Form of Government: Republic
Area: 36 193 sq km
Population: 23 588 932 inhab. (estimate 2018)
Density: 651.75 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 26° - 22° N; long. 119° - 125° E
Capital: Taipei=Taibei (capital) 2 668 572 inhab. (2018); Taipei=Taibei 6 946 680 inhab. (2015), urban agglomeration
Currency: new Taiwan dollar (100 cents)
President: Tsai Ing-wen (DPP), elected 16 January 2016, in office since 20 May 2016
Prime Minister: Su Tseng-chang (DPP), since 11 January 2019
Legislative Assembly: seats based on the elections of 16 January 2016: DPP (Democratic Progressive Party, pro-independence), 68; KMT (Kuo-Min Tang, nationalist pan-Chinese), 35; independents, 9; others, 1
Internet: www.stat.gov.tw (National Statistics of Taiwan)
Member of APEC, WTO

Taiwan

Taiwan
Useful information

International license plate code RC
International dialling code 00886
Travel vaccinations requirement none
Electricity (Voltage) 110
Driving side rigth
Internet code .tw

GMT  +8
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) T’aipei 21.5
Average temperature in January/July (°C) T’aipei 15.5/28
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) T’aipei 6/3
Annual average precipitation (mm) T’aipei 2090
Days of rainfall (annual average) T’aipei 129

Politics and current affairs

Following bad results in the administrative elections on 24 November 2018, President Tsai Ing-wen stepped down as leader of the DPP, and on 11 January 2019, a new prime minister was elected.

Geography.
Taiwan is an Island situated between the East China Sea and the South China Sea, separated from China to the west by the Taiwan Strait. A series mountain chains runs the length of the island (Mount Yu Shan, 3997 m).
The climate is hot and humid with rainfall falling mainly in the monsoon season. Taiwan claims the Paracel or Xisha Qundao islands along with China and Vietnam, and the Spratly or Nansha Qundao with China, Vietnam, Malaysia, Brunei and the Philippines.

Government


The National Republic of China was created in 1949 by General Chiang Kai-shek, supported by the army of the Kuo-Min Tang (KMT) on the island of Taiwan (formerly known as “Formosa”) after the proclamation of the People’s Republic of China. Until the end of the 1980s, Taiwan was governed by an authoritarian, one-party system (the Kuo-Min Tang). In 1987 pressure from the Democratic Progressive Party (DPP) led to the end of martial law and to the legalization of the opposition. In 1991 the restrictions prohibiting any contact with the People’s Republic of China were lifted and trade and investments were restarted in 2001. Chinese citizens have increasing access to come as visitors to Taiwan. In the 2001 elections the Kuo-Min Tang lost its majority in Parliament for the first time in the country’s history. Relations with mainland China, which still considers Taiwan to be one of its own provinces, have improved since the KMT’s victory in the 2008 political elections and the election of its leader in 2008 and 2012; even the Democratic Progressive Party, traditionally hostile in their relations with China, have taken a more moderate stance under President Tsai, elected in 2016. The Constitution is the same as the Chinese one of 1 January 1947, last amended in 2005. The President of the Republic, elected by direct suffrage for a four-year term may only be re-elected once, and he or she appoints the head of the government. The Legislative Assembly, (Li-faYuan) is made up of 113 members elected by direct suffrage for a four-year term. Until 2005 there was also a National Assembly (the Kuo-min Ta-hu) with 300 members, which dealt with constitutional matters. However, with the amendments of 7 June 2005 this assembly effectively dissolved itself, leaving all future constitutional questions to be decided by popular referendum.


Defence and justice.
The rulings of the International Court of Justice are accepted, with some reservations.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force20.9%2015
Army60.5%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Homicides0.8per 100 000 pop.2015
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Taichung=Taizhong2 803 894inhab.2018
Kaohsiung=Gaoxiong2 773 533inhab.2018
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Taipei=Taibei6 946 680inhab.2015
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2018)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate8.22017
Death rate7.32017
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Taiwanese84%2003
Chinese14%2003


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Buddhist35.1%2005
Taoist33%2005


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Chinese
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years12.7%2018
15-29 years19.4%2018


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Economy


Economic situation.
To solve the dip in growth following reduced exports to China, in 2016, Tsai’s administration launched a plan of economic collaboration with other countries in south-east Asia. Low salaries increase social disparity and add to discontent.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)96.05index2016
Agricultural prod. index (2016=100)105.4index2017
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population11 795 000units2017
Active population, Females44.3%2017
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate3.7%2018
Unemployment rate, Females41.4%2018
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses2 770 074M LCU2017
Revenues2 753 318M LCU2017
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture4.9%2017
industry35.8%2017
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture1.8%2017
industry36.6%2017
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation1 791.3BN LCU2017
International reserves479 240.1M US$2018
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Agriculture


Primary sector.
A large part of arable farming involves rice; citrus fruits, pineapples, bananas and sweet potatoes are also widely grown. Livestock mainly involves poultry (ducks) and pigs.
Ocean fishing (tuna, Pacific saurus, cuttlefish), which is carried out with advanced technology, provides a steady supply of exports; aquaculture is also developed.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land24.3%1996
forests51.8%1996
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cereals, total1 926.5351000 t2017
maize163.4781000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava15.7151000 t2017
potatoes58.581000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asparagus21000 t2017
cabbages613.9831000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry11.3431000 t2017
beans, green12.5311000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes77.7881000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Olive
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
olives2.6221000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts58.1211000 t2017
rapeseed0.011000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts17.161000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coffee01000 t2017
ginger25.8231000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane389.0331000 t2017
tobacco1.091000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton01000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
flax fibre and tow0.141000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
jute01000 t2014
sisal0.0031000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples1.51000 t2017
apricots25.3241000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits461.2691000 t2017
citrus fruits, nes67.0681000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bananas252.9561000 t2017
mangoes150.5591000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Others
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mushrooms13.0531000 t2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
maize29.6471000 ha2017
millet0.3221000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava0.6861000 ha2017
potatoes2.3361000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages17.081000 ha2017
carrots and turnips2.3741000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry5.8751000 ha2017
beans, green2.0961000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape2.611000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Olive
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
olive0.3121000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts19.9251000 ha2017
rapeseed0.0091000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts1.7861000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coffee01000 ha2017
ginger1.0531000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane6.1051000 ha2017
tobacco0.4491000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton01000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
flax fibre and tow0.2541000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
jute01000 ha2014
sisal0.0021000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples0.21000 ha2017
apricots4.1591000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits25.3431000 ha2017
citrus fruits, nes4.4471000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bananas15.1671000 ha2017
mangoes16.881000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Others
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mushrooms0.0371000 ha2017
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber1 465 7342017
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle143.9931000 heads2017
cattle and buffaloes146.031000 heads2017
Livestock - Buffaloes
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
buffaloes2.0371000 heads2017
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs5 442.3811000 heads2017
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep0.1961000 heads2017
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats1461000 heads2017
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
equines, total0.8541000 heads2017
horses0.8541000 heads2017
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds102 6591000 heads2017
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey11.5721000 t2014
Livestock - Silk farming
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
silk, raw0.0011000 t2014
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter0.0141000 t2014
condensed milk1 134t2014
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
corals2.544t2017
crustaceans and molluscs196 987.414t2017
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Minerals


Secondary and tertiary sector.
After several decades of mining, nearly all the recoverable coal and metallic minerals had been depleted, while there are only small reserves of hydrocarbons (oil and natural gas fields in the western part of the island). Other products include marble, dolomite, limestone and silica sand.
The national electricity requirement is met mainly by coal- and gas-fired power plants, and by the six reactors installed at the nuclear power plants of Jinshan, Kuosheng and Maanshan (two more reactors are been under construction, but this project is currently suspended). There are also oil refineries (at Chiayi, Kaohsiung, Taoyuan and Yunlin), iron and steel works (at Kaohsiung and Taichung), chemical plants, cement works, rubber factories, and plants producing cellulose and paper. The car-making industry specializes in the assembly of cars from parts brought in from abroad.
The electronics, IT and telecommunications industries are all growing, with main plants at the Science and Technology park at Hsinchu, to the south of Taipei, where several companies specialized in making electronic components and computers have set up and are increasingly in contact with China.

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
natural gas239M m³2017
oil, crude9.81000 t2018
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mica6.21000 t2016
talc0.251000 t2016
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
dolomite221000 t2016
kaolin41000 t2016
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal203 509.06M kWh2016
- nuclear30 461M kWh2016
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal37 4711000 kW2016
- nuclear5 0521000 kW2016
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation246 088.06M kWh2016
total installed capacity49 5161000 kW2016
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
aluminium352.61000 t2014
coke, metall.6 2261000 t2016
Industry - Machinery and transport equipment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bikes3 826 181no.2014
cars190 052no.2018
Industry - Electrical and electronics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
computers878 258no.2014
fridges403 658no.2014
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
petrol12 675.21000 t2014
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ammonia3201000 t2013
caustic soda1 708.51000 t2016
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cotton fabrics244.7M m²2011
cotton yarn2801000 t2007
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley527.51000 t2014
groundnut oil61000 t2014
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemical pulp370.2011000 t2017
chemi-mechanical pulp370.2011000 t2017
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement12 1261000 t2016
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Trade


Main exports (M US$ - 2017) 
electronic integrated circuits 92 424, electrical and electronic equipment 42 081, machinery 31 311, plastics 20 303, iron and steel 17 366, optical and precision instruments 16 416, chemicals 14 910, petroleum products 10 611, vehicles and parts thereof 9 734, telecommunications equipment 6 981, computers and accessories 5 339, refined copper 4 742, synthetic and artificial fibres and yarns 3 793, technical fabrics and coatings 3 707, tools and implements 2 806, toys and sports equipment 2 162, synthetic rubber and tyres 2 064, furniture and accessories 2 030


Finance and banking.
The function of a central bank is held by the Central Bank of China. In Taipei there is a stock exchange.

International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
China96 746M US$2018
Hong Kong41 571M US$2018
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
China53 777M US$2018
Japan44 140M US$2018
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
2018335 909M US$ -
2017317 249M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
2018286 333M US$ -
2017259 266M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures20 482M US$2017
Number of arrivals10 739 601units2017
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, passengers carried65 9791000 units2017
Merchant fleet358units2018
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers241.829per 1000 pop.2017
Computers575per 1000 pop.2005
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Gradautes, percentage39%2014
Graduates304 649units2016
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level94 407units2017
Teachers, secondary level100 715units2017
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending15.4% of total expenses2004
Social protection spending3.1% of GDP2004
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds7per 1000 pop.2017
Physicians2.2per 1000 pop.2017
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending3.16% of GDP2016
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Alcohol consumption per capita1.9litres2009
Calories available per capita/day2 997units2015-17
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear3%2014
food, non-alcoholic beverages, tobacco15.9%2014
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