Form of Government: Constitutional monarchy (currently administered by a military junta)
Area: 513 139 sq km
Population: 67 834 400 inhab. (estimate 2018)
Density: 132.20 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 20° - 5° N; long. 97° - 105° E
Capital: Bangkok=Krung Thep (capital) 5 676 648 inhab. (2018); Bangkok=Krung Thep 8 795 100 inhab. (2018), urban agglomeration
Currency: baht (100 satang)
Human development index: 0.755 (rank: 83)
Sovereign: King Vajiralongkorn (Rama X), since 1 December 2016
Prime Minister: Prayut Chan-o-cha, since 25 August 2014
House of Representatives: seats based on the elections of 24 March 2019: PTP (Pheu Thai Party, populist), 136; PPP (Palang Pracharath, People’s State Power Party, conservative nationalist), 116; Future Forward Party (progressive), 81; Democrat Party (liberal), 53; BJT (Bhumjaithai Party, Thai Pride Party, populist), 51; others, 63
Internet: web.nso.go.th (National Statistical Office)
Member of APEC, ASEAN, OAS observer, OIC observer, UN, WTO

Thailand

Prathet Thai, Ratcha Anachak Thai
Useful information

International license plate code THA
International dialling code 0066
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (required only if traveling from a country with risk of transmission, including travelers having transited more than 12 hours through the airport of a country with risk of transmission); malaria prophylaxis (recommended for some areas)
Electricity (Voltage) 220
Driving side left
Internet code .th

GMT  +7
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Bangkok 28.3
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Bangkok 26.5/28.5
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Bangkok 5/9
Annual average precipitation (mm) Bangkok 1547
Days of rainfall (annual average) Bangkok 136

Politics and current affairs

The Pheu Thai Party, tied to former prime minister, T. Shinawatra, won a relative majority (23.7% of the votes) in the elections on 24 March 2019. General Prayut was appointed as prime minister, as he was able to count on the support of the Senate, elected entirely by the military.

Geography.
Thailand is bordered to the NE by Laos, to the SE by Cambodia, to the S by Malaysia and to the W and NW by Myanmar. To the S it has a coast on the Gulf of Siam and to the SW on the Andaman Sea. In the W and the NW there are highlands with peaks of over 2500 m covered by vast forests. Towards the E, the flood plains of the River Chao Phraya are separated from a series of mountain ranges by the large plain of the Mekong delta. To the SW the country is connected by the Isthmus of Kra to the Malay peninsula. The climate is warm and humid, with monsoon rainfall in the summer.

Government


Thailand (which was known as Siam until 1939) has been a parliamentary monarchy since 1932. The armed forces, closely linked to the monarchy, have always exercised control over the democracy in order to maintain it and to intervene frequently in moments of national crisis that have marked the country’s recent political history. The current period of instability dates to the military coup in September 2006, when the populist government of Thaksin Shinawatra’s People’s Power Party (PPP) was toppled. Having won the elections (23 December 2007) again, Thaksin formed a new government, but he was accused of abuse of office and fled overseas (October 2008). After the PPP was dissolved on the orders of the judicial authorities, a government was formed, led by the Democratic Party, which had to deal with a series of demonstrations staged by Thaksin’s supporters. These erupted into violent clashes with police in May 2010, during which dozens of people were killed. In the early elections of 3 July 2011, the Party for Thai, led by Yingluck Shinawatra, the sister of Thaksin, obtained the majority, but in December 2013 the parliament was dissolved after new protests broke out against the government. The elections of 2 February 2014 were boycotted by the opposition, which interrupted the elections in certain regions. On 21 March the Constitutional Court nullified the results and on 7 May it ordered Y. Shinawatra and other members of the government to step down for having illegally transferred the head of national security to another position. On 22 May the army responded with a coup d’état, suspending the Constitution. On 22 July a temporary constitutional law was approved, which allowed for the formation of a legislative assembly. The military junta drafted a new constitution, approved through a referendum on 7 August 2016 and ratified by the King on 6 April 2017, which establishes a House of Representatives with 500 elected members holding a term of 4 years and a Senate with 250 members from military positions holding a term of 5 years. In the southern provinces of Pattani, Narathiwat and Yala, where there is a Muslim majority and the Malay language is dominant, numerous Islamic extremist guerrilla groups are present, including the Malayan Revolutionary Front.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force12.7%2015
Army67.9%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes222.3per 100 000 pop.2006
Homicides3.2per 100 000 pop.2016
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Bangkok=Krung Thep5 676 648inhab.2018
Samut Prakan378 694inhab.2000
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Bangkok=Krung Thep8 795 100inhab.2018
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2018)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate10.12017
Death rate82017
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Thai95.9%2010
Burmese2%2010


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Buddhist93.6%2010
Muslim4.9%2010


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Thai
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years16.7%2018
15-29 years21.2%2018


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Economy


Economic situation.
In 2018-19, the growth rate continued its positive trend recorded since 2015; employment once again began to rise in 2018. The country is highly reliant on exports from the manufacturing sector.
Rapid development and the low unemployment rate attract many foreign workers.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)118.3index2016
Balance of trade2 446M US$2018
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population38 765 994units2018
Active population, Females45.6%2018
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate0.7%2018
Unemployment rate, Females47.8%2018
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses3 031 900M LCU2017
Revenues2 767 700M LCU2017
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture30.7%2018
industry23.5%2018
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture8.7%2017
industry35.1%2017
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation1 784.15BN LCU2018
International reserves205 640.6M US$2018
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Agriculture


Primary sector
Agriculture.
The country is among the largest exporters of rice, which is the national staple and is mostly grown in the floodplain of the Menam.
Maize and cassava are also important crops. There are also plantations for sugar cane, pineapples, bananas and other tropical fruits, as well as oil palm.
Forests.
The forests provide rubber, of which the country is the largest exporter, and various valuable timbers, such as teak, yang, sandalwood, sapan and ebony. In the north-western part of the country and near the border with Laos, there are opium poppy plantations.
Livestock.
There are many different animal species in Thailand and livestock includes buffaloes, cattle and pigs.
Elephants are also widely used for transporting timber.
Fishing.
Sea fishing is quite well developed (herring, anchovy and mackerel), even if fishing reserves in the Gulf of Siam are depleting. Thailand is also one of the world’s largest producers of prawns. Freshwater fish is fundamental for meeting food demand in the country. Contribution from aquaculture is also relevant.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land41.71%2015
forests32.1%2015
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley28.2321000 t2017
cereals, total38 717.4171000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava30 973.2921000 t2017
potatoes126.6711000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asparagus251000 t2017
cabbages297.4831000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry71.0761000 t2017
beans, green313.5961000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes86.3281000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
castor oil seed1.21000 t2017
groundnuts321000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Oil palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
oil palm fruits14 591.3431000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts8951000 t2017
copra651000 t2007
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cocoa0.1251000 t2017
coffee34.3121000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane102 946.0011000 t2017
tobacco67.0351000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton3.21000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
jute3.6641000 t2014
sisal0.0141000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fruits, total11 451.71000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cashew nuts22.0571000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits981.531000 t2017
citrus fruits, nes14.6361000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bananas1 0001000 t2017
mangoes3 824.2791000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Others
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mushrooms0.9151000 t2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley13.0421000 ha2017
maize1 106.2811000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava1 342.3991000 ha2017
potatoes7.7491000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages13.1471000 ha2017
cauliflowers1.3081000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry93.0041000 ha2017
beans, green166.5761000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape4.9241000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
castor oil seed1.31000 ha2017
groundnuts301000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oil palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
oil palm fruit756.631000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts1921000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cocoa0.0451000 ha2017
coffee45.0381000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane1 368.2691000 ha2017
tobacco20.8811000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton141000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
jute2.5951000 ha2014
sisal0.0371000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cashew nuts13.8131000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits74.0171000 ha2017
citrus fruits, nes3.3121000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bananas431000 ha2017
mangoes446.7281000 ha2017
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
natural rubber4 600 000t2017
timber33 205 5962017
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle4 6801000 heads2017
cattle and buffaloes5 676.3071000 heads2017
Livestock - Buffaloes
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
buffaloes996.3071000 heads2017
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs7 872.0471000 heads2017
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep40.9181000 heads2017
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats469.3991000 heads2017
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses0.0321000 heads2017
asses and mules0.0811000 heads2017
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds286 5301000 heads2017
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey8.7361000 t2014
Livestock - Silk farming
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
silk, raw1.61000 t2014
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cheese4.681000 t2014
condensed milk101 075t2014
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs695 586t2017
freshwater fishes548 120.19t2017
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Minerals


Secondary sector
Minerals.
For several decades tin has been the main mineral resource. The country is still one of the world’s main tin producers of foundry tin. Other important minerals include tungsten, lead and zinc, gypsum and feldspar. The country also has deposits of salt, manganese, lignite, fluorspar, phosphates, gold, silver and iron ore. Amongst the precious stones worthy of note are yellow and green sapphires (Chanthaburi) and blue sapphires (Kanchanaburi). There are also natural gas deposits (in the Gulf of Thailand) and crude oil (at Mae Sot, Nang Nuan and Sirikit) which supply the refineries at Bangkok and Ban Si Racha.
Energy and industry.
The most developed industries are textiles (at Bangkok, Chiang Mai, Chonnabot, Nakhon Ratchasima, Ubon and Lampang), food-processing (sugar refineries at Lampang and Chon Buri; distilleries at Ayutthaya and tobacco manufacturing plants), cement works (especially near Saraburi), tin works and the petrochemical industry (refineries in Bangkok, Rayong, Si Racha and Laem Chabang). A regasification terminal is active in Rayong. Other relevant industries include iron and steel, rubber manufacture, car assembly, the production of integrated circuits, and electronic appliances.

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coal, total14 8521000 t2018
lignite14 8521000 t2018
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
antimony0.031000 t2013
iron ore16.51000 t2015
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barite1501000 t2018
feldspar1 5001000 t2018
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
basalt12 568.61000 t2017
diatomite91000 t2017
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gold4 293kg2016
precious stones301000 ct2011
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal152 515M kWh2016
- other renew.22 091M kWh2016
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal33 9361000 kW2016
- other renew.6 357.31000 kW2016
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation181 519M kWh2016
total installed capacity44 894.31000 kW2016
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
antimony0.71000 t2015
copper0.2291000 t2014
Industry - Machinery and transport equipment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cars877 015no.2018
commercial vehicles1 290 679no.2018
Industry - Electrical and electronics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
air conditioners20 319 900no.2018
fridges6 730 600no.2018
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen1 3641000 t2016
petrol15 636.31000 t2015
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
nitrogen fertilizers108.81000 t2016
synth. rubber1851000 t2008
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cotton fabrics - m84.2M m2015
cotton yarn0.0021000 t2008
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley2 237.91000 t2014
coconut oil29.31000 t2014
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes27 867M units2009
cigars and cigarettes27 867M units2009
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemical pulp1 0211000 t2017
chemi-mechanical pulp1 0211000 t2017
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement39 880.41000 t2018
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production6 630.8M US$2013
food, beverages and tobacco production23 432M US$2013
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Trade


Tertiary sector
Foreign trade.
The country mainly imports fuel and raw materials, semi-finished products and consumer goods.


Main exports (M US$ - 2017) electric and electronic equipment 21 584, machinery and home appliances 20 639, vehicles and parts thereof 17 624, computers and accessories 14 769, plastics 12 710, cars 10 874, electronic integrated circuits 8 252, jewels and precious stones 7 113


Finance & banking.
The central bank is the Bank of Thailand. There is a stock exchange in Bangkok.

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufactures77.465% of goods exports2018
food products13.721% of goods exports2018
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
China30 175M US$2018
United States28 123M US$2018
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
China49 953M US$2018
Japan35 260M US$2018
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
2018252 106M US$ -
2017236 635M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
2018249 660M US$ -
2017221 519M US$ -
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Tourism


Tourism.
It is an important source of revenue, the main destinations being the coasts of the Malay peninsula, some areas in the centre-north (Chiang Mai) and the capital, Bangkok.

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures11 579M US$2017
Number of arrivals35 592 000units2017
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown223 100 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried71 191.51000 units2017
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers118.891per 1000 pop.2017
Computers66.8per 1000 pop.2005
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Social and welfare


Education and health.
Primary education (6 years) is compulsory as well as at least three years of secondary education (6 years).

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling15.4years2016
Graduates455 146units2016
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level305 329units2017
Teachers, secondary level262 181units2017
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending13.6% of total expenses2016
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds2.1per 1000 pop.2016
Physicians0.5per 1000 pop.2016
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV1.1% of adults2017
HIV, total1.4%2005
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.8% of GDP2016
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking74.43%2016
Access to electricity100%2017
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear2.5%2017
education2%2017
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