Form of Government: Constitutional monarchy
Area: 447 426 sq km
Population: 10 379 295 inhab. (estimate 2020)
Density: 23.2 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 69° - 55° N; long. 11° - 24° E
Capital: Stockholm (capital) 975 551 inhab. (2020); Greater Stockholm 2 391 990 inhab. (2020), urban agglomeration
Currency: Swedish krona (100 öre)
Human development index: 0.945 (rank: 7)
Sovereign: King Karl XVI Gustaf, since 15 September 1973
Prime Minister: Stefan Löfven (SAP), since 2 October 2014, re-elected 18 January 2019
Parliament: seats (August 2020 update): SAP (Social Democratic Party), 100; M (Moderates), 70; SD (Swedish Democrats, right-wing nationalist), 62; C (Centre Party), 31; V (Left Party), 27; KD (Christian Democrats), 22; FP (Liberals), 19; Greens, 16; others, 2
Internet: www.scb.se (Statistics Sweden)
Member of Council of Europe, EBRD, EU, Nordic Council, OAS observer, OECD, OSCE, UN, WTO

Sweden

Sverige, Konungariket Sverige
Useful information

International license plate code S
International dialling code 0046
Travel vaccinations requirement none
Electricity (Voltage) 230
Driving side rigth
Internet code .se

GMT  +1
DST  +2
DST duration (start-end) late March-late October

Annual average temperature (°C) Stockholm 6.6; Göteborg 7.6
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Stockholm -3/18; Göteborg -1/17.5
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Stockholm 10/1; Göteborg 10/1
Annual average precipitation (mm) Stockholm 560; Göteborg 670
Days of rainfall (annual average) Stockholm 104; Göteborg 116

Politics and current affairs

The less restrictive approach to managing the COVID-19 pandemic was criticized by King Carl XVI Gustaf. According to The Lancet, Sweden’s approach was likely to result in four or five times more deaths than neighbouring Nordic countries. On 21 June 2021, for the first time in Swedish history, Prime Minister Löfven lost a vote of no confidence after introducing a controversial housing market reform. The crisis was mended and on 7 July 2021, Löfven received parliamentary approval to form a new government.

Geography.
Sweden is bordered to the north and west by Norway and to the north-east by Finland. It lies on the Gulf of Bothnia and to the east, the Baltic Sea to the south-east and the Kattegat to the south-west.
Sweden occupies the eastern side of the Scandinavian peninsula and has a long, thin shape going from north to south. The south-western coasts are characterized by deep inlets (fjords). The mountain range which runs down the country forming the border with Norway (Monte Kebnekaise, 2111 m) gradually slopes down to the east, with many plateaux, partly covered by glaciers and dotted with lakes. In the eastern part, the landscape drops in a series of terraces towards the sea. Lakes cover 8% of the land area and are mostly found in the south (the largest is Lake Vänern). The main rivers are the River Torne, the River Lule and the River Ume, all of which flow into the Baltic Sea.
The climate is characterized by generally low temperatures, with great differences between north and south.

Government


An independent Kingdom since the thirteenth century, from the 1930s onwards the social democratic and conservative parties have alternated in power. On 14 September 2003 the country decided not to enter the Eurozone for the time being. According to the Constitution of 1 January 1975, the Parliament (Riksdag) has legislative power and is made up of 349 members elected for a four-year term by direct suffrage. Elections are based on the system proportional representation with a minimum of at least 4% of votes required to obtain any seats in parliament. The government is answerable to the Riksdag.


Defence.
Sweden maintains a policy of neutrality, though it has an efficient army. Due to the tensions in the Baltic Sea and Eastern Europe, the government has brought back military conscription, involving the recruitment of 4000 men and women from 1 January 2018. The debate on the possibility of joining NATO continues.


Justice.
The legal system is based on European continental systems, with some common law elements.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force9.1%2015
Army23$%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes14 677.7per 100 000 pop.2012
Homicides1.1per 100 000 pop.2018
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Stockholm975 551inhab.2020
Gothenburg=Göteborg583 056inhab.2020
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Greater Stockholm2 391 990inhab.2020
Greater Gothenburg1 049 592inhab.2020
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2020)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE

There is a very large urban population. The drop in the birth rate has been offset by an increase in immigration, which mostly comes from the Middle East, Eastern Europe and the Balkans. There are some native minority groups: Finns (in the Torne valley) and Lapps (in the extreme north).

Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate10.92020
Death rate9.52020
Foreigners
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Foreigners, total905 323units2020
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Swedish91.3%2020
other6$%2020


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Protestant61.1%2018
other32$%2018


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Swedish
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years17.7%2020
15-29 years17.6%2020


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Economy


Economic situation.
In 2020, the GDP fell by 2.8%, despite a “soft” government approach to pandemic restrictions. The economy is expected to return to pre-pandemic levels by the end of 2021 (+3.1%).

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)99.95index2016
Agricultural prod. index (2014-16=100)100.24index2019
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population5 522 100units2020
Active population, Females47.2%2020
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate8.3%2020
Unemployment rate, Females47.2%2020
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses1 648 659M LCU2020
Revenues1 492 378M LCU2020
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture1.716%2020
industry18.184%2020
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture1.556%2020
industry23.852%2020
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation62.853BN LCU2020
International reserves58 260.345M US$2020
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Agriculture


Primary sector
Agriculture.
Although it is only concentrated in a small part of the country’s total area, agriculture is highly productive, thanks to the use of advanced technology. There are good harvests of cereal crops (barley, wheat, oats and rye) but they are unable to meet national demand.
The only other crop worthy of mention is potatoes. Industrial-scale farming is concentrated on sugar beet.
Forests, livestock and fishing.
The forests are a valuable resource, and are used carefully due to the Sweden’s stringent environmental laws. Two-thirds of primary-sector output comes from livestock (especially pigs and cattle).
Some animals peculiar to Sweden are raised: reindeer and other animals bred for their fur. Fishing, which is particularly important on the western coast, is in decline.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land6.27%2018
forests68.695%2018
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley1 546.51000 t2019
cereals, total6 147.71000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes846.91000 t2019
roots and tubers, total846.91000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asparagus0.231000 t2019
cabbages20.471000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry103.71000 t2016
beans, green0.261000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes0.071000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
rapeseed381.51000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar beet2 028.91000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
linseed4.31000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples22.211000 t2019
blueberries0.091000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Others
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mushrooms1.541000 t2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley291.761000 ha2019
maize1.621000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes23.651000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages0.661000 ha2019
carrots and turnips1.711000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry29.571000 ha2016
beans, green0.11000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape0.051000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
rapeseed105.381000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar beet27.161000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
linseed2.191000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples1.521000 ha2019
blueberries0.041000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Others
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mushrooms0.011000 ha2019
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber75 500 0002019
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle1 404.671000 heads2019
cattle and buffaloes1 404.671000 heads2019
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs1 481.21000 heads2019
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep379.461000 heads2019
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
equines, total102.0341000 heads2018
horses102.0341000 heads2018
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds9 1961000 heads2018
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey3.41000 t2018
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter53.971000 t2018
cheese81.81000 t2018
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs5 831.3t2019
freshwater fishes4 110t2019
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Minerals


Secondary sector
Minerals.
Sweden is particularly rich in iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, gold and silver. Mining activities in the north of the country continue, where many exploration projects for minerals, metals and rare metals are being carried out. Sweden is, however, lacking in sources of fuel. There are no crude oil reserves, though a small amount of coal is found in Scania, which also has vast peat deposits.
Energy.
Over 75% of the electricity generation currently comes from hydro and nuclear power (with nuclear power plants at Forsmark, Oskarshamn and Ringhals). Sweden’s nuclear reactors are expected to be all decommissioned by 2045. A gas pipeline connects the country to Denmark.
Industry.
Sweden is one of the biggest investors in research and development (over 3% of the GDP) and is known for its strong propensity for international trade. In the world of high-end technology, Ericsson is active in the development of 5G networks.
The most important sectors are metalworking, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, biotechnology, electronics and telecommunications. Facebook will double the size of its data centre in Luleå. The automobile industry, though marked by a recent crisis in historic brands, is still source of a significant export levels. Timber is still an important traditional industry. There are many sawmills and plants producing cellulose, wood pulp and paper. Swedish is the world’s largest furniture retailer (IKEA). The main oil refineries can be found at Nynäshamn, Lysekil (which is expanding) and Gothenburg.
An important Swedish chemical product is explosives; other segments of the chemical industry are also well developed. Hydroelectric power has encouraged the development of the electro-metallurgical industry (zinc, silver, iron, steel and aluminium). Other metals produced include copper, lead and magnesium. A typical Swedish activity is the production of sulfur matches. Within the textile industry, artificial and synthetic fibres are produced. Rubber is used for making footwear and tyres. Other industries include tanning, glassmaking, tobacco, sugar and beer.

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coal5351000 t2020
coal, total5351000 t2020
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
copper106.11000 t2018
iron ore35 0001000 t2020
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
feldspar22$1000 t2018
graphite0.11000 t2015
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
dolomite3701000 t2016
granite88$1000 t2016
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gold7 866kg2018
silver471 325kg2018
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro64 465.83M kWh2019
- nuclear64 429M kWh2019
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro16 3321000 kW2019
- other renew.15 3101000 kW2019
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation165 028.18M kWh2019
total installed capacity41 1981000 kW2018
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
aluminium1201000 t2019
coke, metall.1 1051000 t2019
Industry - Machinery and transport equipment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bikes96 999no.2018
cars249 000no.2020
Industry - Precision and optical instruments
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cameras5 480no.2010
Industry - Electrical and electronics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
air conditioners1 207 795no.2018
camcorders1 019 315no.2018
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen7331000 t2018
petrol5 8361000 t2014
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
artificial yarn0.0341000 t2014
caustic soda130.61000 t2016
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
carpets2 2371000 m²2018
cotton fabrics0.28M m²2016
Industry - Clothing and footwear
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
footwear108 000pairs2015
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley4821000 t2018
fish, frozen43.71000 t2018
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
tobacco10 256.5t2018
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemical pulp8 3981000 t2019
chemi-mechanical pulp11 5911000 t2019
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement3 3001000 t2018
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production7 852.879M US$2018
food, beverages and tobacco production5 516.63M US$2018
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Trade


Tertiary sector
Foreign trade.
After a three-year period of moderate deficit, the foreign trade balance has returned to profit since 2019.


Main exports (M US$ - 2017) machinery 23 473, vehicles and parts thereof 11 802, electric and electronic equipment 9 899, iron and steel 9 098, cars 8 990, paper and paperboard 8 575, petroleum products 7 979, pharmaceuticals 7 779, plastics 5 350, telecommunications equipment 4 576, timber 4 063, fish 4 000, technical and electro-medical appliances 3 866, chemicals 3 856, furniture and accessories 2 675, iron ores 2 277, wood pulp 2 263, apparel and accessories 1 750, aluminium 1 689, refined copper 1 527 gold and precious stones1 237, tools and implements 1 153, electric energy 1 117, rubber articles 1 006, spirits and non-alcoholic beverages 1 002, dyes 960, metal ores 772, food preparations 696, miscellaneous manufactured articles 670


Finance and banking.
The banking system is controlled by the Riksbank.
The Stockholm Stock Exchange is part of the Nasdaq, Inc. multinational financial services corporation.

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufactures73.112% of goods exports2018
fuels7.434% of goods exports2018
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Norway16 402M US$2020
Germany16 189M US$2020
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Germany27 306M US$2020
Netherlands14 640M US$2020
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
2020155 537M US$ -
2019160 576M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
2020149 163M US$ -
2019158 971M US$ -
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Tourism


Tourism. The main attractions are the lakes, the forests and the “midnight sun” and the northern lights in areas north of the Arctic Circle, as well as the city of Stockholm.
Most tourists come from the other Scandinavian countries and Germany.

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures14 367M US$2019
Number of arrivals7 616 000units2019
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Communications


Transport.
The rail and road networks are well developed. In 2000 the new road and rail bridge over the Øresund was opened, connecting Denmark to Sweden. Air transport is also well established.

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown133 100 000km flown2004
Gas pipelines1 626km2013
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers402.409per 1000 pop.2019
Computers881per 1000 pop.2008
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Social and welfare


Education, culture & research.

Primary education (for nine years from the age of 6 or 7) is compulsory and free.
Secondary school follows (for three years) and there are several universities and institutions of higher education.


Social security and health.
Sweden has one of the most advanced welfare systems, financed by high levels of taxation. Even if services are now being reduced, all residents have guaranteed healthcare, health and accident insurance, family benefit and pensions. Unemployment benefit is mostly paid by the trade unions.

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling19.691years2018
Gradautes, percentage43.971%2019
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Students, primary level893 495units2018
Students, secondary level934 541units2018
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending38.652% of total expenses2019
Social protection spending25.452% of GDP2019
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds2.14per 1000 pop.2018
Physicians4.27per 1000 pop.2017
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV0.2% of adults2016
HIV, total0.03%2001
Museums
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Museums416units2019
Museums, visitors19 099 490units2019
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending3.4% of GDP2019
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking100%2019
Access to electricity100%2019
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear4.1%2019
education0.3%2019
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