaign.

Geography.
Thailand is bordered to the NE by Laos, to the SE by Cambodia, to the S by Malaysia and to the W and NW by Myanmar. To the S it has a coast on the Gulf of Siam and to the SW on the Andaman Sea. In the W and the NW there are highlands with peaks of over 2500 m covered by vast forests. Towards the E, the flood plains of the River Chao Phraya are separated from a series of mountain ranges by the large plain of the Mekong delta. To the SW the country is connected by the Isthmus of Kra to the Malay peninsula. The climate is warm and humid, with monsoon rainfall in the summer.

Government


Thailand (which was known as Siam until 1939) has been a parliamentary monarchy since 1932. The armed forces, closely linked to the monarchy, have always exercised control over the democracy in order to maintain it and to intervene frequently in moments of national crisis that have marked the country’s recent political history. The current period of instability dates to the military coup in September 2006, when the populist government of Thaksin Shinawatra’s People’s Power Party (PPP) was toppled. Having won the elections (23 December 2007) again, Thaksin formed a new government, but he was accused of abuse of office and fled overseas (October 2008). After the PPP was dissolved on the orders of the judicial authorities, a government was formed, led by the Democratic Party, which had to deal with a series of demonstrations staged by Thaksin’s supporters. These erupted into violent clashes with police in May 2010, during which dozens of people were killed. In the early elections of 3 July 2011, the Party for Thai, led by Yingluck Shinawatra, the sister of Thaksin, obtained the majority, but in December 2013 the parliament was dissolved after new protests broke out against the government. The elections of 2 February 2014 were boycotted by the opposition, which interrupted the elections in certain regions. On 21 March the Constitutional Court nullified the results and on 7 May it ordered Y. Shinawatra and other members of the government to step down for having illegally transferred the head of national security to another position. On 22 May the army responded with a coup d’état, suspending the Constitution. On 22 July a temporary constitutional law was approved, which allowed for the formation of a legislative assembly. The military junta drafted a new constitution, approved through a referendum on 7 August 2016 and ratified by the King on 6 April 2017, which establishes a House of Representatives with 500 elected members holding a term of 4 years and a Senate with 250 members from military positions holding a term of 5 years. In the southern provinces of Pattani, Narathiwat and Yala, where there is a Muslim majority and the Malay language is dominant, numerous Islamic extremist guerrilla groups are present, including the Malayan Revolutionary Front.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force12.7%2015
Army67.9%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes222.3per 100 000 pop.2006
Homicides3.2per 100 000 pop.2016
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Bangkok=Krung Thep5 666 264inhab.2019
Samut Prakan378 694inhab.2000
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Bangkok=Krung Thep8 865 600inhab.2020
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2020)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate10.22019
Death rate7.82019
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Thai95.9%2010
Burmese2$%2010


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Buddhist93.6%2010
Muslim4.9%2010


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Thai
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years16.6%2020
15-29 years19.8%2020


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Economy


Economic situation.
In 2021, the country came out of recession, which was caused by a decline in exports, internal consumption and tourism due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The increase in cases in 2021 has damaged the recovery of the tourism sector. The country is highly reliant on exports from the manufacturing sector. The rapid development in recent years and the low unemployment rate have attracted many foreign workers.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)118.3index2016
Agricultural prod. index (2014-16=100)101.09index2019
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population38 483 132units2020
Active population, Females45.6%2019
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate1$%2020
Unemployment rate, Females44.9%2019
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses3 126 330M LCU2019
Revenues3 531 300M LCU2019
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture31.344%2020
industry22.57%2020
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture8.346%2019
industry35.496%2019
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation2 094.45BN LCU2020
International reserves258 104.43M US$2020
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Agriculture


Primary sector
Agriculture.
The country is among the largest exporters of rice, which is the national staple and is mostly grown in the floodplains of the Menam and Mekong.
Maize and cassava are also important crops. There are also plantations for sugar cane, pineapples, bananas and other tropical fruits, as well as oil palm (in the Malay peninsula).
Forests.
The forests provide rubber, of which the country is the largest exporter, and various valuable timbers, such as teak, yang na (Dipterocarpus alatus), sandalwood, sappan (Caesalpinia sappan) and ebony. In the north-western part of the country and near the border with Laos, there are opium poppy plantations.
Livestock.
There are many different animal species in Thailand and livestock includes buffaloes, cattle and pigs.
Elephants are also widely used for transporting timber.
Fishing.
Sea fishing is quite well developed (herring, anchovy and mackerel), even if fishing reserves in the Gulf of Siam are depleting. Freshwater fish is fundamental for meeting food demand in the country. Contribution from aquaculture is also relevant: Thailand is one of the world’s largest producers of prawns.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land41.712%2018
forests39.04%2018
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley138.9211000 t2019
cereals, total33 162.8621000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava31 079.9661000 t2019
potatoes127.9351000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asparagus18.1841000 t2019
cabbages221.6791000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry71.9851000 t2019
beans, green290.3071000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes86.7231000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
castor oil seed1.5881000 t2019
groundnuts31.0971000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Oil palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
oil palm fruits16 772.431000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts806.0261000 t2019
copra65$1000 t2007
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cocoa0.1131000 t2019
coffee24.6141000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane131 002.1731000 t2019
tobacco66.781000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton6.9271000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
jute0.0321000 t2019
sisal0.0111000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fruits, total9 609.7321000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cashew nuts18.0871000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits1 156.371000 t2019
citrus fruits, nes33.0691000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bananas1 297.591000 t2019
mangoes1 628.1921000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Others
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mushrooms0.0241000 t2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley60.0131000 ha2019
maize958.171000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava1 386.6551000 ha2019
potatoes7.1791000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages8.9331000 ha2019
cauliflowers1.291000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry94.4891000 ha2019
beans, green152.6041000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape4.981000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
castor oil seed1.6051000 ha2019
groundnuts30$1000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oil palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
oil palm fruit896.3221000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts124.3741000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cocoa0.0361000 ha2019
coffee36.8041000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane1 835.0851000 ha2019
tobacco19.5141000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton23.5941000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
jute0.0171000 ha2019
sisal0.0561000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cashew nuts12.1361000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits78.6781000 ha2019
citrus fruits, nes6.7911000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bananas60.831000 ha2019
mangoes209.0381000 ha2019
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
natural rubber4 839 952t2019
timber33 032 8462019
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle4 6001000 heads2019
cattle and buffaloes5 497.3681000 heads2019
Livestock - Buffaloes
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
buffaloes897.3681000 heads2019
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs7 869.5971000 heads2019
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep39.6621000 heads2019
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats478.5591000 heads2019
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses0.031000 heads2019
asses and mules0.0781000 heads2019
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds293 3341000 heads2019
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey11.811000 t2019
Livestock - Silk farming
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
silk, raw1.61000 t2018
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter3.1291000 t2018
cheese2.0681000 t2018
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs780 690t2019
freshwater fishes512 609t2019
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Minerals


Secondary sector
Minerals.
For several decades tin has been the main mineral resource. The country is still one of the world’s main tin producers of foundry tin. Other important minerals include tungsten, lead and zinc, gypsum and feldspar. The country also has deposits of salt, manganese, lignite, fluorspar, phosphates, gold, silver, iron ore and rare earths. Amongst the precious stones worthy of note are yellow and green sapphires (Chanthaburi) and blue sapphires (Kanchanaburi). There are also natural gas deposits (Gulf of Thailand) and crude oil (Mae Sot, Nang Nuan and Sirikit) which supply the refineries at Bangkok and Ban Si Racha.
Energy and industry.
The electricity requirement is met mainly by gas-fired plants. The most developed industries are textiles (at Bangkok, Chiang Mai, Chonnabot, Nakhon Ratchasima, Ubon and Lampang), food-processing (sugar refineries at Lampang and Chon Buri; distilleries at Ayutthaya and tobacco manufacturing plants), cement works (especially near Saraburi), tin works and the petrochemical industry (refineries in Bangkok, Rayong, Si Racha and Laem Chabang). A regasification terminal is active in Rayong. Other relevant industries include iron and steel, rubber manufacture, car assembly, the production of integrated circuits, and electronic appliances.

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coal, total13 250.61000 t2020
lignite13 250.61000 t2020
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
antimony0.0321000 t2016
iron ore30$1000 t2019
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barite13$1000 t2019
feldspar1 2001000 t2020
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
basalt12 112.21000 t2018
diatomite1$1000 t2019
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gold4 293kg2016
precious stones30$1000 ct2011
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal143 091.5M kWh2018
- other renew.27 525M kWh2019
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal35 9351000 kW2018
- other renew.8 752.31000 kW2019
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation173 087.85M kWh2018
total installed capacity48 742.561000 kW2018
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
antimony0.71000 t2018
copper0.2291000 t2014
Industry - Machinery and transport equipment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cars537 633no.2020
commercial vehicles889 441no.2020
Industry - Electrical and electronics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
air conditioners23 007 500no.2019
fridges7 211 600no.2019
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen1 3771000 t2018
petrol15 636.31000 t2015
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
nitrogen fertilizers138.61000 t2019
synth. rubber1851000 t2008
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cotton fabrics - m84.2M m2015
cotton yarn0.0021000 t2008
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley1 927.91000 t2018
coconut oil28.71000 t2018
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes27 867M units2009
cigars and cigarettes27 867M units2009
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemical pulp9531000 t2019
chemi-mechanical pulp1 0511000 t2019
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement40 8451000 t2019
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production10 390.648M US$2018
food, beverages and tobacco production27 057.661M US$2018
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Trade


Tertiary sector
Foreign trade.
The country mainly imports fuel and raw materials, semi-finished products and consumer goods.


Main exports (M US$ - 2017) electric and electronic equipment 21 584, machinery and home appliances 20 639, vehicles and parts thereof 17 624, computers and accessories 14 769, plastics 12 710, cars 10 874


Finance & banking.
The central bank is the Bank of Thailand. There is a stock exchange in Bangkok.

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufactures72.978% of goods exports2019
food products14.543% of goods exports2019
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
United States34 401M US$2020
China29 756M US$2020
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
China49 848M US$2020
Japan27 711M US$2020
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
2020231 468M US$ -
2019246 269M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
2020206 992M US$ -
2019236 260M US$ -
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Tourism


Tourism. It is an important source of revenue, the main destinations being the coasts of the Malay peninsula, some areas in the centre-north (Chiang Mai) and the capital, Bangkok.

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures16 852M US$2019
Number of arrivals39 797 000units2019
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown223 100 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried78 227.31000 units2019
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers145.188per 1000 pop.2019
Computers66.8per 1000 pop.2005
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Social and welfare


Education and health.
Primary education (6 years) is compulsory as well as at least three years of secondary education (6 years).

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling15.425years2016
Graduates455 146units2016
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Students, primary level4 900 785units2018
Students, secondary level6 265 551units2018
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending15.009% of total expenses2019
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds2.2per 1000 pop.2017
Physicians0.81per 1000 pop.2018
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV1$% of adults2019
HIV, total1.4%2005
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending1.002% of GDP2017
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking79.5%2019
Access to electricity99.9%2019
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear2.8%2018
education1.7%2018
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