Form of Government: Federal republic
Area: 1 844 797 sq km
Population: 41 984 512 inhab. (estimate 2018)
Density: 22.76 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 23° - 9° N; long. 22° - 38° E
Capital: Khartoum=Al-Khurṭūm (capital) 1 410 858 inhab. (2008); Khartoum=Al Khartūm 5 534 079 inhab. (2018), urban agglomeration
Currency: Sudanese pound (100 piastres)
Human development index: 0.502 (rank: 167)
Head of State: ‘Abd al-Fattāḥ ‘Abd ar-Raḥmān al-Burhān (as Chairman of the Transitional Military Council), since 12 April 2019
Prime Minister: ‘Abd Allāh Ḥamdūk (independent), since 21 August 2019
Internet: www.cbs.gov.sd (Central Bureau of Statistics)
Member of Arab League, AU, COMESA, OIC, UN, WTO observer

Sudan

As-Sūdān, Sudan, Jumhūrīyat as-Sūdān, Republic of the Sudan
Useful information

International license plate code SUD
International dialling code 00249
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (recommended; it is also required if traveling from a country with risk of transmission); malaria prophylaxis (recommended for some areas)
Electricity (Voltage) 230
Driving side rigth
Internet code .sd

GMT  +3
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Khartoum 29.8; Port Sudan 28.6
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Khartoum 24/32; Port Sudan 23.5/34.5
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Khartoum 10/11; Port Sudan 10/8
Annual average precipitation (mm) Khartoum 162; Port Sudan 108
Days of rainfall (annual average) Khartoum 18; Port Sudan 12

Politics and current affairs

In December 2018, an increase in food prices resulted in protests against the government, later intensifying enough to lead to a military coup d’état on 11 April 2019; President ‘Umar Ḥasan al-Bashīr was removed from office, having held the position since 1989. The protests, which were continually repressed, carried on as the people demanded power be transferred to civic authorities. According to an agreement signed on 17 August, a Transitional Cabinet comprised of civilian and military ministers should prepare the country for new elections.

Geography.
Sudan is bordered by Egypt to the north, Eritrea and Ethiopia to the east, South Sudan to the south, Chad and the Central African Republic to the west, as well as Libya to the north-west. The Red Sea lies off its north-east coast. The landscape is a vast valley fringed by higher land (the Marrah mountains, 3088 m in the west, Mount Oda, 2259 m in the north-east). The White Nile and the Blue Nile flow through the east of the country, meeting at Khartoum. In the north lies the Nubian Desert. The climate is very hot everywhere although there are differences due to varying levels of rainfall (increasing from north to south) and extremes of temperature (rising from south to north).

Government


Formerly an Anglo-Egyptian condominium (since 1899), Sudan became independent on 1 January 1956. Subjected to dictatorships under General Ibrāhīm ‘Abbūd (1958-1964) and General Ja‘far an-Numayrī (1969-1985), the country returned to military rule through the coup d’etat organised by ‘Umar Ḥasan al-Bashīr (30 June 1989). This was transformed into a civilian government in 1993 under the guidance of the National Congress Party (NCP). For decades, the southern regions have been the scene of a bloody civil war, sparked off, at first, (1955-72) by the Anya Nya Movement and, in 1983, by the Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA), the armed wing of the SPLM (Sudan People’s Liberation Movement). A peace agreement between the central government and the SPLA, signed in Nairobi (Kenya) in 2005, recognised the right to self-government of South Sudan, which became independent after the 2011 referendum. Possession of the Abyei oil region continues to spark tension between the two countries. After an agreement backed by the AU in September 2012, Sudan and South Sudan withdrew troops from the border area; diplomacy continues but without finding a solution. In the states of South Kordofan and Blue Nile, a fraction of SPLM took up arms in 2011, allying themselves some autonomist groups active in Darfur (particularly JEM, the Justice and Equality Movement), which since 2003 have been combatting the regular army and the Arab militia “Janjawīd”, protected by the government; since 2007, a UN force has been present in Darfur (UNAMID). Sudan and Chad have reciprocally accused each other of supporting rebel movements in the two countries. Until the 2006 agreement the Eastern Front, a separatist movement that fought in defence of the Beja and Rashaida peoples, non-Arab nomads, was active in the borderlands with Eritrea. According to the provisional Constitution that came into effect on 5 July 2005, Sudan is a federal republic, in which the old provinces (called wilayat) have been grouped into states. The President, who is elected by direct suffrage for five years, leads the government and appoints the Prime Minister. The Parliament is made up of the Council of States (50 members elected indirectly by individual states for six-year terms) and the National Assembly (426 members, elected by direct suffrage for six years).

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force1.2%2015
Army98.3%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Homicides6.4per 100 000 pop.2015
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Omdurman=Umm Durmān1 849 659inhab.2008
Khartoum=Al-Khurṭūm1 410 858inhab.2008
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Khartoum=Al Khartūm5 534 079inhab.2018
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2018)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate32.62017
Death rate7.42017
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
black52%2003
Arab39%2003


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Muslim90.7%2010
Catholic3%2010


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Arabic (official)
English (official)
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years43.1%2018
15-29 years27.5%2018


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Economy

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)113.49index2013
Balance of trade-4 365.4M US$2018
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population11 650 966units2018
Active population, Females26.3%2018
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate19.6%2017
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses94 780M LCU2017
Revenues78 400M LCU2017
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture43.1%2018
industry15%2018
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture32%2017
industry20.7%2017
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation113.92BN LCU2018
International reserves177.9M US$2017
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Agriculture


Primary sector.
Cotton is grown in the fertile plains of the Gezira, in the centre of the country. Other export crops include sesame, peanuts, dates, bananas, tomatoes and citrus fruits. Farmers also grow sugar cane, sorghum, millet, maize, wheat and cassava. Vast areas of the country are covered with bush and savannah with trees. The country is the main world exporter of gum arabic, produced from the hashab (Acacia senegal and Acacia seyal). Livestock farming of sheep, cattle and camels is widespread.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land22.87%2015
forests21.98%2015
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cereals, total5 236.2941000 t2017
maize48.8731000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava01000 t2014
potatoes4251000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages2.5991000 t2017
carrots and turnips53.6241000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry151000 t2017
beans, green0.51000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
castor oil seed11000 t2017
groundnuts1 641.0111000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane5 828.6011000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton115.1991000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
jute3.21000 t2013
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fruits, total2 884.5871000 t2014
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits660.471000 t2017
grapefruits226.5481000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bananas9151000 t2017
dates439.3551000 t2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
maize36.8471000 ha2017
millet2 142.1751000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava01000 ha2014
potatoes331000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages0.3711000 ha2017
carrots and turnips10.3141000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry3.8131000 ha2017
beans, green0.0721000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
castor oil seed21000 ha2017
groundnuts2 014.8721000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane74.6721000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton681000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
jute11000 ha2008
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits76.0571000 ha2017
grapefruits23.7021000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bananas451000 ha2017
dates37.1391000 ha2017
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gum arabic87 660t2016
timber16 574 0002017
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle30 734.0611000 heads2017
cattle and buffaloes30 734.0611000 heads2017
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep40 573.6861000 heads2017
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats31 443.791000 heads2017
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses671.1121000 heads2017
asses and mules671.751000 heads2017
Livestock - Camelids
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
camels4 849.0031000 heads2017
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds48 2991000 heads2017
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey0.741000 t2013
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter9.61000 t2014
cheese107.951000 t2014
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
freshwater fishes44 084t2017
marine fishes3 306t2017
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Minerals


Secondary and tertiary sector.
The country’s oil reserves are situated in the southern regions, in the areas of Muglad, Abu Jabra and Heglig, connected by pipelines to the refineries in Khartoum, El Obeid and Port Sudan. Use has been granted to Chinese and Malay companies. Chromite, manganese, gold and salt are also extracted. The industry includes sugar and oil factories, distilleries, textile manufacturers and cement works (near ‘Aṭbarah and Rabak). On the Nile, near Marawī, there is a large hydroelectric plant.

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
oil, crude4 738.21000 t2018
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chromite831000 t2016
iron ore701000 t2015
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
feldspar92.21000 t2016
fluorspar11000 t2013
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
kaolin151000 t2016
marble11000 m³2015
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gold93 400kg2016
silver1 000kg2015
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro7 970M kWh2016
- thermal5 995.32M kWh2016
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal1 6341000 kW2016
- hydro1 6001000 kW2016
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation13 986.32M kWh2016
total installed capacity3 4371000 kW2016
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gold, metal35 000kg2015
silver, metal1 000kg2015
Industry - Electrical and electronics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
air conditioners189 000no.2016
fridges141 000no.2016
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
petrol1 394.71000 t2014
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
paints1001000 t2015
soap841000 t2013
Industry - Clothing and footwear
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
footwear1 150 000pairs2010
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley23.51000 t2014
cottonseed oil81000 t2014
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes67M units2014
cigars and cigarettes67M units2014
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
other paper41000 t2017
paper41000 t2017
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement4 012.61000 t2016
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufacturing production6 273M US$2015
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Trade

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fuels90.9% of goods exports2011
food products6.7% of goods exports2011
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
China5 932M US$2009
United Arab Emirates951M US$2009
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
China1 427M US$2009
Japan817M US$2009
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20183 485M US$ -
20174 100M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20187 850M US$ -
20179 134M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures29M US$2017
Number of arrivals813 000units2017
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown7 600 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried328.71000 units2017
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers0.766per 1000 pop.2017
Computers107.1per 1000 pop.2008
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling7.7years2015
Graduates115 504units2015
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level169 408units2013
Teachers, secondary level50 632units2013
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds0.8per 1000 pop.2013
Physicians3.1per 1000 pop.2014
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV0.2% of adults2017
HIV, total1.4%2001
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.3% of GDP2005
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking41.29%2016
Access to electricity56.451%2017
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