Form of Government: Federal republic
Area: 9 371 219 sq km
Population: 328 239 523 inhab. (estimate 2019)
Density: 35.03 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 49° - 25° N; long. 125° - 67° W
Capital: Washington - DC (capital) 705 749 inhab. (2019); Washington - DC 6 280 487 inhab. (2019), urban agglomeration
Currency: US dollar (100 cents)
Human development index: 0.92 (rank: 15)
President and head of government: Donald J. Trump (Rep), elected 8 November 2016, in office since 20 January 2017
Vice President: Michael R. Pence (Rep), since 20 January 2017
Congress: seats based on the elections of 6 November 2018: House of Representatives: Democrats, 234; Republicans, 200; vacant, 1; Senate: Republicans, 53; Democrats, 45; independents, 2
Internet: www.census.gov (U.S. Census Bureau)
Member of ANZUS, APEC, Council of Europe observer, DR-CAFTA, EBRD, NATO, OAS, OECD, OSCE, SPC, UN, USMCA, WTO

United States

United States, United States of America (USA)
Useful information

International license plate code USA
International dialling code 001
Travel vaccinations requirement none
Electricity (Voltage) 120
Driving side rigth
Internet code .us

GMT Washington (District of Columbia) -5; Chicago (Illinois) -6; Denver (Colorado) -7; Phoenix (Arizona) -7; Los Angeles (California) -8; Anchorage (Alaska) -9; Adak (Alaska, Aleutian Islands) -10; Honolulu (Hawaii) -10
DST Washington (District of Columbia) -4; Chicago (Illinois) -5; Denver (Colorado) -6; Phoenix (Arizona) not applied with the exception of the Navajo Indian Reservation (-6); Los Angeles (California) -7; Anchorage (Alaska) -8; Adak (Alaska, Aleutian Islands) -9; Honolulu (Hawaii) not applied
DST duration (start-end) mid March (Sunday 9)-early November

Annual average temperature (°C) Washington 12.5; Anchorage (Alaska) 2.4; Chicago 9.5; Dallas 19; Honolulu (Hawaii) 24.4; Juneau (Alaska) 5.1; Miami 24.6; New York 12.5; Salt Lake City 12.3; San Francisco 14.3; Seattle 11.3
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Washington 0/24.5; Anchorage (Alaska) -8.5/15.5; Chicago -5.5/23.5; Dallas 6.5/29.5; Honolulu (Hawaii) 23/26; Juneau (Alaska) -3.5/13.5; Miami 20/28.5; New York 0/24.5; Salt Lake City 0.5/25.5; San Francisco 10/16.5; Seattle 5/18.5
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Washington 9/4; Anchorage (Alaska) 9/1.5; Chicago 10/4; Dallas 10/5.5; Honolulu (Hawaii) 10/6; Juneau (Alaska) 6.5/1.5; Miami 9/7; New York 10/5; Salt Lake City 12/4; San Francisco 11/6; Seattle 8/2
Annual average precipitation (mm) Washington 1010; Anchorage (Alaska) 397; Chicago 890; Dallas 860; Honolulu (Hawaii) 590; Juneau (Alaska) 1435; Miami 1335; New York 1250; Salt Lake City 417; San Francisco 566; Seattle 925
Days of rainfall (annual average) Washington 90; Anchorage (Alaska) 79; Chicago 97; Dallas 66; Honolulu (Hawaii) 56; Juneau (Alaska) 177; Miami 107; New York 93; Salt Lake City 77; San Francisco 49; Seattle 122

Politics and current affairs

The Republican Party renominated Donald Trump as their candidate for the 3 November 2020 elections. On 18 August, Democrat candidate Joe Biden, who served as vice president in the Obama administration, formally named Kamala Harris as the vice presidential nominee. Biden had triumphed in the election primaries over the left-wing Bernie Sanders, who withdrew on 8 April. After it was revealed that President Trump had put pressure on the Ukrainian government to open an inquest into Joe Biden, the House of Representatives impeached the President on 18 December 2019 for abuse of power and obstruction of Congress. The Republican-dominated Senate, however, acquitted Trump on 5 January 2020.
Botched management of the COVID-19 pandemic hangs over the electoral campaign. President Trump has prioritised the restarting of the economy; his attitude towards the health emergency, the gravity of which he has tended to downplay, has been less consistent. Individual states have adopted their own measures, meaning that there is no concerted, unified response on the part of the healthcare system. New cases stabilised somewhat before spiking again, together with deaths, since June, especially in the southern states, with levels of daily increase among the highest in the world (over 7 million cases and more than 200 000 deaths, cumulative data as of October). The shrinking economy has caused a sharp increase in unemployment, which, combined with the limited social security fallbacks, has had severe consequences for great swathes of the population. Social unrest erupted after the police killed an African-American man, George Floyd, on 25 May 2020. Protests against racism and police brutality enveloped the nation, some turning violent. Encouraged by President Trump’s incendiary statements, the clampdown against these protests has seen dozens of victims and thousands of arrests.
The USA enjoyed a relatively calm period on the international stage, signing a trade agreement on 15 January 2020 to alleviate duties on Chinese products. Relationships with China have since soured, partly as the political situation in Hong Kong has unfolded and partly in envy of China’s hi-tech manufacturing power. The current administration realised its policy of withdrawal by signing an agreement with the Taliban at Doha on 29 February 2020. The USA committed to reducing its numbers of troops in Afghanistan in exchange for a start to peace talks.

Geography.
The USA is bordered by Canada to the north and Mexico to the south; it lies between the Atlantic Ocean to the east, the Gulf of Mexico to the south and the Pacific Ocean to the west. It also comprises the non-contiguous states of Hawaii and Alaska (including the Pribilof Islands, St. Lawrence Island and St. Matthew Island in the Bering Sea).
The Atlantic coast, high and indented down to Cape Hatteras, further south becomes low and fringed with sand dunes. The flat Florida peninsula extends southwards into a string of coral islands (the Florida Keys). The flat and swampy coast of the Gulf of Mexico is interrupted by the wide delta of the Mississippi. Inland, behind the coastal plains, rises the mountain range of the Appalachians (Mt. Mitchell, 2037 m). Between the Appalachians and the Rocky Mountains extends the vast region of the Great Plains, covered with fertile alluvial soil. To the south, this region unites with the low-lying Gulf Coastal Plain. The Rocky Mountains rise abruptly with a series of ranges, at first unbroken (the Front Range, Sangre de Cristo), then irregular and low in the centre (Mts. Laramie, Absaroka, Big Horn and the Wasatch Range with the uplands of Wyoming), while to the north extend the uplands of Columbia. To the west the mountains form the boundary of the Inland Basins Region, with the Columbia Basin, the Great Basin with the Death Valley depression (86 m below sea level) and the salt lakes (Great Salt Lake, Utah Lake).
The region of the inland basins is bounded on the west by a series of parallel mountain ranges: the Cascades and Sierra Nevada ranges (Mt. Whitney, 4418 m) inland, and the Coast Ranges along the coast. The main hydrographical axis runs through the central section of the country and consists of the Mississippi-Missouri river system, which flows into the Gulf of Mexico. The Columbia, Sacramento and Colorado Rivers flow down into the Pacific Ocean. The most extensive area of lakes is that of the Great Lakes: Ontario, Erie, Huron, Michigan and Superior, situated in the north-east of the country; of these, only Lake Michigan lies entirely within the USA.
The northern part of the Atlantic coast has an oceanic climate, while south of Cape Hatteras the temperature acquires subtropical features and the climate of Florida is tropical.
Violent weather events are becoming ever more frequent along the Atlantic coast. Droughts are also recurrent, devastating the central states. The Appalachian region has a mountain climate, while there is a highland climate in the Rockies.
The inland basins have record levels of dryness and extremely high summer temperatures. The Pacific coast has a mild, rainy climate in the north, and a drier Mediterranean climate in the south. Alaska occupies the north-western peninsula of North America, bounded by the Pacific Ocean to the south, the Arctic Ocean to the north and the Bering Strait to the west, separating it from Asia; to the east it is bordered by Canada. There are groups of islands dotted along the coasts. The region, drained by the River Yukon and its tributaries, rises in the south in a series of mountain ranges (Denali or Mt. McKinley, 6190 m). The climate is subarctic. Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-north Pacific Ocean extending for over 3000 km on a NW-SE axis. Volcanic and coral in nature, it contains numerous active volcanoes, among them Mauna Kea (4205 m, currently quiescent) and Mauna Loa (4170 m), on the island of Hawaii. There is a mild, healthy climate.

Government


Since the Declaration of Independence on 4 July 1776, the size and extent of the United States of America has changed and grown; the current extent dates from 1959, with the entry of the islands of Hawaii as the 50th state in the union. The government of the country has alternated between the two major parties: Democratic (Dem) and Republican (Rep).
The USA is a federal republic comprising 50 states (each with its own governor and legislature, both directly elected) plus the Federal District of the capital. In accordance with the Constitution, the President is elected (together with the Vice President) on a four-year mandate, by an electoral college, itself elected by the electorate; he or she may be re-elected once only. The President holds executive power with the assistance of a presidential cabinet formed of the heads of department (ministers) appointed by him and reporting directly to him. The President can promote bills and has the right of veto; he also appoints the Supreme Court judges. Legislative power is in the hands of Congress, consisting of two chambers elected by direct suffrage: the House of Representatives, with 435 members elected for 2 years in a number proportional to the population of the single states (each state having at least one representative); and the Senate, with 100 members, 2 for each state, elected for 6 years, a third being renewed every 2 years. The Senate has wide responsibilities in foreign policy and exclusive competence for the ratification of international treaties.


Defence.
The United States Armed Forces include Army, Navy, Air Force and Marine Corps, and Coast Guard. They are present in every strategic point of the planet and constitute the backbone of NATO forces. The quota of female personnel in active duty is around 15% of the total. The US government does not recognize the jurisdiction of the International Criminal Court (ICC) in The Hague and has signed bilateral treaties with various countries to prevent USA military personnel from being tried locally for crimes committed overseas.
The United States is a nuclear power and exercises great vigilance over the potential spread of atomic weapons in countries which it does not consider reliable, such as North Korea or Iran. Although, in 2002, the country withdrew unilaterally from the Anti-ballistic Missile Treaty signed with the USSR in 1972, in 2010, the administration signed an agreement with Russia to reduce strategic nuclear weapons.


Justice.
The legal system is based on English Common Law. The highest organ is the Supreme Court (9 members appointed for life by the President), which rules on the constitutionality of laws passed by Congress and re-examines cases referred from federal courts. The prison population is the highest in the world (about 2.3 million prisoners in 2018). With a ruling of 1 March 2005, the Supreme Court abolished the death penalty for those who were under 18 years of age at the time the crime was committed.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force24%2017
Army35%2017
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes3 466per 100 000 pop.2009
Homicides5.4per 100 000 pop.2016
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
New York - NY8 336 817inhab.2019
Los Angeles - CA3 979 576inhab.2019
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
New York - NY19 216 182inhab.2019
Los Angeles - CA13 214 799inhab.2019
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2018)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE

In 2006 the country population passed the threshold of 300 million. Overall, demographic growth is higher than the European average, though there are significant differences (in fertility, death rate etc.) between various areas and between communities: the rate of natural increase, which among whites is close to zero, is high among blacks, Asians and Latino Americans. There are high numbers of immigrants, about 40% of them coming from Latin America (Mexico in particular).

Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate11.62018
Death rate8.62018
Foreigners
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Foreigners, total45 820 000units2019
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
white76.3%2019
black13.4%2019


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Protestant43%2019
nonreligious/atheist26%2019


Languages
DESCRIPTION
English (official)
Spanish
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years18.6%2018
15-29 years20.3%2018


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Economy


Economic situation.
COVID-19 has rocked the US economy, which until 2020 had enjoyed a good rate of growth and an extremely low level of unemployment. The reduction of business has put the country into recession and has seen millions of workers lose their jobs, bringing unemployment up to 10%. The Federal Reserve has lowered interest rates and announced that it will buy the bonds to the largest companies. This has given the stock exchange an immediate boost, though the economic crisis continues.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)116.51index2016
Balance of trade- 922 781M US$2019
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population163 538 700units2019
Active population, Females47%2019
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate3.7%2019
Unemployment rate, Females46.2%2019
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses4 446 588M LCU2019
Revenues3 462 181M LCU2019
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture1.5%2019
industry17.7%2019
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture0.8%2018
industry18.9%2018
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation1 796.4BN LCU2019
International reserves516 700.6M US$2019
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Agriculture


Primary sector
Agriculture.
Farming is highly productive, at the forefront in applying the most up-to-date techniques such as biotechnology. Much of the arable land is cultivated with cereals, the main ones being maize (Iowa, Illinois, Nebraska, Minnesota and Indiana), also used to produce ethanol for motor fuel, and wheat (Kansas, North Dakota, Montana, Minnesota and South Dakota) and barley (Idaho, Montana, North Dakota). Other important crops are cotton (above all in Texas, but also California and Georgia), soya beans (Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, Indiana, Nebraska and Ohio), flax, peanuts (Georgia), sunflower seeds (North Dakota), tobacco (North Carolina, Kentucky). For the production of sugar there are plantations of both sugar cane (Florida and Louisiana) and sugar beet (Minnesota, Idaho and North Dakota). The cultivation of fruit and citrus fruit is widespread (in Florida, California, Arizona and Texas); as well as that of vegetables (California); the growing of vines for wine production is increasing (California).
Forests.
The northern slopes of the Pacific are thickly wooded (Tacoma is the timber capital); Florida and the neighbouring parts of the Gulf of Mexico are renowned for pitch pine (Pinus rigida), exported from Pensacola.
Timber, 55% of it from conifers, supplies a flourishing furniture industry, principally located along the Atlantic seaboard, with its main centres in New York, Grand Rapids (MI), Evansville (IN), Chicago and Rockford (IL); the wood pulp and paper industries are also significant.
Livestock.
Cattle, pigs and poultry are all important, farmed both industrially and extensively on the vast prairies of the Midwest and in the region of the Rocky Mountains. The dairy industry is mainly concentrated in the north-eastern states (the Dairy Belt).
Fishing.
The USA is among the world’s greatest producers of fish in terms of catch (especially Pollachius virens, salmon, cod, shellfish). In Chesapeake Bay, Long Island Sound, on the coast of the Gulf of Mexico and in San Francisco Bay there are shellfish farms (crustaceans and molluscs). The main fishing ports are Dutch Harbor-Unalaska (AK), Empire-Venice (LA), Reedville (VA), Intracoastal City (LA), Kodiak (AK), Cameron (LA), Pascagoula-Moss Point (MS).

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land16.93%2015
forests33.9%2015
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley3 332.971000 t2018
cereals, total467 951.141000 t2018
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes20 607.3421000 t2018
roots and tubers, total21 850.7881000 t2018
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
artichokes45.3821000 t2018
asparagus35.461000 t2018
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry1 700.511000 t2018
beans, green30.921000 t2018
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes6 890.971000 t2018
raisins3201000 t2006
Agriculture - products - Olive
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
olives138.5961000 t2018
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts2 477.341000 t2018
rapeseed1 644.171000 t2018
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coffee2.381000 t2018
ginger0.5971000 t2018
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hops48.4921000 t2018
sugar beet30 068.6471000 t2018
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton11 429.9371000 t2018
Agriculture - products - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
linseed121.541000 t2018
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples4 652.51000 t2018
apricots35.881000 t2018
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
almonds1 872.51000 t2018
hazelnuts46.271000 t2018
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits7 038.3341000 t2018
citrus fruits, nes28.5141000 t2018
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados168.5281000 t2018
bananas4.2741000 t2018
Agriculture - products - Others
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mushrooms416.051000 t2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley800.481000 ha2018
maize33 079.361000 ha2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes414.1151000 ha2018
sweet potatoes58.4371000 ha2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
artichokes2.7921000 ha2018
cabbages21.9341000 ha2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry815.851000 ha2018
beans, green9.611000 ha2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape379.191000 ha2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Olive
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
olive15.7371000 ha2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts553.821000 ha2018
rapeseed788.711000 ha2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coffee3.1121000 ha2018
ginger0.0181000 ha2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hops22.2721000 ha2018
sugar beet443.2931000 ha2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton4 261.591000 ha2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
linseed80.131000 ha2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples117.8441000 ha2018
apricots4.291000 ha2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
almonds441.1071000 ha2018
hazelnuts17.8061000 ha2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits279.0061000 ha2018
citrus fruits, nes1.3121000 ha2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados21.7071000 ha2018
bananas0.2611000 ha2018
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber438 737 6312018
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle94 2981000 heads2018
cattle and buffaloes94 2981000 heads2018
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs74 550.21000 heads2018
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep5 2651000 heads2018
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats2 6391000 heads2018
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses51.9731000 heads2018
asses and mules52.2681000 heads2018
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds2 225 5031000 heads2018
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey69.1041000 t2018
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter845.6651000 t2014
cheese5 584.8571000 t2014
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
corals31t2018
crustaceans and molluscs1 056 786t2018
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Minerals


Secondary sector
Minerals.
Mineral resources are vast and diversified. The most important of the coalfields extends along the internal slopes of the Appalachian Mountains, from Pennsylvania to Alabama; other important deposits are in the central coalfield, between mid-Mississippi and lower Ohio, and west of the Mississippi, from Texas to Iowa (which produce bituminous coal), as well as those in the Rocky Mountains (lignite). Even more important than coal is oil, the best deposits being found in Texas, Gulf of Mexico, North Dakota, California, Alaska and Oklahoma.
An extensive network of oil pipelines carries the crude oil to refineries. The oilfields are also rich sources of natural gas; the largest deposits are found in Texas, Pennsylvania, Oklahoma, Wyoming and Louisiana. Since the beginning of the twenty-first century, shale gas reserves have continued to grow in importance, constituting almost one-third of national production; the main reserves are in Louisiana, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Texas and West Virginia. Fracking has been badly affected by the fall in price of hydrocarbons, which has diminished the competitiveness of extraction methods, such as hydraulic fracking.
The biggest iron ore deposits are to be found close to Lake Superior, in the eastern states, in Texas, Missouri, Colorado, Utah, New Mexico, Wyoming and Nevada. The most important copper deposits are in Arizona, Utah, Montana, New Mexico and Nevada. Lead mainly comes from Missouri, Idaho, Utah and Colorado. Zinc is chiefly mined in Tennessee, Idaho and Colorado. In Arkansas (Bauxite), Georgia (Adairsville) and Alabama (Eufaula) bauxite is mined. Mercury comes from mines in California, Nevada and Idaho.
Gold is widespread in South Dakota, Utah, Nevada and Arizona; silver is mainly found in Idaho, Arizona (in association with gold deposits), Montana and Utah.
The USA is among the largest producers of molybdenum (Colorado and New Mexico). Uranium is mined in particular in Wyoming, Nebraska, New Mexico, Arizona, Colorado, Utah and Texas; caesium in Maine; thorium in New Hampshire, Idaho and Montana. Sulfur comes from Texas, Louisiana, California and Nevada. The production of phosphate rock is also important (in Florida, Idaho, Tennessee, Montana and Wyoming); potash comes principally from New Mexico, California, Utah and Michigan. In 2018, the Mountain Pass mine, in southeastern California, was reopened for the extraction of rare earths.
Energy.
Most of the electricity produced is derived from fossil fuels.
The amount of hydro-electric power generated, although limited in percentage terms, is one of the largest in the world in absolute terms; the principal hydro-electric plants are in Bath County, Chief Joseph (Virginia), Castaic (California), Grand Coulee (Washington), Hoover (Arizona/Nevada), John Day (Oregon/Washington), Robert Moses-Niagara (New York) and The Dalles (Oregon).
There are 95 nuclear reactors in operation (with 2 more under construction), providing around 20% of the electricity output in the country; the principal nuclear power stations are: Palo Verde, South Texas, Grand Gulf, Susquehanna, Nine Mile Point, Perry, Seabrook, Mola, Wolf Creek, Callaway, Comanche Peak, Salem, Waterford, Braidwood, Byron, Hope Creek, Vogtle, Sequoyah, Watts Bar, LaSalle County.
Industry.
In the iron and steel industry, the blast furnaces are almost all situated in the eastern part of the country (Pennsylvania, Indiana, Ohio and Illinois). Additionally, the favourable position for the supply of iron ore gave rise to the development of steelworks in lake ports (such as Detroit-Toledo, Lorain, Cleveland, Erie and Chicago). Imported iron ore supplies the steelworks in Sparrows Point (Md.), Morrisville (N.C.) and Bethlehem (Pa.). Important products of the metallurgical industry are aluminium, copper, lead, tin, zinc and magnesium. Major oil refineries are found in practically all the states. Cement is mainly produced in California, Texas and Florida. The principal centres for mechanical industry are Philadelphia, Worcester, Pittsburgh, Chicago, Hartford, Dayton, Schenectady and Syracuse. The main centre of the motor industry is Detroit, where Ford, FCA (ex Chrysler) and General Motors are headquartered; the sector was badly hit by the economic crisis, which led to the bankruptcy of Chrysler (partly bought out by Fiat in 2009) and to a process of profound reorganization and state support.
The country is home to a number of factories of various European and Japanese motor companies. The aeronautical industry is highly developed, concentrated along the Pacific seaboard (Seattle, Los Angeles, Santa Ana, San Jose and San Diego). The shipbuilding industry operates large shipyards along the coastlines and on the Great Lakes.
Among the textile industries, cotton predominates, with centres from Alabama to Maine. Artificial textile fibres are produced in Massachusetts and Rhode Island; the USA is also among the world’s largest producer of synthetic fibres. New York, Troy, Baltimore and Chicago are the principal centres of the clothing industry. Hollywood is the most important centre of the film industry. A decisive role is played by the sectors with a high technological content, such as aerospace, electronics, IT, telecommunications, fine chemicals and biotechnology. Production centres have close ties with universities and research institutes: the most important are the Silicon Valley (near San Francisco), the technology centres of the east coast, from Boston to Raleigh, and those of the Sun Belt, from Texas to Arizona and New Mexico.

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coal634 239.21000 t2018
coal, total639 799.91000 t2019
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beryllium0.171000 t2019
cobalt0.51000 t2019
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barite3901000 t2019
bentonite4 7001000 t2019
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
diatomite9801000 t2019
kaolin5 5001000 t2019
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
diamonds, industrial - ct190 0001000 ct2019
garnets, industrial931000 t2019
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal2 653 377.2M kWh2018
- nuclear807 084M kWh2018
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal747 784.61000 kW2018
- other renew.164 367.41000 kW2018
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation4 203 936.45M kWh2018
total installed capacity1 114 286.91000 kW2018
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
alumina1 6001000 t2019
aluminium4 5001000 t2019
Industry - Machinery and transport equipment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cars2 512 780no.2019
commercial vehicles8 367 239no.2019
Industry - Electrical and electronics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
computers27 337 400no.2009
fridges10 375 000no.2010
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen19 7361000 t2017
petrol581 745.61000 t2017
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ammonia14 0001000 t2019
artificial tow63.11000 t2001
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
carpets898 0001000 m²2010
cotton fabrics2 329.7M m²2006
Industry - Clothing and footwear
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
footwear31 900 000pairs2007
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley22 6001000 t2014
cottonseed oil2771000 t2014
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes484 000M units2006
cigars4 100M units2006
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemical pulp42 539.5981000 t2018
chemi-mechanical pulp47 604.8141000 t2018
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement88 5001000 t2019
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production357 263.4M US$2017
food, beverages and tobacco production345 428.2M US$2017
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Trade


Tertiary sector
Foreign trade.
The trade balance has been at a significant deficit for decades.


Main exports (M US$ - 2017) machinery 171 199, aircraft & spacecraft and parts thereof 131 169, electrical and electronic equipment 102 115, technical and electro-medical appliances 83 555, petroleum products 82 227, vehicles and parts thereof 76 516, chemicals 76 265, plastics 61 503, cars 53 581, pharmaceuticals 45 053, electronic integrated circuits 38 125, iron and steel 34 477, telecommunications equipment 34 006, computers and accessories 30 455, natural gas 22 266, crude oil 21 825, soya beans 21 658, jewels and precious stones 21 590, gold 19 824, fruit and vegetables 19 655, diamonds 18 995, wheat and other cereals 18 688, meat 16 398, paper and paperboard 15 763


Finance
and banking.
Central bank functions are carried out by the Federal Reserve System, set up in 1913.
New York is home to the world’s leading commercial banks, the Wall Street stock market (NYSE), the largest in the world, and NASDAQ (National Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotations), the market for technology stocks. Chicago hosts the biggest commodities market in the world.

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufactures59.439% of goods exports2018
fuels13.708% of goods exports2018
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Canada292 338M US$2019
Mexico256 371M US$2019
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
China472 465M US$2019
Mexico361 321M US$2019
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20191 645 626M US$ -
20181 663 982M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20192 568 407M US$ -
20182 614 221M US$ -
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Tourism


Tourism. The USA is one of the most important world’s tourist destinations. Popular places are New York, the national parks, the beaches (Florida and California).

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures186 508M US$2018
Number of arrivals79 745 920units2018
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Communications


Transport.
The network of highways and motorways is among the most extensive in the world.
The railways are completely private and do not offer an effective passenger service, other than for commuters living around major conurbations. The first section of the high-speed rail line between San Francisco and Los Angeles is under construction. The internal waterways consist of two major interconnected systems: the Great Lakes and the Mississippi waterways.


Media and telecommunication.
There are two public radio and television broadcasters (NPR and PBS), in addition to a number of private commercial networks, among them ABC (American Broadcasting Co.), NBC (National Broadcasting Co.), CBS (Columbia Broadcasting System), CNN (Cable News Network) and Fox (Fox Broadcasting Co.).

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown11 634 300 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried889 0221000 units2018
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers338.028per 1000 pop.2018
Computers806.1per 1000 pop.2008
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Social and welfare


Education and research.
Compulsory education lasts 9 years and is divided into two phases: elementary (6 years) and secondary; secondary education includes two levels: Junior High School (3 years), which completes compulsory education, and Senior High School (3 years), in which students can choose between three courses of study (academic, vocational and general). There is a choice between free public schools and fee-charging private schools. Higher education is provided in colleges, with four-year courses leading to a diploma (in science or humanities), and universities, which envisage undergraduate college, post-graduate specialization schools and schools of higher professional training.


Social security.
Social assistance is provided through various federally-funded programs, in addition to others within the individual states. Specific social security programs are handled by different bodies, in particular by the Social Security Administration (pensions, disability benefit etc.).


Health.
Over 67% of the workforce depend on health maintenance organizations, the intermediaries that control private health; 17% of the population are insured by Medicare (the national programme for the elderly); 19% by Medicaid (the programme for those on low incomes); 9% have no health cover.

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling16.3years2017
Gradautes, percentage47.4%2018
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level1 769 451units2017
Teachers, secondary level1 694 959units2017
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending18.7% of GDP2018
Social protection spending19.9% of total expenses2018
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds2.87per 1000 pop.2017
Physicians2.61per 1000 pop.2018
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV0.7% of adults2011
HIV, total0.3%2001
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending2.8% of GDP2018
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking100%2016
Access to electricity100%2018
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing3%2019
education2.3%2019
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