Form of Government: Constitutional monarchy
Area: 447 426 sq km
Population: 10 230 185 inhab. (estimate 2018)
Density: 22.87 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 69° - 55° N; long. 11° - 24° E
Capital: Stockholm (capital) 962 154 inhab. (2018); Greater Stockholm 2 344 124 inhab. (2018), urban agglomeration
Currency: Swedish krona (100 öre)
Human development index: 0.933 (rank: 7)
Sovereign: King Karl XVI Gustaf, since 15 September 1973
Prime Minister: Stefan Löfven (SAP), since 2 October 2014, re-elected 18 January 2019
Parliament: seats (July 2019 update): SAP (Social Democratic Party), 100; M (Moderates), 70; SD (Swedish Democrats, right-wing nationalist), 62; C (Centre Party), 31; V (Left Party), 28; KD (Christian Democrats), 22; FP (Liberals), 19; Greens, 16; independents, 1
Internet: www.scb.se (Statistics Sweden)
Member of Council of Europe, EBRD, EU, Nordic Council, OAS observer, OECD, OSCE, UN, WTO

Sweden

Sverige, Konungariket Sverige
Useful information

International license plate code S
International dialling code 0046
Travel vaccinations requirement none
Electricity (Voltage) 230
Driving side rigth
Internet code .se

GMT  +1
DST  +2
DST duration (start-end) late March-late October

Annual average temperature (°C) Stockholm 6.6; Göteborg 7.6
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Stockholm -3/18; Göteborg -1/17.5
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Stockholm 10/1; Göteborg 10/1
Annual average precipitation (mm) Stockholm 560; Göteborg 670
Days of rainfall (annual average) Stockholm 104; Göteborg 116

Politics and current affairs

After a months-long impasse, on 18 January 2019, the Social Democrat Stefan Löfven (SAP) returned as prime minister thanks to a new coalition between the centre-left (SAP and Green Party) and centre-right (Centre Party and Liberals). The absentation on the part of the Left Party was crucial, however, without which the government would not have been able to take power. The fragile coalition has faced the effects of accusations of money laundering against one of the country’s chief banks, Swedbank. There was a series of explosions, probably tied to violence between criminal gangs, in Malmö and Linköping in June 2019.

Geography.
Sweden is bordered to the north and west by Norway and to the north-east by Finland. It lies on the Gulf of Bothnia and to the east, the Baltic Sea to the south-east and the Kattegat to the south-west. Sweden occupies the eastern side of the Scandinavian peninsula and has a long, thin shape going from north to south. The south-western coasts are characterized by deep inlets (fjords). The mountain range which runs down the country forming the border with Norway (Monte Kebnekaise, 2111 m) gradually slopes down to the east, with many plateaux, partly covered by glaciers and dotted with lakes. In the eastern part, the landscape drops in a series of terraces towards the sea. Lakes cover 8% of the land area and are mostly found in the south (the largest is Lake Vänern). The main rivers are the River Torne, the River Lule and the River Ume, all of which flow into the Baltic Sea. The climate is characterized by generally low temperatures, with great differences between north and south.

Government


An independent Kingdom since the thirteenth century, from the 1930s onwards the social democratic and conservative parties have alternated in power. On 14 September 2003 the country decided not to enter the Eurozone for the time being. According to the Constitution of 1 January 1975, the Parliament (Riksdag) has legislative power and is made up of 349 members elected for a four-year term by direct suffrage. Elections are based on the system proportional representation with a minimum of at least 4% of votes required to obtain any seats in parliament. The government is answerable to the Riksdag.


Defence.
Sweden maintains a policy of neutrality, though it has an efficient army. Due to the geopolitical tensions in the Baltic Sea and Eastern Europe, the government has brought back military conscription, involving the recruitment of 4000 men and women from 1 January 2018, and strengthened defenses on the island of Gotland.


Justice.
The legal system is based on European continental systems, with some common law elements.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force9.1%2015
Army23%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes14 677.7per 100 000 pop.2012
Homicides1.1per 100 000 pop.2016
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Stockholm962 154inhab.2018
Gothenburg=Göteborg571 868inhab.2018
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Greater Stockholm2 344 124inhab.2018
Greater Gothenburg1 028 248inhab.2018
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2018)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE

There is a very large urban population. The drop in the birth rate has been offset by an increase in immigration, which mostly comes from the Middle East, Eastern Europe and the Balkans. There are some native minority groups: Finns (in the Torne valley) and Lapps (in the extreme north).

Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate11.32018
Death rate92018
Foreigners
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Foreigners, total932 266units2018
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Swedish90.9%2018
other4.5%2018


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Protestant67%2015
other26.5%2015


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Swedish
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years17.5%2018
15-29 years18.2%2018


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Economy


Economic situation.
In 2018, the GDP grew 2.3%, while it is expected to slow to 1.4% in 2019 and 1.6% in 2020. However, unemployment should hover around 6.3%. Public finances are strong (debt/GDP: 34.4% in 2019).

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)99.95index2016
Balance of trade-4 144.1M US$2018
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population5 459 100units2018
Active population, Females47.6%2018
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate6.3%2018
Unemployment rate, Females47.1%2018
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses1 391 654M LCU2018
Revenues1 465 544M LCU2018
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture1.7%2018
industry18.1%2018
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture1.2%2018
industry25.6%2018
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation62.18BN LCU2018
International reserves60 566.1M US$2018
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Agriculture


Primary sector
Agriculture.
Although it is only concentrated in a small part of the country’s total area, agriculture is highly productive, thanks to the use of advanced technology.
There are good harvests of cereal crops (barley, wheat, oats and rye) but they are unable to meet national demand. The only other crop worthy of mention is potatoes. Industrial-scale farming is concentrated on sugar beet.
Forests, livestock and fishing.
The forests are a valuable resource, and are used carefully due to the Sweden’s stringent environmental laws. Two-thirds of primary-sector output comes from livestock (especially pigs and cattle). Some animals peculiar to Sweden are raised: reindeer and other animals bred for their fur. Fishing, which is particularly important on the western coast, is in decline.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land6.36%2015
forests68.93%2015
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley1 635.21000 t2017
cereals, total5 949.61000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes852.51000 t2017
roots and tubers, total852.51000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages18.291000 t2017
carrots and turnips109.081000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry103.71000 t2016
broad beans, dry109.41000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
rapeseed362.71000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar beet1 963.51000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
linseed7.81000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples22.131000 t2017
blueberries0.071000 t2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley309.4051000 ha2017
oats151.3431000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes24.571000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages0.421000 ha2017
carrots and turnips1.71000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry29.571000 ha2016
broad beans, dry30.491000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
rapeseed114.241000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar beet30.991000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
linseed4.541000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples1.41000 ha2017
blueberries0.051000 ha2017
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber74 669 5992017
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle1 448.591000 heads2017
cattle and buffaloes1 448.591000 heads2017
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs138.231000 heads2017
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep606.081000 heads2017
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
equines, total102.5151000 heads2017
horses102.5151000 heads2017
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds9 1751000 heads2017
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey3.41000 t2013
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter34.711000 t2014
cheese901000 t2014
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs6 041t2017
freshwater fishes7 731t2017
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Minerals


Secondary sector
Minerals.
Sweden is particularly rich in iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, gold and silver. Mining activities in the north of the country continue, where many exploration projects for minerals, metals and rare metals are being carried out. Sweden is, however, lacking in sources of fuel. There are no crude oil reserves, though a small amount of coal is found in Scania, which also has vast peat deposits.
Energy.
About 80% of the electricity generation currently comes from hydro and nuclear power (with nuclear power plants at Forsmark, Oskarshamn and Ringhals). Sweden’s nuclear reactors are expected to be all decommissioned by 2045. A gas pipeline connects the country to Denmark.
Industry.
Sweden is one of the biggest investors in research and development (over 3% of the GDP) and is known for its strong propensity for international trade. The most important sectors are metalworking, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, biotechnology, electronics and telecommunications. Facebook will double the size of its data centre in Luleå. The automobile industry, though marked by a recent crisis in historic brands (Volvo also involved in a scandal on harmful emissions), is still strong and a source of a significant export levels.
Timber is still an important traditional industry. There are many sawmills and plants producing cellulose, wood pulp and paper. The main oil refineries can be found at Nynäshamn, Lysekil and Göteborg.
An important Swedish chemical product is explosives; other segments of the chemical industry are also well developed. Hydroelectric power has encouraged the development of the electro-metallurgical industry (zinc, silver, iron, steel and aluminium). Other metals produced include copper, lead and magnesium. A typical Swedish activity is the production of sulfur matches. The textiles industry is mainly based in Norrköping. At Borås, Valberg and Malmö artificial and synthetic fibres are produced. Rubber is used for making footwear (at Malmö and Helsingborg) and tyres (at Borås). Glassmaking is also important. Other industries include tanning, tobacco, sugar and beer.

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
peat2 2001000 t2018
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
copper791000 t2016
iron ore27 0001000 t2018
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
feldspar161000 t2016
graphite0.71000 t2011
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
dolomite3701000 t2016
granite881000 t2016
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gold6 500kg2016
silver515 039kg2016
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro61 645M kWh2016
- nuclear60 647M kWh2016
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro16 3671000 kW2016
- other renew.12 1871000 kW2016
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation152 888.68M kWh2016
total installed capacity40 2851000 kW2016
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
aluminium1231000 t2017
coke, metall.1 1711000 t2016
Industry - Machinery and transport equipment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bikes125 928no.2016
cars226 000no.2017
Industry - Precision and optical instruments
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cameras5 480no.2010
Industry - Electrical and electronics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
air conditioners1 320 353no.2016
computers195 651no.2016
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen9611000 t2016
petrol5 8361000 t2014
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
artificial yarn0.0341000 t2014
caustic soda130.61000 t2016
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
carpets2 4641000 m²2016
cotton fabrics0.28M m²2016
Industry - Clothing and footwear
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
footwear108 000pairs2015
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley461.41000 t2014
fish, frozen8.361000 t2016
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
tobacco9 306.3t2016
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemical pulp8 709.4091000 t2017
chemi-mechanical pulp11 852.011000 t2017
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement2 8001000 t2016
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production9 478.4M US$2016
food, beverages and tobacco production5 298.5M US$2016
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Trade


Tertiary sector
Foreign trade.
Exports of consumer goods are growing; instead, machinery and petroleum products are imported.


Main exports (M US$ - 2017) machinery 23 473, vehicles and parts thereof 11 802, electric and electronic equipment 9 899, iron and steel 9 098, cars 8 990, paper and paperboard 8 575, petroleum products 7 979, pharmaceuticals 7 779, plastics 5 350, telecommunications equipment 4 576, timber 4 063, fish 4 000, technical and electro-medical appliances 3 866, chemicals 3 856, furniture and accessories 2 675, iron ores 2 277, wood pulp 2 263, apparel and accessories 1 750, aluminium 1 689, refined copper 1 527 gold and precious stones1 237, tools and implements 1 153, electric energy 1 117, rubber articles 1 006, spirits and non-alcoholic beverages 1 002, dyes 960, metal ores 772, food preparations 696, miscellaneous manufactured articles 670


Finance and banking.
The banking system is controlled by the Riksbank.
The Stockholm Stock Exchange is part of the NASDAQ OMX group.

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufactures73.417% of goods exports2018
fuels7.434% of goods exports2018
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Germany17 626M US$2018
Norway17 247M US$2018
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Germany30 481M US$2018
Netherlands15 980M US$2018
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
2018165 971M US$ -
2017153 110M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
2018170 115M US$ -
2017154 018M US$ -
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Tourism


Tourism. The main attractions are the lakes, the forests and the “midnight sun” and the northern lights in areas north of the Arctic Circle, as well as the city of Stockholm.
Most tourists come from the other Scandinavian countries and Germany.

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures17 097M US$2017
Number of arrivals7 054 000units2017
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Communications


Transport.
The rail and road networks are well developed. In 2000 the new road and rail bridge over the Øresund was opened, connecting Denmark to Sweden. Air transport is also well established.

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown133 100 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried9 814.41000 units2011
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers376.954per 1000 pop.2017
Computers881per 1000 pop.2008
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Social and welfare


Education, culture & research.

Primary education (for nine years from the age of 6 or 7) is compulsory and free.
Secondary school follows (for three years) and there are several universities and institutions of higher education.


Social security and health.
Sweden has one of the most advanced welfare systems, financed by high levels of taxation. Even if services are now being reduced, all residents have guaranteed healthcare, health and accident insurance, family benefit and pensions. Unemployment benefit is mostly paid by the trade unions.

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling18.8years2016
Gradautes, percentage41.9%2017
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level66 918units2016
Teachers, secondary level66 363units2016
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending41.7% of total expenses2016
Social protection spending26.1% of GDP2018
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds2.3per 1000 pop.2016
Physicians4.3per 1000 pop.2015
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV0.2% of adults2016
HIV, total0.03%2001
Museums
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Museums395units2017
Museums, visitors27 289 153units2017
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending3.4% of GDP2017
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking100%2016
Access to electricity100%2017
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear4.8%2017
education0.3%2017
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