Form of Government: Republic
Area: 947 303 sq km
Population: 52 554 628 inhab. (estimate 2017)
Density: 55.48 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 1° - 12° S; long. 29° - 40° E
Capital: Dodoma (capital) 446 640 inhab. (2016); ; Dar es Salaam (seat of government) 5 465 420 inhab. (2016);
Currency: Tanzanian shilling (100 cents)
Human development index: 0.531 (rank: 151)
President: John Magufuli (CCM), elected 25 October 2015, in office since 5 November 2015
Prime Minister: Kassim Majaliwa (CCM), since 20 November 2015
National Assembly: seats based on the elections of 25 October 2015: CCM (Revolutionary Party), 252; CHADEMA (Party for Democracy and Progress), 70; CCW (Civic United Front), 42; others, 2
Internet: www.nbs.go.tz (National Bureau of Statistics)
Member of AU, Commonwealth, EAC, SADC, UN, WTO

Tanzania

Tanzania, Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania, United Republic of Tanzania
Useful information

International license plate code EAT
International dialling code 00255
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (required only if traveling from a country with risk of transmission); malaria prophylaxis (recommended)
Electricity (Voltage) 230
Driving side left
Internet code .tz

GMT  +3
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Dar es Salaam 25.8
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Dar es Salaam 27.5/24
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Dar es Salaam 8/9
Annual average precipitation (mm) Dar es Salaam 1160
Days of rainfall (annual average) Dar es Salaam 97

Geography.
Tanzania is bordered to the north by Uganda and Kenya, to the south by Mozambique, Malawi and Zambia, to the north-west by Burundi and Rwanda and to the west by the Democratic Republic of the Congo. It lies on the Indian Ocean to the east, where there are the islands of Zanzibar, Pemba and Mafia. The country is made up of plateaus that descend steeply into the Great Rift Valley to the west, mostly made up of the basins of Lakes Malawi (Nyasa) and Tanganyika. The plateaus slope more gently eastwards towards the coast. To the north of the country lies the immense basin of Lake Victoria.
There are imposing volcanic massifs: Mount Kilimanjaro (5895 m), Mount Meru, Mount Ngorongoro and Mount Rungwe. The River Rufiji and the River Ruvuma flow into the Indian Ocean, as do most other rivers in the country. The climate is hot and humid along the coastal areas and drier inland.

Government


The United Republic of Tanzania was founded on 25 April 1964 from the union of Tanganyika (formerly a German colony, then granted as a trust territory to the United Kingdom, independent since 9 December 1961 and a republic since 9 December 1962) and Zanzibar (formerly a British protectorate, independent since 10 December 1963 and a republic since 12 January 1964). The country has always been governed by the Party of the Revolution (CCM), first under the leadership of Julius K. Nyerere, then of Ali H. Mwinyi, Benjamin W. Mkapa and, until 2015, of Jakata Kikwete. The President of the Republic, who exercises a wide range of government powers, is elected by direct suffrage for a term of five years, as is the National Assembly (264 members elected by popular vote, plus 113 seats reserved for women chosen from the parties in proportion to the votes received, ten of whom are appointed by the President, five members elected by the House of Representatives of Zanzibar and a seat for the Attorney General and for the President of the House). The islands of Zanzibar and Pemba enjoy a large amount of autonomy and have their own political system with a President and a Chamber of Representatives.


Defence and justice.
The legal system is based on British Common Law. The jurisdiction of the International Court of Law is not accepted.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force11.1%2015
Army85.2%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Homicides7.3per 100 000 pop.2015
Police personnel85.1per 100 000 pop.2015
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Dar es Salaam5 465 420inhab.2016
Mwanza706 453inhab.2012
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2017)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE

The country has about 270 000 refugees who have fled the surrounding war zones (in particular from Burundi and the Democratic Republic of the Congo).

Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate38.22016
Death rate6.72016
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Bantu95%2000
other5%2000


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Christian60%2010
Muslim36%2010


Languages
DESCRIPTION
English (official)
Swahili (official)
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years43.7%2017
15-29 years27.5%2017


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Economy


Economic situation.
The country’s high growth relies heavily on exports, especially of agricultural products and gold, whose price on the global market has a deep impact on the economy.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)165.47index2016
Balance of trade-5 406M US$2017
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population26 305 790units2017
Active population, Females48.9%2017
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate8.9%2014
Unemployment rate, Females60.5%2014
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses18 889 000M LCU2017
Revenues17 732 600M LCU2017
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture66.7%2017
industry6%2017
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture31.1%2016
industry26.8%2016
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation4 305.5BN LCU2016
International reserves4 072.9M US$2015
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Agriculture


Primary sector
Agriculture and forests.
Agriculture occupies most of the working population. The land is owned by the state, which rents it out. Foreign investments are aimed at crops for export. Coffee plants (predominantly coffea arabica) thrive on the slopes of Mount Kilimanjaro (at Moshi) and in the area of Bukoba. Cotton crops are more scattered (in the areas of Mwanza, Morogoro and Kilosa). Other important products are tobacco, maize, peanuts, sesame and pulses.
The islands of Zanzibar and Pemba are the main areas in the world producing cloves and clove oil. Subsistence agriculture yields maize, cassava, sweet potatoes, bananas, potatoes and rice. Cedar, ebony and bamboo are among the woods produced.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land17.67%2015
forests52%2015
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley15.371000 t2016
cereals, total10 091.9591000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava5 575.3041000 t2016
potatoes1 499.5081000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages67.4281000 t2016
chillies and peppers16.471000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry1 158.0391000 t2016
beans, green5.2421000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes5.0931000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
castor oil seed31000 t2016
groundnuts5501000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Oil palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
oil palm fruits75.0441000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts555.8361000 t2016
copra301000 t2006
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cloves8.9151000 t2016
cocoa8.411000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane2 994.1271000 t2016
tobacco102.4731000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton183.5791000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sisal33.8261000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fruits, total5 288.2691000 t2014
pears5.9331000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cashew nuts195.141000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits526.9811000 t2016
citrus fruits, nes45.2961000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bananas3 559.6391000 t2016
mangoes427.5861000 t2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley8.6351000 ha2016
maize4 036.9961000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava1 061.0431000 ha2016
potatoes186.9051000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages6.3831000 ha2016
chillies and peppers0.6181000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry1 118.4061000 ha2016
beans, green1.0271000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape1.0781000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
castor oil seed61000 ha2016
groundnuts7801000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oil palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
oil palm fruit5.3991000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts732.1891000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cloves7.2081000 ha2016
cocoa11.8341000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane108.4871000 ha2016
tobacco148.4621000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton3201000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sisal47.6481000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pears0.751000 ha2016
plums0.7241000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cashew nuts471.3731000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits58.2921000 ha2016
citrus fruits, nes15.3341000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bananas468.471000 ha2016
mangoes33.1721000 ha2016
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber27 178 1482016
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle27 015.7121000 heads2016
cattle and buffaloes27 015.7121000 heads2016
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs516.9121000 heads2016
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep6 225.8121000 heads2016
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats18 721.7051000 heads2016
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses187.0011000 heads2016
asses and mules187.0011000 heads2016
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds38 6171000 heads2016
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey30.9051000 t2014
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter31.51000 t2014
cheese131000 t2014
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs4 725.4t2016
freshwater fishes316 339t2016
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Minerals


Secondary and tertiary sector
Minerals.
There are mines extracting gold (at Geita, Lupa near Mbeya, Saragura, Kahama, Buhemba and near Lake Victoria), coal (at Kiwira) and bauxite. Sea salt (in Dar es Salaam), spring water salt (at Uvinza), diamonds (at Mwadui-Luhombo, in the Shinyanga area), gems (at Arusha) and phosphates (at Minjingu) are produced. Off the coast of the island of Songo-Songo, natural gas is extracted (the project has been funded by the World Bank).
Energy and industry.
Over half of the electric energy produced is from hydro-electric power sources; the power stations of Kidatu and Kihansi are exceptionally important. The main activities in the secondary sector concern the processing of sugar, beer, tobacco and rubber and the manufacturing of textiles and paper. There are also chemical plants (nitrogenous fertilizers in Dar es Salaam and Tanga), cement works (Dar es Salaam, Tanga, Kilwa Masoko, Mbeya, Mtwara) and plants for the distillation of clove oil. An oil pipeline links Dar es Salaam to a refinery at Ndola (Zambia).
Foreign trade.
The country exports agricultural products (coffee, cotton, tobacco, peanuts, tea, pyrethrum, cloves and cocoa) and minerals (gold and diamonds) and imports industrial machinery, oil and consumer goods. The main trading partners are China, India and South Africa. Free exchange agreements have been operative since 2004 with Kenya and Uganda within the EAC, extended to include Burundi and Rwanda in 2007.

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coal255.91000 t2015
coal, total255.91000 t2015
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bauxite251000 t2016
copper6.51000 t2015
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gypsum2401000 t2016
phosphate rock222.81000 t2015
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
kaolin1.91000 t2015
marble - t111000 t2015
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
diamonds2101000 ct2017
diamonds, industrial - ct32.51000 ct2015
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal3 896.3M kWh2015
- hydro2 087M kWh2015
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro5621000 kW2015
- thermal5461000 kW2015
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation6 025.3M kWh2015
total installed capacity1 1871000 kW2015
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
steel, crude631000 t2015
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
soap120.31000 t2014
tyres24 000no.2008
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cotton fabrics8.3M m²2015
cotton yarn4.31000 t2015
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley4301000 t2014
coconut oil11.41000 t2014
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes7 837M units2015
cigars and cigarettes7 837M units2015
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemical pulp441000 t2016
chemi-mechanical pulp561000 t2016
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement3 1351000 t2015
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production129.9M US$2010
food, beverages and tobacco production1 001.4M US$2010
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Trade


Principali esportazioni

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
food products56.722% of goods exports2016
manufactures25.110% of goods exports2016
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
India983M US$2017
South Africa700M US$2017
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
China1 504M US$2017
India1 167M US$2017
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20174 526.3M US$ -
20165 129.7M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20179 931.865M US$ -
20169 300.457M US$ -
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Tourism


Tourism. Tourism is constantly expanding, attracting visitors to the beaches of the island of Zanzibar and the national parks (of Kilimanjaro, Serengeti, Lake Manyara and Ngorongoro).

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures919M US$2016
Number of arrivals1 233 000units2016
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Communications


Transport.
Navigation routes over the major lakes are extremely important. The railway between Dar es Salaam and Dodoma is being renovated.

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown4 700 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried1 120.11000 units2017
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers32.248per 1000 pop.2017
Computers9.1per 1000 pop.2005
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling8.2years2013
Gross enrolment ratio, primary - Female82index2015
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level197 420units2015
Teachers, secondary level94 598units2015
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds1.1per 1000 pop.2014
Physicians0.02per 1000 pop.2014
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV4.7% of adults2016
HIV, total5.3%2003-04
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.53% of GDP2013
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking2.16%2016
Access to electricity32.8%2016
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear6.7%2011-12
education1.9%2011-12
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