Form of Government: Republic
Area: 947 300 sq km
Population: 57 637 628 inhab. (estimate 2020)
Density: 60.84 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 1° - 12° S; long. 29° - 40° E
Capital: Dodoma (capital) 446 640 inhab. (2016); ; Dar es Salaam (seat of government) 5 147 070 inhab. (2018);
Currency: Tanzanian shilling (100 cents)
Human development index: 0.529 (rank: 163)
President: Samia Suluhu Hassan (CCM), since 19 March 2021
Prime Minister: Kassim Majaliwa (CCM), since 20 November 2015
National Assembly: seats based on the elections of 25 October 2015: CCM (Revolutionary Party), 252; CHADEMA (Party for Democracy and Progress), 70; CCW (Civic United Front), 42; others, 2
Internet: www.nbs.go.tz (National Bureau of Statistics)
Member of AU, Commonwealth, EAC, SADC, UN, WTO

Tanzania

Tanzania, Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania, United Republic of Tanzania
Useful information

International license plate code EAT
International dialling code 00255
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (required only if traveling from a country with risk of transmission); malaria prophylaxis (recommended)
Electricity (Voltage) 230
Driving side left
Internet code .tz

GMT  +3
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Dar es Salaam 25.8
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Dar es Salaam 27.5/24
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Dar es Salaam 8/9
Annual average precipitation (mm) Dar es Salaam 1160
Days of rainfall (annual average) Dar es Salaam 97

Politics and current affairs

President John Magufuli died from illness on 17 March 2021. On 19 March, he was replaced by the vice president.

Geography.
Tanzania is bordered to the north by Uganda and Kenya, to the south by Mozambique, Malawi and Zambia, to the north-west by Burundi and Rwanda and to the west by the Democratic Republic of the Congo. It lies on the Indian Ocean to the east, where there are the islands of Zanzibar, Pemba and Mafia. The country is made up of plateaus that descend steeply into the Great Rift Valley to the west, mostly made up of the basins of Lakes Malawi (Nyasa) and Tanganyika. The plateaus slope more gently eastwards towards the coast. To the north of the country lies the immense basin of Lake Victoria.
There are imposing volcanic massifs: Mount Kilimanjaro (5895 m), Mount Meru, Mount Ngorongoro and Mount Rungwe. The River Rufiji and the River Ruvuma flow into the Indian Ocean, as do most other rivers in the country. The climate is hot and humid along the coastal areas and drier inland.

Government


The United Republic of Tanzania was founded on 25 April 1964 from the union of Tanganyika (formerly a German colony, then granted as a trust territory to the United Kingdom, independent since 9 December 1961 and a republic since 9 December 1962) and Zanzibar (formerly a British protectorate, independent since 10 December 1963 and a republic since 12 January 1964). The country has always been governed by the Party of the Revolution (CCM), until 1985 under the presidency of Julius K. Nyerere, leader of the struggle for independence.
The President of the Republic, who exercises a wide range of government powers, is elected by direct suffrage for a term of five years, as is the National Assembly (264 members elected by popular vote, plus 113 seats reserved for women chosen from the parties in proportion to the votes received, ten of whom are appointed by the President, five members elected by the House of Representatives of Zanzibar and a seat for the Attorney General and for the President of the House). The islands of Zanzibar and Pemba enjoy a large amount of autonomy and have their own political system with a President and a Chamber of Representatives.


Defence and justice.
The legal system is based on British Common Law. The jurisdiction of the International Court of Law is not accepted.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force11.1%2015
Army85.2%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Homicides4.9per 100 000 pop.2018
Police personnel85.1per 100 000 pop.2015
TOP

Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Dar es Salaam5 147 070inhab.2018
Mwanza706 453inhab.2012
TOP

Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2020)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE

The country has about 240 000 refugees who have fled the surrounding war zones (in particular from Burundi and the Democratic Rep. of the Congo).

Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate36.3362019
Death rate6.2542019
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Bantu95$%2000
other5$%2000


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Christian60$%2010
Muslim36$%2010


Languages
DESCRIPTION
English (official)
Swahili (official)
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years42.4%2020
15-29 years27.2%2020


TOP

Economy


Economic situation.
In 2020-21, the aftermath of the COVID-19 pandemic ended a long period of high growth. The country was particularly affected by the decline in foreign investment, tourism and exports (with the exception of gold, which benefited from the rise in prices).

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)165.47index2016
Agricultural prod. index (2014-16=100)107.19index2019
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population28 039 058units2020
Active population, Females48.1%2020
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate2.2%2020
Unemployment rate, Females59.9%2019
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses22 301 000M LCU2019
Revenues18 530 000M LCU2019
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture65.3%2019
industry6.8%2019
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture28.715%2019
industry30.817%2019
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation5 501.995BN LCU2020
International reserves5 049.6M US$2018
TOP

Agriculture


Primary sector
Agriculture and forests.
Agriculture occupies most of the working population. The land is owned by the state, which rents it out. Foreign investments are aimed at crops for export. Coffee plants (predominantly coffea arabica) thrive on the slopes of Mount Kilimanjaro (at Moshi), in the area of Bukoba and in the eastern hills, while cotton crops are more common in the region of Lake Victoria. Other important products are tobacco, maize, peanuts, sesame and pulses. The islands of Zanzibar and Pemba are among the main areas in the world producing cloves and clove oil. Subsistence agriculture yields maize, cassava, sweet potatoes, bananas, potatoes and rice. Cedar, ebony and bamboo are among the woods produced.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land17.668%2018
forests52.702%2018
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley20.0191000 t2019
cereals, total10 399.3861000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava8 184.0931000 t2019
potatoes1 013.4081000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages91.5731000 t2019
chillies and peppers19.5491000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry1 197.4891000 t2019
beans, green6.761000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes3.2021000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
castor oil seed3$1000 t2019
groundnuts6801000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Oil palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
oil palm fruits75.6441000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts428.5951000 t2019
copra30$1000 t2006
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cloves8.971000 t2019
cocoa13$1000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane3 589.4591000 t2019
tobacco116.6031000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton267.7891000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sisal32.7371000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fruits, total5 793.981000 t2019
pears7.2541000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cashew nuts225.1061000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits5921000 t2019
citrus fruits, nes46.7251000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bananas3 406.9361000 t2019
mangoes451.3571000 t2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley10.4011000 ha2019
maize3 428.631000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava990.8351000 ha2019
potatoes96.5941000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages8.171000 ha2019
chillies and peppers0.7391000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry893.571000 ha2019
beans, green1.2921000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape0.7721000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
castor oil seed7$1000 ha2019
groundnuts9901000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oil palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
oil palm fruit5.5181000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts657.6581000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cloves6.7661000 ha2019
cocoa18.3461000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane51.3441000 ha2019
tobacco231.1081000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton4201000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sisal43.221000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pears0.8941000 ha2019
plums0.851000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cashew nuts980.3631000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits62.1361000 ha2019
citrus fruits, nes18.3871000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bananas302.7581000 ha2019
mangoes33.7481000 ha2019
TOP

Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber27 910 3412019
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle27 821.0631000 heads2019
cattle and buffaloes27 821.0631000 heads2019
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs523.5631000 heads2019
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep8 291.1761000 heads2019
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats18 918.8161000 heads2019
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses187.8851000 heads2019
asses and mules187.8851000 heads2019
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds39 8311000 heads2019
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey30.9371000 t2019
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter40.4131000 t2018
cheese16.6781000 t2018
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs14 563.4t2019
freshwater fishes400 560.12t2019
TOP

Minerals


Secondary and tertiary sector
Minerals.
There are mines extracting gold (at Geita, Lupa near Mbeya, Saragura, Kahama, Buhemba and near Lake Victoria), coal (at Kiwira) and bauxite. Sea salt (in Dar es Salaam), spring water salt (at Uvinza), diamonds (at Mwadui-Luhombo, in the Shinyanga area), gems (at Arusha) and phosphates (at Minjingu) are produced. Off the coast of the island of Songo-Songo, natural gas is extracted (the project has been funded by the World Bank).
Energy and industry.
About one third of the electric energy produced is from hydropower sources; the power stations of Kidatu and Kihansi are exceptionally important. The main activities in the secondary sector concern the processing of sugar, beer, tobacco and rubber and the manufacturing of textiles and paper. There are also a refinery (Dar es Salaam), chemical plants (nitrogenous fertilizers in Dar es Salaam and Tanga), cement works (Dar es Salaam, Tanga, Kilwa Masoko, Mbeya, Mtwara) and plants for the distillation of clove oil. An oil pipeline links Dar es Salaam to the Ndola refinery in Zambia.
Foreign trade.
The country exports agricultural products (coffee, cotton, tobacco, peanuts, tea, pyrethrum, cloves and cocoa) and minerals (gold and diamonds) and imports industrial machinery, motor vehicles, oil and consumer goods.

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coal7131000 t2019
coal, total7131000 t2019
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bauxite10$1000 t2019
copper10$1000 t2018
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
graphite0.151000 t2020
gypsum256.51000 t2019
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
kaolin15.31000 t2019
marble - t11$1000 t2016
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
diamonds3001000 ct2020
diamonds, industrial - ct58$1000 ct2018
TOP

Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal4 545.84M kWh2018
- hydro2 211.66M kWh2018
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal8291000 kW2018
- hydro5831000 kW2019
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation6 917.5M kWh2018
total installed capacity1 507.621000 kW2018
TOP

Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
steel, crude2661000 t2019
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
soap152.61000 t2016
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cotton fabrics8.3M m²2015
cotton yarn4.71000 t2016
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley4501000 t2018
coconut oil13.21000 t2018
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes8 369M units2019
cigars and cigarettes8 369M units2019
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemical pulp44$1000 t2019
chemi-mechanical pulp56$1000 t2019
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement6 5141000 t2019
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production193.527M US$2018
food, beverages and tobacco production3 101.751M US$2018
TOP

Trade


Principali esportazioni

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufactures73.658% of goods exports2018
food products21.903% of goods exports2018
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Rwanda686M US$2018
Kenya339M US$2018
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
China1 771M US$2018
India1 223M US$2018
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20204 964M US$ -
20195 005M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20208 419M US$ -
20199 452M US$ -
TOP

Tourism


Tourism. Tourism is constantly expanding, attracting visitors to the beaches of the island of Zanzibar and the national parks (of Kilimanjaro, Serengeti, Lake Manyara and Ngorongoro).

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures738.2M US$2019
Number of arrivals1 443 000units2019
TOP

Communications


Transport.
Navigation routes over the major lakes are extremely important. The railway between Dar es Salaam and Dodoma and the connection with Uganda and Rwanda are being renovated.

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown4 700 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried1 498.11000 units2019
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers17.923per 1000 pop.2019
Computers9.1per 1000 pop.2005
TOP

Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling9.117years2019
Gross enrolment ratio, primary - Female99.905index2019
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Students, primary level10 605 430units2019
Students, secondary level2 338 457units2019
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds1.4per 1000 pop.2019
Physicians0.01per 1000 pop.2016
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV4.8% of adults2019
HIV, total5.3%2003-04
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.53% of GDP2013
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking4.3%2019
Access to electricity37.7%2019
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear6.7%2011-12
education1.9%2011-12
TOP