Form of Government: Republic
Area: 36 193 sq km
Population: 23 561 236 inhab. (estimate 2020)
Density: 650.99 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 26° - 22° N; long. 119° - 125° E
Capital: Taipei=Taibei (capital) 2 602 418 inhab. (2020); Taipei=Taibei 6 946 680 inhab. (2015), urban agglomeration
Currency: new Taiwan dollar (100 cents)
President: Tsai Ing-wen (DPP), elected 16 January 2016, in office since 20 May 2016, reconfirmed 11 January 2020
Prime Minister: Su Tseng-chang (DPP), since 11 January 2019
Legislative Assembly: seats based on the elections of 11 January 2020: DPP (Democratic Progressive Party, pro-independence), 61; KMT (Kuo-Min Tang, nationalist pan-Chinese), 38; independents, 5; others, 9
Internet: www.stat.gov.tw (National Statistics of Taiwan)
Member of APEC, WTO

Taiwan

Taiwan
Useful information

International license plate code RC
International dialling code 00886
Travel vaccinations requirement none
Electricity (Voltage) 110
Driving side rigth
Internet code .tw

GMT  +8
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) T’aipei 21.5
Average temperature in January/July (°C) T’aipei 15.5/28
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) T’aipei 6/3
Annual average precipitation (mm) T’aipei 2090
Days of rainfall (annual average) T’aipei 129

Geography.
Taiwan is an Island situated between the East China Sea and the South China Sea, separated from China to the west by the Taiwan Strait. A series mountain chains runs the length of the island (Mount Yu Shan, 3997 m).
The climate is hot and humid with rainfall falling mainly in the monsoon season. Taiwan claims the Paracel or Xisha Qundao islands along with China and Vietnam, and the Spratly or Nansha Qundao with China, Vietnam, Malaysia, Brunei and the Philippines.

Government


The National Republic of China was created in 1949 by General Chiang Kai-shek, supported by the army of the Kuo-Min Tang (KMT) on the island of Taiwan (formerly known as “Formosa”) after the proclamation of the People’s Republic of China.
Until the end of the 1980s, Taiwan was governed by an authoritarian, one-party system (the Kuo-Min Tang). In 1987 pressure from the Democratic Progressive Party (DPP) led to the end of martial law and to the legalization of the opposition. In 1991 the restrictions prohibiting any contact with the People’s Republic of China were lifted and trade and investments were restarted in 2001.
Chinese citizens have increasing access to come as visitors to Taiwan. In the 2001 elections the Kuo-Min Tang lost its majority in Parliament for the first time in the country’s history. Relations with mainland China, which still considers Taiwan to be one of its own provinces, have improved since the KMT’s victory in the 2008 political elections and the election of its leader in 2008 and 2012; even the Democratic Progressive Party, traditionally hostile in their relations with China, have taken a more moderate stance under President Tsai, elected in 2016.
The Constitution is the same as the Chinese one of 1 January 1947, last amended in 2005. The President of the Republic, elected by direct suffrage for a four-year term may only be re-elected once, and he or she appoints the head of the government. The Legislative Assembly, (Li-faYuan) is made up of 113 members elected by direct suffrage for a four-year term. Until 2005 there was also a National Assembly (the Kuo-min Ta-hu) with 300 members, which dealt with constitutional matters. However, with the amendments of 7 June 2005 this assembly effectively dissolved itself, leaving all future constitutional questions to be decided by popular referendum.


Defence and justice.
The rulings of the International Court of Justice are accepted, with some reservations.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force20.9%2015
Army60.5%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Homicides0.8per 100 000 pop.2015
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Taichung=Taizhong2 820 787inhab.2020
Kaohsiung=Gaoxiong2 765 932inhab.2020
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Taipei=Taibei6 946 680inhab.2015
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2020)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate7.532019
Death rate7.472019
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Taiwanese84$%2003
Chinese14$%2003


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Buddhist35.1%2005
Taoist33$%2005


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Chinese
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years12.5%2020
15-29 years18.4%2020


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Economy


Economic situation.
An effective response to COVID-19 has limited the virus’ impact on Taiwan’s economy which, having shrunk slightly in the first half of 2020, is being rehabilitated by certain sectors, biotechnology and semiconductor manufacturing chief among them. Low salaries increase social disparity and add to discontent.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)96.05index2016
Agricultural prod. index (2014-16=100)102.5index2019
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population11 946 000units2019
Active population, Females44.5%2019
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate3.7%2019
Unemployment rate, Females41.7%2019
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses2 911 645M LCU2019
Revenues2 931 855M LCU2019
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture4.767%2020
industry35.436%2020
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture1.7%2019
industry35.6%2019
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation1 942.6BN LCU2018
International reserves555 667.782M US$2020
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Agriculture


Primary sector.
A large part of arable farming involves rice; citrus fruits, pineapples, bananas and sweet potatoes are also widely grown. Livestock mainly involves poultry (ducks) and pigs.
Ocean fishing (tuna, Pacific saurus, cuttlefish), which is carried out with advanced technology, provides a steady supply of exports; aquaculture is also developed.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land24.3%1996
forests51.8%1996
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cereals, total1 977.8561000 t2019
maize178.7621000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava11.0851000 t2019
potatoes62.4471000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asparagus2.6811000 t2019
cabbages637.4391000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry12.1361000 t2019
beans, green13.0791000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes88.6351000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Olive
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
olives2.6241000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts53.1981000 t2019
rapeseed0.0081000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts18.9551000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coffee0$1000 t2017
ginger23.9861000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane575.3471000 t2019
tobacco1.1031000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton0$1000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
flax fibre and tow0.0931000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
jute0$1000 t2014
sisal0.0011000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples1.1781000 t2019
apricots8.271000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits523.1451000 t2019
citrus fruits, nes70.4361000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bananas342.6291000 t2019
mangoes167.7911000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Others
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mushrooms9.2711000 t2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
maize29.741000 ha2019
millet0.2491000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava0.5261000 ha2019
potatoes2.5851000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages16.841000 ha2019
carrots and turnips2.0641000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry6.3651000 ha2019
beans, green2.071000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape2.7151000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Olive
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
olive0.3151000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts8.3931000 ha2019
rapeseed0.0071000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts2.0431000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coffee0$1000 ha2017
ginger0.8851000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane8.6531000 ha2019
tobacco0.471000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton0$1000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
flax fibre and tow0.1581000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
jute0$1000 ha2014
sisal0.0011000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples0.1951000 ha2019
apricots3.6531000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits25.0791000 ha2019
citrus fruits, nes4.21000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bananas14.9141000 ha2019
mangoes16.0311000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Others
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mushrooms0.0251000 ha2019
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber1 465 7082019
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle148.8191000 heads2019
cattle and buffaloes150.7911000 heads2019
Livestock - Buffaloes
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
buffaloes1.9721000 heads2019
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs5 514.2111000 heads2019
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep0.1791000 heads2019
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats134.7891000 heads2019
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
equines, total0.861000 heads2019
horses0.861000 heads2019
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds107 7221000 heads2019
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey2.9071000 t2019
Livestock - Silk farming
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
silk, raw0.0011000 t2018
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter0.1181000 t2018
condensed milk1 376t2018
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
corals1.936t2019
crustaceans and molluscs143 970.756t2019
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Minerals


Secondary and tertiary sector.
After several decades of mining, nearly all the recoverable coal and metallic minerals had been depleted, while there are only small reserves of hydrocarbons (oil and natural gas fields in the western part of the island). Other products include marble, dolomite, limestone and silica sand.
The national electricity requirement is met mainly by coal- and gas-fired power plants, and by four reactors installed at the Kuosheng and Maanshan nuclear power plants (the construction of two more reactors at the Lungmen plant is currently suspended). There are also oil refineries (at Chiayi, Kaohsiung, Taoyuan and Yunlin), regasification plants and iron and steel works (at Kaohsiung and Taichung), chemical plants, cement works, rubber factories, and plants producing cellulose and paper. The car-making industry specializes in the assembly of cars from parts brought in from abroad. The electronics, IT and telecommunications industries are all growing, with main plants at the Science and Technology park at Hsinchu, to the south of Taipei, where several companies specialized in making electronic components and computers have set up and are increasingly in contact with mainland China.

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
natural gas94.8M m³2020
oil, crude9.81000 t2020
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mica3.31000 t2019
talc0.0061000 t2019
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
dolomite13.41000 t2018
kaolin0.51000 t2019
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal209 883M kWh2019
- nuclear31 147M kWh2019
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal39 1091000 kW2018
- other renew.5 4051000 kW2019
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation255 438.09M kWh2019
total installed capacity52 112.121000 kW2018
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
aluminium352.61000 t2014
coke, metall.6 3451000 t2018
Industry - Machinery and transport equipment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bikes3 826 181no.2014
cars180 967no.2020
Industry - Electrical and electronics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
computers878 258no.2014
fridges403 658no.2014
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
petrol12 675.21000 t2014
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ammonia3201000 t2013
caustic soda1 891.61000 t2018
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cotton fabrics244.7M m²2011
cotton yarn2801000 t2007
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley546.71000 t2018
groundnut oil5.81000 t2018
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemical pulp370.2011000 t2019
newsprint27$1000 t2019
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement10 9391000 t2018
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Trade


Main exports (M US$ - 2017) 
electronic integrated circuits 92 424, electrical and electronic equipment 42 081, machinery 31 311, plastics 20 303, iron and steel 17 366, optical and precision instruments 16 416, chemicals 14 910, petroleum products 10 611, vehicles and parts thereof 9 734, telecommunications equipment 6 981, computers and accessories 5 339, refined copper 4 742, synthetic and artificial fibres and yarns 3 793, technical fabrics and coatings 3 707, tools and implements 2 806, toys and sports equipment 2 162,


Finance and banking.
The function of a central bank is held by the Central Bank of China. In Taipei there is a stock exchange.

International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
China102 808M US$2020
United States50 828M US$2020
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
China63 834M US$2020
Japan46 106M US$2020
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
2020347 193M US$ -
2019330 622M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
2020288 053M US$ -
2019287 164M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures22 891M US$2019
Number of arrivals11 864 000units2019
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, passengers carried71 8181000 units2019
Merchant fleet429units2021
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers245.289per 1000 pop.2019
Computers575per 1000 pop.2005
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Gradautes, percentage39$%2014
Graduates301 170units2018
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Students, primary level1 170 612units2019
Students, secondary level1 250 781units2019
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending15.4% of total expenses2004
Social protection spending3.1% of GDP2004
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds7.1per 1000 pop.2019
Physicians2.4per 1000 pop.2019
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending3.36% of GDP2018
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Alcohol consumption per capita1.9litres2009
Calories available per capita/day2 978units2017-19
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear2.8%2019
food, non-alcoholic beverages, tobacco15.2%2019
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