Form of Government: Republic
Area: 947 300 sq km
Population: 54 199 163 inhab. (estimate 2018)
Density: 57.21 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 1° - 12° S; long. 29° - 40° E
Capital: Dodoma (capital) 446 640 inhab. (2016); ; Dar es Salaam (seat of government) 5 147 070 inhab. (2018);
Currency: Tanzanian shilling (100 cents)
Human development index: 0.538 (rank: 154)
President: John Magufuli (CCM), elected 25 October 2015, in office since 5 November 2015
Prime Minister: Kassim Majaliwa (CCM), since 20 November 2015
National Assembly: seats based on the elections of 25 October 2015: CCM (Revolutionary Party), 252; CHADEMA (Party for Democracy and Progress), 70; CCW (Civic United Front), 42; others, 2
Internet: www.nbs.go.tz (National Bureau of Statistics)
Member of AU, Commonwealth, EAC, SADC, UN, WTO

Tanzania

Tanzania, Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania, United Republic of Tanzania
Useful information

International license plate code EAT
International dialling code 00255
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (required only if traveling from a country with risk of transmission); malaria prophylaxis (recommended)
Electricity (Voltage) 230
Driving side left
Internet code .tz

GMT  +3
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Dar es Salaam 25.8
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Dar es Salaam 27.5/24
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Dar es Salaam 8/9
Annual average precipitation (mm) Dar es Salaam 1160
Days of rainfall (annual average) Dar es Salaam 97

Geography.
Tanzania is bordered to the north by Uganda and Kenya, to the south by Mozambique, Malawi and Zambia, to the north-west by Burundi and Rwanda and to the west by the Democratic Republic of the Congo. It lies on the Indian Ocean to the east, where there are the islands of Zanzibar, Pemba and Mafia. The country is made up of plateaus that descend steeply into the Great Rift Valley to the west, mostly made up of the basins of Lakes Malawi (Nyasa) and Tanganyika. The plateaus slope more gently eastwards towards the coast. To the north of the country lies the immense basin of Lake Victoria.
There are imposing volcanic massifs: Mount Kilimanjaro (5895 m), Mount Meru, Mount Ngorongoro and Mount Rungwe. The River Rufiji and the River Ruvuma flow into the Indian Ocean, as do most other rivers in the country. The climate is hot and humid along the coastal areas and drier inland.

Government


The United Republic of Tanzania was founded on 25 April 1964 from the union of Tanganyika (formerly a German colony, then granted as a trust territory to the United Kingdom, independent since 9 December 1961 and a republic since 9 December 1962) and Zanzibar (formerly a British protectorate, independent since 10 December 1963 and a republic since 12 January 1964). The country has always been governed by the Party of the Revolution (CCM), first under the leadership of Julius K. Nyerere, then of Ali H. Mwinyi, Benjamin W. Mkapa and, until 2015, of Jakata Kikwete.
The President of the Republic, who exercises a wide range of government powers, is elected by direct suffrage for a term of five years, as is the National Assembly (264 members elected by popular vote, plus 113 seats reserved for women chosen from the parties in proportion to the votes received, ten of whom are appointed by the President, five members elected by the House of Representatives of Zanzibar and a seat for the Attorney General and for the President of the House). The islands of Zanzibar and Pemba enjoy a large amount of autonomy and have their own political system with a President and a Chamber of Representatives.


Defence and justice.
The legal system is based on British Common Law. The jurisdiction of the International Court of Law is not accepted.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force11.1%2015
Army85.2%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Homicides4.9per 100 000 pop.2018
Police personnel85.1per 100 000 pop.2015
TOP

Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Dar es Salaam5 147 070inhab.2018
Mwanza706 453inhab.2012
TOP

Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2018)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE

The country has about 280 000 refugees who have fled the surrounding war zones (in particular from Burundi and the Democratic Rep. of the Congo).

Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate37.82017
Death rate6.52017
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Bantu95%2000
other5%2000


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Christian60%2010
Muslim36%2010


Languages
DESCRIPTION
English (official)
Swahili (official)
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years43.4%2018
15-29 years27.6%2018


TOP

Economy


Economic situation.
Owing to the drop in foreign investments and stagnate exports, the growth rate slowed in 2019 following years of higher levels. The country relies heavily on exports, especially of agricultural products and gold, whose price on the global market has a deep impact on the economy.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)165.47index2016
Balance of trade-4 949.6M US$2018
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population27 190 295units2018
Active population, Females48.9%2018
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate9.7%2018
Unemployment rate, Females61.5%2018
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses25 572 582M LCU2018
Revenues20 820 218M LCU2018
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture66.3%2018
industry7.1%2018
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture32%2017
industry27.8%2017
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation4 776.24BN LCU2018
International reserves5 049.6M US$2018
TOP

Agriculture


Primary sector
Agriculture and forests.
Agriculture occupies most of the working population. The land is owned by the state, which rents it out.
Foreign investments are aimed at crops for export. Coffee plants (predominantly coffea arabica) thrive on the slopes of Mount Kilimanjaro (at Moshi) and in the area of Bukoba. Cotton crops are more scattered (in the areas of Mwanza, Morogoro and Kilosa). Other important products are tobacco, maize, peanuts, sesame and pulses. The islands of Zanzibar and Pemba are the main areas in the world producing cloves and clove oil. Subsistence agriculture yields maize, cassava, sweet potatoes, bananas, potatoes and rice. Cedar, ebony and bamboo are among the woods produced.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land17.67%2015
forests52%2015
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley12.9221000 t2017
cereals, total10 092.941000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava5 014.6241000 t2017
potatoes1 749.2131000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages69.6751000 t2017
chillies and peppers17.2331000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry1 140.4441000 t2017
beans, green5.6541000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes4.991000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
castor oil seed31000 t2017
groundnuts978.8671000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Oil palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
oil palm fruits75.481000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts555.7341000 t2017
copra301000 t2006
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cloves9.0111000 t2017
cocoa8.5481000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane3 001.081000 t2017
tobacco104.4711000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton217.021000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sisal32.4021000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fruits, total5 288.2691000 t2014
pears6.4261000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cashew nuts164.2451000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits513.2851000 t2017
citrus fruits, nes45.6361000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bananas3 484.7881000 t2017
mangoes434.3441000 t2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley7.7691000 ha2017
maize4 093.9841000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava896.3651000 ha2017
potatoes211.9271000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages7.0481000 ha2017
chillies and peppers0.6471000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry1 150.7591000 ha2017
beans, green1.0941000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape1.1221000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
castor oil seed61000 ha2017
groundnuts1 076.6561000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oil palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
oil palm fruit5.461000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts741.6421000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cloves7.0461000 ha2017
cocoa12.0571000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane114.8011000 ha2017
tobacco118.7631000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton321.8931000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sisal45.1481000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pears0.7991000 ha2017
plums0.7731000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cashew nuts549.3391000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits57.0341000 ha2017
citrus fruits, nes16.1781000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bananas489.981000 ha2017
mangoes33.5321000 ha2017
TOP

Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber27 410 4802017
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle26 399.5231000 heads2017
cattle and buffaloes26 399.5231000 heads2017
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs517.7331000 heads2017
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep7 651.7961000 heads2017
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats17 971.1781000 heads2017
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses187.4121000 heads2017
asses and mules187.4121000 heads2017
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds38 5021000 heads2017
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey30.9051000 t2014
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter31.51000 t2014
cheese131000 t2014
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs4 533t2017
freshwater fishes342 175t2017
TOP

Minerals


Secondary and tertiary sector
Minerals.
There are mines extracting gold (at Geita, Lupa near Mbeya, Saragura, Kahama, Buhemba and near Lake Victoria), coal (at Kiwira) and bauxite. Sea salt (in Dar es Salaam), spring water salt (at Uvinza), diamonds (at Mwadui-Luhombo, in the Shinyanga area), gems (at Arusha) and phosphates (at Minjingu) are produced. Off the coast of the island of Songo-Songo, natural gas is extracted (the project has been funded by the World Bank).
Energy and industry.
Over half of the electric energy produced is from hydro-electric power sources; the power stations of Kidatu and Kihansi are exceptionally important.
The main activities in the secondary sector concern the processing of sugar, beer, tobacco and rubber and the manufacturing of textiles and paper.
There are also chemical plants (nitrogenous fertilizers in Dar es Salaam and Tanga), cement works (Dar es Salaam, Tanga, Kilwa Masoko, Mbeya, Mtwara) and plants for the distillation of clove oil. An oil pipeline links Dar es Salaam to a refinery at Ndola (Zambia).
Foreign trade.
The country exports agricultural products (coffee, cotton, tobacco, peanuts, tea, pyrethrum, cloves and cocoa) and minerals (gold and diamonds) and imports industrial machinery, oil and consumer goods.

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coal725.91000 t2018
coal, total2761000 t2016
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bauxite7.11000 t2018
copper1.41000 t2017
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gypsum241.31000 t2018
phosphate rock1.31000 t2017
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
kaolin124.41000 t2018
marble - t111000 t2015
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
diamonds383.41000 ct2018
diamonds, industrial - ct371000 ct2016
TOP

Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal4 310.84M kWh2016
- hydro2 342M kWh2016
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal8001000 kW2016
- hydro5761000 kW2016
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation6 698.84M kWh2016
total installed capacity1 4571000 kW2016
TOP

Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
steel, crude2751000 t2017
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
soap152.61000 t2016
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cotton fabrics8.3M m²2015
cotton yarn4.71000 t2016
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley4301000 t2014
coconut oil11.41000 t2014
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes7 412M units2017
cigars and cigarettes7 412M units2017
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemical pulp441000 t2017
chemi-mechanical pulp561000 t2017
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement4 4591000 t2018
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production156.5M US$2015
food, beverages and tobacco production2 607.3M US$2015
TOP

Trade


Principali esportazioni

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
food products63.157% of goods exports2017
manufactures25.125% of goods exports2017
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Rwanda686M US$2018
Kenya339M US$2018
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
China1 771M US$2018
India1 223M US$2018
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20183 853M US$ -
20174 393M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20188 803M US$ -
20179 300M US$ -
TOP

Tourism


Tourism. Tourism is constantly expanding, attracting visitors to the beaches of the island of Zanzibar and the national parks (of Kilimanjaro, Serengeti, Lake Manyara and Ngorongoro).

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures899M US$2017
Number of arrivals1 275 000units2017
TOP

Communications


Transport.
Navigation routes over the major lakes are extremely important. The railway between Dar es Salaam and Dodoma is being renovated.

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown4 700 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried1 120.11000 units2017
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers32.248per 1000 pop.2017
Computers9.1per 1000 pop.2005
TOP

Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling7.7years2017
Gross enrolment ratio, primary - Female86index2017
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level199 705units2018
Teachers, secondary level102 982units2018
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds1.2per 1000 pop.2016
Physicians0.05per 1000 pop.2016
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV4.5% of adults2017
HIV, total5.3%2003-04
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.53% of GDP2013
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking2.16%2016
Access to electricity32.813%2017
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear6.7%2011-12
education1.9%2011-12
TOP