Form of Government: Federal republic
Area: 1 844 797 sq km
Population: 42 813 238 inhab. (estimate 2019)
Density: 23.21 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 23° - 9° N; long. 22° - 38° E
Capital: Khartoum=Al-Khurṭūm (capital) 1 410 858 inhab. (2008); Khartoum=Al Khartūm 5 534 079 inhab. (2018), urban agglomeration
Currency: Sudanese pound (100 piastres)
Human development index: 0.51 (rank: 170)
Head of State: ‘Abd al-Fattāḥ ‘Abd ar-Raḥmān al-Burhān (as Chairman of the Sovereignty Council of Sudan), since 12 April 2019
Prime Minister: ‘Abd Allāh Ḥamdūk (independent), since 21 August 2019
Internet: www.cbos.gov.sd (Central Bank of Sudan)
Member of Arab League, AU, COMESA, OIC, UN, WTO observer

Sudan

As-Sūdān, Sudan, Jumhūrīyat as-Sūdān, Republic of the Sudan
Useful information

International license plate code SUD
International dialling code 00249
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (recommended; it is also required if traveling from a country with risk of transmission); malaria prophylaxis (recommended for some areas)
Electricity (Voltage) 230
Driving side rigth
Internet code .sd

GMT  +3
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Khartoum 29.8; Port Sudan 28.6
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Khartoum 24/32; Port Sudan 23.5/34.5
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Khartoum 10/11; Port Sudan 10/8
Annual average precipitation (mm) Khartoum 162; Port Sudan 108
Days of rainfall (annual average) Khartoum 18; Port Sudan 12

Politics and current affairs

On 3 October 2020, a peace agreement was signed to stop the conflict in Darfur, but serious interethnic clashes nevertheless occurred in the following months.
On 14 December 2020, the United States removed Sudan from the list of countries that support terrorism; on 6 January 2021, an agreement was signed to normalize relations between Sudan and Israel.

Geography.
Sudan is bordered by Egypt to the north, Eritrea and Ethiopia to the east, South Sudan to the south, Chad and the Central African Republic to the west, as well as Libya to the north-west. The Red Sea lies off its north-east coast. The landscape is a vast valley fringed by higher land (the Marrah mountains, 3088 m in the west, Mount Oda, 2259 m in the north-east). The White Nile and the Blue Nile flow through the east of the country, meeting at Khartoum. In the north lies the Nubian Desert. The climate is very hot everywhere although there are differences due to varying levels of rainfall (increasing from north to south) and extremes of temperature (rising from south to north).

Government


Formerly an Anglo-Egyptian condominium (since 1899), Sudan became independent on 1 January 1956. Subjected to dictatorships under General Ibrāhīm ‘Abbūd (1958-1964) and General Ja‘far an-Numayrī (1969-1985), the country returned to military rule through the coup d’etat organised by ‘Umar Ḥasan al-Bashīr (30 June 1989). This was transformed into a civilian government in 1993 under the guidance of the National Congress Party (NCP), which maintained a regime until 2019. For decades, the southern regions have been the scene of a bloody civil war, sparked off, at first, (1955-72) by the Anya Nya Movement and, in 1983, by the Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA), the armed wing of the SPLM (Sudan People’s Liberation Movement). A peace agreement between the central government and the SPLA, signed in Nairobi (Kenya) in 2005, recognised the right to self-government of South Sudan, which became independent after the 2011 referendum. Possession of the Abyei oil region continues to spark tension between the two countries. After an agreement backed by the AU in September 2012, Sudan and South Sudan withdrew troops from the border area; diplomacy continues but without finding a solution. In the states of South Kordofan and Blue Nile, a fraction of SPLM took up arms in 2011, allying themselves some autonomist groups active in Darfur (particularly JEM, the Justice and Equality Movement), which since 2003 have been combatting the regular army and the Arab militia “Janjawīd”, protected by the government. In 2011, several rebel groups active in these areas joined the Sudan Revolutionary Front. A UN force was present in Darfur from 2007 to 2020 (UNAMID). Sudan and Chad have reciprocally accused each other of supporting rebel movements in the two countries. Until the 2006 agreement the Eastern Front, a separatist movement that fought in defence of the Beja and Rashaida peoples, non-Arab nomads, was active in the borderlands with Eritrea.
A constitutional decree between 4/17 August 2019 announced the creation of temporary bodies, which are set to exist only until the next election. Supreme among these is the Sovereignty Council of Sudan, created on 20 August 2019 and composed of 6 civilians and 6 members of the armed forces, to whom the government must give an account of its activities. The transitional legislative council should be undertaking the duties of Parliament, but has not yet been convened.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force1.2%2015
Army98.3%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Homicides6.4per 100 000 pop.2015
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Omdurman=Umm Durmān1 849 659inhab.2008
Khartoum=Al-Khurṭūm1 410 858inhab.2008
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Khartoum=Al Khartūm5 534 079inhab.2018
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2020)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate31.8262019
Death rate7.1172019
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
black52$%2003
Arab39$%2003


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Muslim90.7%2010
Catholic3$%2010


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Arabic (official)
English (official)
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years42$%2020
15-29 years28.2%2020


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Economy

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)113.49index2013
Agricultural prod. index (2014-16=100)115.72index2019
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population12 385 472units2020
Active population, Females30.4%2020
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate17.7%2020
Unemployment rate, Females51$%2019
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses229 300M LCU2018
Revenues121 400M LCU2018
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture39.9%2019
industry16.2%2019
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture20.206%2019
industry21.886%2019
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation588.829BN LCU2020
International reserves177.93M US$2017
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Agriculture


Primary sector.
Cotton is grown in the fertile plains of the Gezira, in the centre of the country. Other export crops include sesame, peanuts, dates, bananas, tomatoes and citrus fruits. Farmers also grow sugar cane, sorghum, millet, maize, wheat and cassava. Vast areas of the country are covered with bush and savannah with trees. The country is the main world exporter of gum arabic, produced from the hashab (Acacia senegal and Acacia seyal). Livestock farming of sheep, cattle and camels is widespread.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land10.811%2018
forests10.114%2018
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cereals, total5 6301000 t2019
maize25$1000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava0$1000 t2014
potatoes465.9271000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages2.9311000 t2019
carrots and turnips71.7791000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry17$1000 t2019
beans, green0.61000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
castor oil seed1$1000 t2019
groundnuts2 8281000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane5 4491000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton186.7111000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
jute3.21000 t2013
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fruits, total3 317.3661000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits743.1581000 t2019
grapefruits252.3611000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bananas918.5621000 t2019
dates438.71000 t2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
maize24.361000 ha2019
millet3 016.441000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava0$1000 ha2014
potatoes35.1991000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages0.3941000 ha2019
carrots and turnips18.0011000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry3.9481000 ha2019
beans, green0.0781000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
castor oil seed2$1000 ha2019
groundnuts3 130.261000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane71.11000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton196.981000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
jute1$1000 ha2008
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits74.521000 ha2019
grapefruits22$1000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bananas47$1000 ha2019
dates37$1000 ha2019
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gum arabic87 660t2016
timber16 740 3932019
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle31 4891000 heads2019
cattle and buffaloes31 4891000 heads2019
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep40 8961000 heads2019
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats32 0321000 heads2019
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses7 620.2681000 heads2019
asses and mules7 620.9061000 heads2019
Livestock - Camelids
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
camels4 8951000 heads2019
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds50 0151000 heads2019
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey0.7431000 t2019
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter0.1611000 t2018
cheese105.0711000 t2018
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
freshwater fishes48 050t2019
marine fishes2 770t2019
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Minerals


Secondary and tertiary sector.
The country’s oil reserves are situated in the southern regions, in the areas of Muglad, Abu Jabra and Heglig, connected by pipelines to the refineries in Khartoum, El Obeid and Port Sudan. Use has been granted to Chinese and Malay companies. Chromite, manganese, gold and salt are also extracted. The industry includes sugar and oil factories, distilleries, textile manufacturers and cement works (near ‘Aṭbarah and Rabak). On the Nile, near Marawī, there is a large hydroelectric plant.

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
oil, crude3 228.21000 t2020
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chromite30$1000 t2019
iron ore70$1000 t2015
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
feldspar36$1000 t2018
gypsum2301000 t2019
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
kaolin15$1000 t2019
marble - t2.51000 t2016
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gold90 000kg2020
silver12 000kg2016
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro9 560.43M kWh2018
- thermal6 202.12M kWh2018
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal2 0041000 kW2018
- hydro1 9201000 kW2019
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation15 900.61M kWh2018
total installed capacity4 1361000 kW2018
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gold, metal20 000kg2018
steel, crude4001000 t2015
Industry - Machinery and transport equipment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cars2 741 000no.2017
commercial vehicles657 000no.2017
Industry - Electrical and electronics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
air conditioners534 000no.2017
fridges120 000no.2017
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
petrol1 394.71000 t2014
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
paints1001000 t2015
soap84$1000 t2013
Industry - Clothing and footwear
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
footwear1 150 000pairs2010
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley23.51000 t2014
cottonseed oil13.91000 t2018
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes67$M units2014
cigars and cigarettes67$M units2014
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
other paper4$1000 t2019
paper4$1000 t2019
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement4 0531000 t2018
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufacturing production2 216.2M US$2019
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Trade

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fuels90.9% of goods exports2011
food products6.7% of goods exports2011
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
China5 932M US$2009
United Arab Emirates951M US$2009
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
China1 427M US$2009
Japan817M US$2009
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20203 775M US$ -
20193 735M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20209 204M US$ -
20199 291M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures13$M US$2018
Number of arrivals836 000units2018
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown7 600 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried5301000 units2019
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers0.765per 1000 pop.2019
Computers107.1per 1000 pop.2008
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling7.61years2015
Graduates115 504units2015
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Students, primary level4 899 664units2017
Students, secondary level2 205 034units2017
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds0.74per 1000 pop.2017
Physicians0.26per 1000 pop.2017
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV0.2% of adults2019
HIV, total1.4%2001
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.3% of GDP2005
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking53.2%2019
Access to electricity53.827%2019
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