Form of Government: Federal republic
Area: 9 371 219 sq km
Population: 325 719 178 inhab. (estimate 2017)
Density: 34.76 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 49° - 25° N; long. 125° - 67° W
Capital: Washington - DC (capital) 693 972 inhab. (2017); Washington - DC 6 216 589 inhab. (2017), urban agglomeration
Currency: US dollar (100 cents)
Human development index: 0.92 (rank: 10)
President and head of government: Donald J. Trump (Rep), elected 8 November 2016, in office since 20 January 2017
Vice President: Michael R. Pence (Rep), since 20 January 2017
Congress: seats based on the elections of 8 November 2016: House of Representatives: Republicans, 241; Democrats, 194; Senate: Republicans, 52; Democrats, 46; independents, 2
Internet: www.census.gov (U.S. Census Bureau)
Member of ANZUS, APEC, Council of Europe observer, DR-CAFTA, EBRD, NAFTA, NATO, OAS, OECD, OSCE, SPC, UN, WTO

United States

United States, United States of America (USA)
Useful information

International license plate code USA
International dialling code 001
Travel vaccinations requirement none
Electricity (Voltage) 120
Driving side rigth
Internet code .us

GMT Washington (District of Columbia) -5; Chicago (Illinois) -6; Denver (Colorado) -7; Phoenix (Arizona) -7; Los Angeles (California) -8; Anchorage (Alaska) -9; Adak (Alaska, Aleutian Islands) -10; Honolulu (Hawaii) -10
DST Washington (District of Columbia) -4; Chicago (Illinois) -5; Denver (Colorado) -6; Phoenix (Arizona) not applied with the exception of the Navajo Indian Reservation (-6); Los Angeles (California) -7; Anchorage (Alaska) -8; Adak (Alaska, Aleutian Islands) -9; Honolulu (Hawaii) not applied
DST duration (start-end) mid March (Sunday 9)-early November

Annual average temperature (°C) Washington 12.5; Anchorage (Alaska) 2.4; Chicago 9.5; Dallas 19; Honolulu (Hawaii) 24.4; Juneau (Alaska) 5.1; Miami 24.6; New York 12.5; Salt Lake City 12.3; San Francisco 14.3; Seattle 11.3
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Washington 0/24.5; Anchorage (Alaska) -8.5/15.5; Chicago -5.5/23.5; Dallas 6.5/29.5; Honolulu (Hawaii) 23/26; Juneau (Alaska) -3.5/13.5; Miami 20/28.5; New York 0/24.5; Salt Lake City 0.5/25.5; San Francisco 10/16.5; Seattle 5/18.5
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Washington 9/4; Anchorage (Alaska) 9/1.5; Chicago 10/4; Dallas 10/5.5; Honolulu (Hawaii) 10/6; Juneau (Alaska) 6.5/1.5; Miami 9/7; New York 10/5; Salt Lake City 12/4; San Francisco 11/6; Seattle 8/2
Annual average precipitation (mm) Washington 1010; Anchorage (Alaska) 397; Chicago 890; Dallas 860; Honolulu (Hawaii) 590; Juneau (Alaska) 1435; Miami 1335; New York 1250; Salt Lake City 417; San Francisco 566; Seattle 925
Days of rainfall (annual average) Washington 90; Anchorage (Alaska) 79; Chicago 97; Dallas 66; Honolulu (Hawaii) 56; Juneau (Alaska) 177; Miami 107; New York 93; Salt Lake City 77; San Francisco 49; Seattle 122

Politics and current affairs

With the “moderate” component in the government reduced, President D. Trump’s impulsive behaviour was able to unfold more freely in 2018. This has led rash foreign policy, which tends to move away from agreements and historically-strong ties, seen as burdens that penalize the United States and harm national interest, whether they be commercial, in the case of NAFTA, or military-related, like NATO, whose members were accused (11 July) of not contributing enough to defense spending.
On 8 May, Trump also announced his intention to pull out of the 2015 Iran deal and re-impose sanctions, while moving the US embassy in Israel to Jerusalem (14 May) caused diplomatic protests and fanned tensions at the border between Israel and the Gaza Strip. All of these actions have led to a weakening of relations with western allies, while strengthening China, which is attempting to establish itself as a trustworthy representative on the world’s stage, and Russia, with whom the US has an up and down relationship: on 6 April, new sanctions were approved, while during the meeting with V. Putin in Helsinki on 16 July, Trump was particularly amenable, increasing suspicion about Russia’s possible conditioning of the American president and his collaborators, some of which are incriminated together with Russian secret service agents during investigations by the Department of Justice.
The president’s fickle decisions led to an unexpected result in the crisis with North Korea: after aggressive declarations in 2017, in 2018, the two leaders began bridging the gap between their countries thanks in part to the diplomacy of China and South Korea, as well as the meeting between Kim Jong-un and Trump in Singapore (12 June). The international community was rocked by the introduction of tariffs on aluminium and steel imports in the USA, aimed at striking a blow primarily to China, but since 1 June, the tariffs have been extended to the EU, Canada and Mexico. Not knowing the benefit of such measures and the fear of a trade war has caused confusion amongst the president’s own collaborators, including G. Cohn, chief economic advisor, who resigned on 2 April. His resignation came at the same time as other changes to the White House staff, which emphasized its nationalist and protectionist stance: R. Tillerson, Secretary of State removed from office on 31 March, was replaced by M. Pompeo, while J. Bolton took over H.R. McMaster’s role (resigned on 9 April) as National Security Advisor. In April 2018, the crackdown on illegal immigration worsened, one of Trump’s key focuses since his electoral campaign.

Geography.
The USA is bordered by Canada to the north and Mexico to the south; it lies between the Atlantic Ocean to the east, the Gulf of Mexico to the south and the Pacific Ocean to the west. It also comprises the non-contiguous states of Hawaii and Alaska (including the Pribilof Islands, St. Lawrence Island and St. Matthew Island in the Bering Sea).
The Atlantic coast, high and indented down to Cape Hatteras, further south becomes low and fringed with sand dunes. The flat Florida peninsula extends southwards into a string of coral islands (the Florida Keys). The flat and swampy coast of the Gulf of Mexico is interrupted by the wide delta of the Mississippi. Inland, behind the coastal plains, rises the mountain range of the Appalachians (Mt. Mitchell, 2037 m). Between the Appalachians and the Rocky Mountains extends the vast region of the Great Plains, covered with fertile alluvial soil. To the south, this region unites with the low-lying Gulf Coastal Plain. The Rocky Mountains rise abruptly with a series of ranges, at first unbroken (the Front Range, Sangre de Cristo), then irregular and low in the centre (Mts. Laramie, Absaroka, Big Horn and the Wasatch Range with the uplands of Wyoming), while to the north extend the uplands of Columbia. To the west the mountains form the boundary of the Inland Basins Region, with the Columbia Basin, the Great Basin with the Death Valley depression (86 m below sea level) and the salt lakes (Great Salt Lake, Utah Lake).
The region of the inland basins is bounded on the west by a series of parallel mountain ranges: the Cascades and Sierra Nevada ranges (Mt. Whitney, 4418 m) inland, and the Coast Ranges along the coast. The main hydrographical axis runs through the central section of the country and consists of the Mississippi-Missouri river system, which flows into the Gulf of Mexico. The Columbia, Sacramento and Colorado Rivers flow down into the Pacific Ocean. The most extensive area of lakes is that of the Great Lakes: Ontario, Erie, Huron, Michigan and Superior, situated in the north-east of the country; of these, only Lake Michigan lies entirely within the USA.
The northern part of the Atlantic coast has an oceanic climate, while south of Cape Hatteras the temperature acquires subtropical features and the climate of Florida is tropical. Violent weather events are becoming ever more frequent along the Atlantic coast. Droughts are also recurrent, devastating the central states. The Appalachian region has a mountain climate, while there is a highland climate in the Rockies.
The inland basins have record levels of dryness and extremely high summer temperatures. The Pacific coast has a mild, rainy climate in the north, and a drier Mediterranean climate in the south. Alaska occupies the north-western peninsula of North America, bounded by the Pacific Ocean to the south, the Arctic Ocean to the north and the Bering Strait to the west, separating it from Asia; to the east it is bordered by Canada. There are groups of islands dotted along the coasts. The region, drained by the River Yukon and its tributaries, rises in the south in a series of mountain ranges (Denali or Mt. McKinley, 6190 m). The climate is subarctic. Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-north Pacific Ocean extending for over 3000 km on a NW-SE axis. Volcanic and coral in nature, it contains numerous active volcanoes, among them Mauna Kea (4205 m, currently quiescent) and Mauna Loa (4170 m), on the island of Hawaii. There is a mild, healthy climate.

Government


Since the Declaration of Independence on 4 July 1776, the size and extent of the United States of America has changed and grown; the current extent dates from 1959, with the entry of the islands of Hawaii as the 50th state in the union. The government of the country has alternated between the two major parties: Democratic (Dem) and Republican (Rep).
The USA is a federal republic comprising 50 states (each with its own governor and legislature, both directly elected) plus the Federal District of the capital. In accordance with the Constitution, the President is elected (together with the Vice President) on a four-year mandate, by an electoral college, itself elected by the electorate; he or she may be re-elected once only. The President holds executive power with the assistance of a presidential cabinet formed of the heads of department (ministers) appointed by him and reporting directly to him. The President can promote bills and has the right of veto; he also appoints the Supreme Court judges. Legislative power is in the hands of Congress, consisting of two chambers elected by direct suffrage: the House of Representatives, with 435 members elected for 2 years in a number proportional to the population of the single states (each state having at least one representative); and the Senate, with 100 members, 2 for each state, elected for 6 years, a third being renewed every 2 years. The Senate has wide responsibilities in foreign policy and exclusive competence for the ratification of international treaties.


Defence.
The United States Armed Forces include Army, Navy, Air Force and Marine Corps, and Coast Guard. They are present in every strategic point of the planet and constitute the backbone of NATO forces. The quota of female personnel is around 15% of the total. The US government does not recognize the jurisdiction of the International Criminal Court (ICC) in The Hague and has signed bilateral treaties with various countries to prevent USA military personnel from being tried locally for crimes committed overseas.
The United States is a nuclear power and exercises great vigilance over the potential spread of atomic weapons in countries which it does not consider reliable, such as North Korea or Iran. Although, in 2002, the country withdrew unilaterally from the Anti-ballistic Missile Treaty signed with the USSR in 1972, in 2010, the administration signed an agreement with Russia to reduce strategic nuclear weapons.


Justice.
The legal system is based on English Common Law. The highest organ is the Supreme Court (9 members appointed for life by the President), which rules on the constitutionality of laws passed by Congress and re-examines cases referred from federal courts. The prison population is the highest in the world (about 2.3 million prisoners in 2018). With a ruling of 1 March 2005, the Supreme Court abolished the death penalty for those who were under 18 years of age at the time the crime was committed.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force23.2%2015
Army36.9%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes3 466per 100 000 pop.2009
Homicides4.9per 100 000 pop.2015
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
New York - NY8 622 698inhab.2017
Los Angeles - CA3 999 759inhab.2017
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
New York - NY20 320 876inhab.2017
Los Angeles - CA13 353 907inhab.2017
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2017)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE

In 2006 the country population passed the threshold of 300 million. Overall, demographic growth is higher than the European average, though there are significant differences (in fertility, death rate etc.) between various areas and between communities: the rate of natural increase, which among whites is close to zero, is high among blacks, Asians and Latino Americans. There are high numbers of immigrants, almost 50% of them coming from Latin America (Mexico in particular).

Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate12.42016
Death rate8.42016
Foreigners
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Foreigners, total40 743 000units2014
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
white76.9%2017
black13.3%2017


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Protestant45%2016
nonreligious/atheist24%2016


Languages
DESCRIPTION
English (official)
Spanish
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years18.7%2017
15-29 years20.5%2017


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Economy


Economic situation.
As promised during his electoral campaign, D. Trump approved (20 December 2017) an extensive fiscal reform that reduced, from 35% to 21%, taxes on company profits and earnings of individuals, particularly those of the upper classes. The drop in revenue, however, contributed to an increase in the public debt. The growth of the GDP in 2018 carried on the positive trend seen in 2017, and unemployment continued to fall, reaching levels not seen since before the 2007-08 financial crisis.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)116.51index2016
Balance of trade- 862 771M US$2017
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population160 319 800units2017
Active population, Females46.9%2017
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate4.4%2017
Unemployment rate, Females46.4%2017
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses2 601 958M LCU2017
Revenues2 582 659M LCU2017
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture1.7%2017
industry18.9%2017
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture1%2016
industry19.2%2016
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation1 569.1BN LCU2017
International reserves451 285.3M US$2017
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Agriculture


Primary sector
Agriculture.
Farming is highly productive, at the forefront in applying the most up-to-date techniques such as biotechnology. Much of the arable land is cultivated with cereals, the main ones being maize (Iowa, Illinois, Nebraska, Minnesota and Indiana), also used to produce ethanol for motor fuel, and wheat (Kansas, North Dakota, Montana, Minnesota and South Dakota) and barley (Idaho, Montana, North Dakota). Other important crops are cotton (above all in Texas, but also California and Georgia), soya beans (Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, Indiana, Nebraska and Ohio), flax, peanuts (Georgia), sunflower seeds (North Dakota), tobacco (North Carolina, Kentucky). For the production of sugar there are plantations of both sugar cane (Florida and Louisiana) and sugar beet (Minnesota, Idaho and North Dakota). The cultivation of fruit and citrus fruit is widespread (in Florida, California, Arizona and Texas); as well as that of vegetables (California); the growing of vines for wine production is increasing (California).
Forests.
The northern slopes of the Pacific are thickly wooded (Tacoma is the timber capital); Florida and the neighbouring parts of the Gulf of Mexico are renowned for pitch pine (Pinus rigida), exported from Pensacola. Timber, 55% of it from conifers, supplies a flourishing furniture industry, principally located along the Atlantic seaboard, with its main centres in New York, Grand Rapids (Mi.), Evansville (In.), Chicago and Rockford (Il.); the wood pulp and paper industries are also significant.
Livestock.
Cattle, pigs and poultry are all important, farmed both industrially and extensively on the vast prairies of the Midwest and in the region of the Rocky Mountains. The dairy industry is mainly concentrated in the north-eastern states (the Dairy Belt).
Fishing.
The USA is among the world’s greatest producers of fish in terms of catch. In Chesapeake Bay, Long Island Sound, on the coast of the Gulf of Mexico and in San Francisco Bay there are shellfish farms (crustaceans and molluscs). The main fishing ports are San Pedro (Ca.), Pascagoula-Moss Point (Ms.), Cameron, Empire (La.), Reedville (Va.), Beaufort-Morehead City (N.C.), New Bedford (Ma.).

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land16.93%2015
forests33.9%2015
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley4 338.851000 t2016
cereals, total475 983.8811000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes19 990.951000 t2016
roots and tubers, total21 423.4321000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
artichokes44.721000 t2016
asparagus31.981000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry1 269.9161000 t2016
beans, green41.641000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes7 097.7231000 t2016
raisins3201000 t2006
Agriculture - products - Olive
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
olives159.61000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts2 578.51000 t2016
rapeseed1 403.651000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coffee4.1441000 t2016
ginger0.4231000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hops39.5261000 t2016
sugar beet33 457.881000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton10 049.991000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
linseed220.481000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples4 649.3231000 t2016
apricots64.051000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
almonds2 002.7421000 t2016
hazelnuts34.4731000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits7 514.3341000 t2016
citrus fruits, nes24.5471000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados172.631000 t2016
bananas4.1731000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Others
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mushrooms419.631000 t2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley1 035.21000 ha2016
maize35 106.051000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes407.811000 ha2016
sweet potatoes66.091000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
artichokes2.751000 ha2016
cabbages23.191000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry630.7431000 ha2016
beans, green11.331000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape409.9471000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Olive
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
olive14.1641000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts626.061000 ha2016
rapeseed686.441000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coffee3.7271000 ha2016
ginger0.0131000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hops20.5811000 ha2016
sugar beet455.761000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton3 8481000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
linseed148.521000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples130.5521000 ha2016
apricots3.9251000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
almonds380.4051000 ha2016
hazelnuts14.9731000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits299.2391000 ha2016
citrus fruits, nes1.0551000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados23.2411000 ha2016
bananas0.2831000 ha2016
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber402 036 0432016
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle91 9181000 heads2016
cattle and buffaloes91 9181000 heads2016
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs71 500.41000 heads2016
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep5 3001000 heads2016
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats2 6201000 heads2016
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses51.981000 heads2016
asses and mules51.981000 heads2016
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds2 223 3281000 heads2016
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey80.8621000 t2014
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter845.6651000 t2014
cheese5 584.8571000 t2014
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
corals28.821t2016
crustaceans and molluscs1 134 980t2016
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Minerals


Secondary sector
Minerals.
Mineral resources are vast and diversified. The most important of the coalfields extends along the internal slopes of the Appalachian Mountains, from Pennsylvania to Alabama; other important deposits are in the central coalfield, between mid-Mississippi and lower Ohio, and west of the Mississippi, from Texas to Iowa (which produce bituminous coal), as well as those in the Rocky Mountains (lignite). Even more important than coal is oil, the best deposits being found in Texas, Gulf of Mexico, North Dakota, California, Alaska and Oklahoma.
An extensive network of oil pipelines carries the crude oil to refineries. The oilfields are also rich sources of natural gas; the largest deposits are found in Texas, Pennsylvania, Oklahoma, Wyoming and Louisiana. Since the beginning of the twenty-first century, shale gas reserves have continued to grow in importance, constituting almost one-third of national production; the main reserves are in Louisiana, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Texas and West Virginia.
The biggest iron ore deposits are to be found close to Lake Superior, in the eastern states, in Texas, Missouri, Colorado, Utah, New Mexico, Wyoming and Nevada. The most important copper deposits are in Arizona, Utah, Montana, New Mexico and Nevada. Lead mainly comes from Missouri, Idaho, Utah and Colorado.
Zinc is chiefly mined in Tennessee, Idaho and Colorado. In Arkansas (Bauxite), Georgia (Adairsville) and Alabama (Eufaula) bauxite is mined. Mercury comes from mines in California, Nevada and Idaho.
Gold is widespread in South Dakota, Utah, Nevada and Arizona; silver is mainly found in Idaho, Arizona (in association with gold deposits), Montana and Utah.
The USA is among the largest producers of molybdenum (Colorado and New Mexico); there are also widespread deposits of vanadium (Colorado), tungsten (Idaho, Colorado, California), and zirconium. Uranium is mined in particular in Wyoming, Nebraska, New Mexico, Arizona, Colorado, Utah and Texas; caesium in Maine; thorium in New Hampshire, Idaho and Montana. Sulfur comes from Texas, Louisiana, California and Nevada. The production of phosphate rock is also important (in Florida, Idaho, Tennessee, Montana and Wyoming); potash comes principally from New Mexico, California, Utah and Michigan.
Energy.
Most of the electricity produced is derived from fossil fuels.
The amount of hydro-electric power generated, although limited in percentage terms, is one of the largest in the world in absolute terms; the principal hydro-electric plants are in Bath County, Chief Joseph (Virginia), Castaic (California), Grand Coulee (Washington), Hoover (Arizona/Nevada), John Day (Oregon/Washington), Robert Moses-Niagara (New York) and The Dalles (Oregon).
There are 99 nuclear reactors in operation (with 2 more under construction), providing around 20% of the electricity output in the country; the principal nuclear power stations are: Palo Verde, South Texas, Grand Gulf, Susquehanna, Nine Mile Point, Perry, Seabrook, Mola, Wolf Creek, Callaway, Comanche Peak, Salem, Waterford, Braidwood, Byron, Hope Creek, Vogtle, Sequoyah, Watts Bar, LaSalle County. The new Obama administration has taken measures to support the development of sources of renewable energy (solar, wind power), with the additional aim of assisting industrial recovery.
Industry.
In the iron and steel industry, the blast furnaces are almost all situated in the eastern part of the country (Pennsylvania, Indiana, Ohio and Illinois). Additionally, the favourable position for the supply of iron ore gave rise to the development of steelworks in lake ports (such as Detroit-Toledo, Lorain, Cleveland, Erie and Chicago). Imported iron ore supplies the steelworks in Sparrows Point (Md.), Morrisville (N.C.) and Bethlehem (Pa.). Important products of the metallurgical industry are aluminium, copper, lead, tin, zinc and magnesium. Major oil refineries are found in practically all the states. Cement is mainly produced in California, Pennsylvania and Texas. The principal centres for mechanical industry are Philadelphia, Worcester, Pittsburgh, Chicago, Hartford, Dayton, Schenectady and Syracuse. The main centre of the motor industry is Detroit, where Ford, FCA (ex Chrysler) and General Motors are headquartered; the sector was badly hit by the economic crisis, which led to the bankruptcy of Chrysler (partly bought out by Fiat in 2009) and to a process of profound reorganization and state support.
The country is home to a number of factories of various European and Japanese motor companies. The aeronautical industry is highly developed, concentrated along the Pacific seaboard (Seattle, Los Angeles, Santa Ana, San Jose and San Diego). The shipbuilding industry operates large shipyards along the coastlines and on the Great Lakes.
Among the textile industries, cotton predominates, with centres from Alabama to Maine. Artificial textile fibres are produced in Massachusetts and Rhode Island; the USA is also among the world’s largest producer of synthetic fibres. New York, Troy, Baltimore and Chicago are the principal centres of the clothing industry. Hollywood is the most important centre of the film industry. A decisive role is played by the sectors with a high technological content, such as aerospace, electronics, IT, telecommunications, fine chemicals and biotechnology. Production centres have close ties with universities and research institutes: the most important are the Silicon Valley (near San Francisco), the technology centres of the east coast, from Boston to Raleigh, and those of the Sun Belt, from Texas to Arizona and New Mexico.

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coal594 447.81000 t2017
coal, total660 761.11000 t2017
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beryllium0.171000 t2017
cobalt0.651000 t2017
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barite2401000 t2016
bentonite3 7001000 t2017
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
diatomite7001000 t2017
kaolin5 5001000 t2017
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
garnets, industrial631000 t2017
gold245 000kg2017
Mineral resources - Other minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
iodine1 220t2006
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal2 516 015.51M kWh2017
- nuclear804 950M kWh2017
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal750 282.41000 kW2016
- other renew.132 5441000 kW2016
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation4 045 438.75M kWh2017
total installed capacity1 074 332.81000 kW2016
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
alumina1 5001000 t2017
aluminium7401000 t2017
Industry - Machinery and transport equipment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cars3 033 216no.2017
commercial vehicles8 156 769no.2017
Industry - Electrical and electronics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
computers27 337 400no.2009
fridges10 375 000no.2010
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen20 3581000 t2015
petrol581 745.61000 t2017
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ammonia10 5001000 t2017
artificial tow63.11000 t2001
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
carpets898 0001000 m²2010
cotton fabrics2 329.7M m²2006
Industry - Clothing and footwear
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
footwear31 900 000pairs2007
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley22 6001000 t2014
cottonseed oil2771000 t2014
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes484 000M units2006
cigars4 100M units2006
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemical pulp45 732.2651000 t2016
chemi-mechanical pulp48 445.431000 t2016
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement85 9001000 t2017
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production307 942.8M US$2011
food, beverages and tobacco production285 808.5M US$2011
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Trade


Tertiary sector
Foreign trade.
The trade balance has been at a significant deficit for decades.


Main exports (M US$ - 2017) machinery 171 199, aircraft & spacecraft and parts thereof 131 169, electrical and electronic equipment 102 115, technical and electro-medical appliances 83 555, petroleum products 82 227, vehicles and parts thereof 76 516, chemicals 76 265, plastics 61 503, cars 53 581, pharmaceuticals 45 053, electronic integrated circuits 38 125, iron and steel 34 477, telecommunications equipment 34 006, computers and accessories 30 455, natural gas 22 266, crude oil 21 825, soya beans 21 658, jewels and precious stones 21 590, gold 19 824, fruit and vegetables 19 655, diamonds 18 995, wheat and other cereals 18 688, meat 16 398, paper and paperboard 15 763


Finance
and banking.
Central bank functions are carried out by the Federal Reserve System, set up in 1913.
New York is home to the world’s leading commercial banks, the Wall Street stock market (NYSE), the largest in the world, and NASDAQ (National Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotations), the market for technology stocks. Chicago hosts the biggest commodities market in the world.

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufactures63.540% of goods exports2016
food products10.755% of goods exports2016
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Canada282 243M US$2017
Mexico243 314M US$2017
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
China526 022M US$2017
Mexico317 207M US$2017
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20171 546 724.565M US$ -
20161 451 010.702M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20172 409 495.095M US$ -
20162 250 153.877M US$ -
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Tourism


Tourism. The USA is one of the most important world’s tourist destinations. Popular places are New York, the national parks, the beaches (Florida and California).

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures160 818M US$2016
Number of arrivals75 608 000units2016
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Communications


Transport.
The network of highways and motorways is among the most extensive in the world. The railways are completely private and do not offer an effective passenger service, other than for commuters living around major conurbations. Numerous plans for high-speed railway lines are being researched in California, between San Francisco and Los Angeles, and between the main cities on the Eastern coast. The internal waterways consist of two major interconnected systems: the Great Lakes and the Mississippi waterways.


Media and telecommunication.
There are two public radio and television broadcasters (NPR and PBS), in addition to a number of private commercial networks, among them ABC (American Broadcasting Co.), NBC (National Broadcasting Co.), CBS (Columbia Broadcasting System), CNN (Cable News Network) and Fox (Fox Broadcasting Co.).

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown11 634 300 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried849 4031000 units2017
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers338.526per 1000 pop.2017
Computers806.1per 1000 pop.2008
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Social and welfare


Education and research.
Compulsory education lasts 9 years and is divided into two phases: elementary (6 years) and secondary; secondary education includes two levels: Junior High School (3 years), which completes compulsory education, and Senior High School (3 years), in which students can choose between three courses of study (academic, vocational and general). There is a choice between free public schools and fee-charging private schools. Higher education is provided in colleges, with four-year courses leading to a diploma (in science or humanities), and universities, which envisage undergraduate college, post-graduate specialization schools and schools of higher professional training.


Social security.
Social assistance is provided through various federally-funded programs, in addition to others within the individual states. Specific social security programs are handled by different bodies, in particular by the Social Security Administration (pensions, disability benefit etc.).


Health.
Over 64% of the workforce depend on health maintenance organizations, the intermediaries that control private health; 17% are insured by Medicare (the national programme for the elderly); 20% by Medicaid (the programme for those on low incomes); 9% have no health cover. In 2014, the extension of health cover was completed to approximately 13 million citizens who were previously not covered.

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling16.5years2015
Gradautes, percentage45.7%2016
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level1 714 415units2015
Teachers, secondary level1 661 375units2015
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending20.6% of total expenses2016
Social protection spending19.3% of GDP2016
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds2.8per 1000 pop.2014
Physicians2.6per 1000 pop.2014
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV0.7% of adults2011
HIV, total0.3%2001
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending2.74% of GDP2016
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking100%2016
Access to electricity100%2016
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing3.3%2015
education2.3%2015
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