Form of Government: Monarchy
Area: 17 364 sq km
Population: 1 160 164 inhab. (estimate 2020)
Density: 66.81 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 26° - 28° S; long. 30° - 32° E
Capital: Mbabane 68 010 inhab. (2018), urban agglomeration; Lobamba (legislative capital) 11 000 inhab. (2006);
Currency: lilangeni, plural emalangeni (100 cents)
Human development index: 0.611 (rank: 138)
Sovereign: Mswati III, since 25 April 1986
Prime Minister: Cleopas Dlamini, since 16 July 2021
Internet: www.gov.sz (The Government of The Kingdom of Eswatini)
Member of AU, COMESA, Commonwealth, SACU, SADC, UN, WTO

Eswatini (Swaziland)

Eswatini, eSwatini, Kingdom of Eswatini, Umbuso weSwatini
Useful information

International license plate code SD
International dialling code 00268
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (required only if traveling from a country with risk of transmission); malaria prophylaxis (recommended for some areas)
Electricity (Voltage) 230
Driving side left
Internet code .sz

GMT  +2
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Mbabane 20.2
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Mbabane 24/15
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Mbabane 8/6
Annual average precipitation (mm) Mbabane 807
Days of rainfall (annual average) Mbabane 70

Geography.
It is almost completely surrounded by South Africa, apart from a short stretch of its border with Mozambique to the north-east. Rainfall is more abundant in the north-east, while the country becomes drier towards the south.

Government


Formerly a British protectorate, it has been independent within the Commonwealth since 6 September 1968, preserving traditional customs and institutions. Until 2018, it retained the name Swaziland. The 1978 Constitution, although amended to introduce greater democracy in 2006, assigns most powers to the King. The Assembly (59 elected members, 10 appointed by the sovereign and a variable number of seats - currently 4 - to guarantee 30% representation of women) and the Senate (30 members) mostly have consultative roles.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Military expenditure1.823% of GDP2019
Military personnel3 000units2007
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Homicides8.2per 100 000 pop.2013
Police personnel367per 100 000 pop.2012
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Mbabane68 010inhab.2018
Manzini30 248inhab.2017
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Manzini115 200inhab.2006
Mbabane68 010inhab.2018
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2020)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate25.8812019
Death rate9.0592019
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Swazi82.3%2000
Zulu9.6%2000


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Christian89.2%2017
nonreligious/atheist7.4%2017


Languages
DESCRIPTION
English (official)
Siswati (official)
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years33.6%2020
15-29 years28.8%2020


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Economy


The country’s economy depends on South Africa, on custom fees from the Southern African Customs Union and on remittances by emigrants. The local currency is pegged to the South African Rand. Most of the population is involved in subsistence agriculture, although there are also some plantation crops (sugar cane). Coal is mined at Maloma. Industry (textiles and foodstuffs) is concentrated in Matsapa and Nhlangano.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)113.37index2016
Agricultural prod. index (2014-16=100)100.71index2019
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population382 000units2020
Active population, Females47.6%2020
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate23.4%2020
Unemployment rate, Females51.3%2019
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses21 800M LCU2019
Revenues18 900M LCU2019
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture12.5%2019
industry23.8%2019
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture9.146%2019
industry35.43%2019
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation1.413BN LCU2020
International reserves545.564M US$2020
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Agriculture

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land11.047%2018
forests28.787%2018
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cereals, total97.8311000 t2019
maize95$1000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes8.6341000 t2019
roots and tubers, total78.7121000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
tomatoes6.6021000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry0.7751000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts0.5651000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane5 665.8981000 t2019
tobacco0.1541000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton0.8871000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fruits, total113.8741000 t2019
plums1.3271000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
almonds1.0521000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits96.2691000 t2019
citrus fruits, nes0.2331000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados0.9941000 t2019
bananas7.4931000 t2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
maize79.131000 ha2019
rice0.2971000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes4.0811000 ha2019
sweet potatoes1.2851000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
tomatoes0.5061000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry1.6411000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts1.541000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane58.7621000 ha2019
tobacco0.4341000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton1.4251000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
plums0.2381000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
almonds0.6491000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits12.2971000 ha2019
citrus fruits, nes0.0441000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados0.1641000 ha2019
bananas1.2551000 ha2019
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber2 872 8432019
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle623.5091000 heads2019
cattle and buffaloes623.5091000 heads2019
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs35.5961000 heads2019
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep40.2761000 heads2019
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats244.7291000 heads2019
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses16.4271000 heads2019
asses and mules16.5381000 heads2019
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds3 9561000 heads2019
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter0.2011000 t2018
eggs1.0091000 t2019
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
freshwater fishes165t2019
total catch165t2019
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Minerals

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coal109.91000 t2019
coal, total109.91000 t2019
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
iron ore603.21000 t2014
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gold12$kg2018
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal300M kWh2018
- hydro211.2M kWh2018
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal1151000 kW2018
- other renew.1071000 kW2019
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation712.21M kWh2018
total installed capacity2821000 kW2018
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ferroalloys0.41000 t2012
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley27$1000 t2018
cottonseed oil0.0891000 t2018
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
other paper49$1000 t2019
paper49$1000 t2019
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production8$M US$2011
food, beverages and tobacco production1 312M US$2011
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Trade

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufactures64.905% of goods exports2019
food products28.697% of goods exports2019
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20201 638M US$ -
20192 002M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20201 522M US$ -
20191 832M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures33$M US$2019
Number of arrivals680 000units2019
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, passengers carried52.71000 units2019
Motor vehicles85 000units2006
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers7.112per 1000 pop.2017
Computers37$per 1000 pop.2008
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling11.2years2013
Graduates2 525units2013
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Students, primary level237 451units2017
Students, secondary level108 288units2016
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds2.1per 1000 pop.2011
Physicians0.33per 1000 pop.2016
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV27$% of adults2019
HIV, total18.1%2001
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.267% of GDP2015
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking54.7%2019
Access to electricity77.17%2019
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