Form of Government: Republic
Area: 65 610 sq km
Population: 21 670 000 inhab. (estimate 2018)
Density: 330.29 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 10° - 6° N; long. 80° - 82° E
Capital: Sri Jayewardenepura Kotte (capital) 103 248 inhab. (2018);
Currency: Sri Lankan rupee (100 cents)
Human development index: 0.77 (rank: 76)
President: Maithripala Sirisena (Sri Lanka Freedom Party), since 9 January 2015
Prime Minister: Ranil Wickremesinghe (United National Party), since 9 January 2015
House of Representatives: seats based on the elections of 17 August 2015: UNP (United National Party, conservative coalition), 106; UPFA (United People's Freedom Alliance, centre-left), 95; TNA (Tamil National Alliance), 16; JVP (People's Liberation Front, marxist), 6; others, 2
Internet: www.statistics.gov.lk (Department of Census and Statistics)
Member of Commonwealth, OAS observer, SAARC, UN, WTO

Sri Lanka

Useful information

International license plate code CL
International dialling code 0094
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (required only if traveling from a country with risk of transmission); malaria prophylaxis (recommended for some areas)
Electricity (Voltage) 230
Driving side left
Internet code .lk

GMT  +6
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Colombo 26.8
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Colombo 26/27
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Colombo 6/7
Annual average precipitation (mm) Colombo 2405
Days of rainfall (annual average) Colombo 188

Politics and current affairs

On 26 October 2018, President M. Sirisena nominated former president Mahinda Rajapaksa for prime minister to replace R. Wickremesinghe, who dissolved Parliament, but the Supreme Court voided this decision and Wickremesinghe was restored to the role on 16 December.
On 21 April 2019, six attacks were carried out at churches and hotels in Batticaloa, Colombo and Negombo, killing over 250 victims. The attacks were claimed by the National Thowheeth Jama’ath, a group tied to the Islamic State.

Geography.
Sri Lanka is an island of southern Asia in the Indian Ocean to the southeast of the extreme southern point of the Deccan peninsula of India. In the north there is a strip of plains partly covered by savannahs; in the southern area there is a plateau covered by forests which reaches a peak at Mount Pidurutalagala (2524 m). Various streams come down from the mountainous areas in the middle of the island, the largest of which is the River Mahaweli. The climate is warm and humid, with some variations in temperature.

Government


A former British colony, Ceylon has been independent within the Commonwealth since 4 February 1968, becoming a republic on 22 May 1972 and changing its name to Sri Lanka. Since 1975 the conflict between the Singhalese majority (Buddhist) and the Tamil minority (Hindu) has become more pronounced. This has led to the guerrilla movement of the LTTE, the Tamil Tigers, who have been fighting for the liberation of Eelam (the Tamil name for Sri Lanka), the northern areas of the island. A truce was signed in 2002, but the peace talks which followed, led by the Norwegian government, did not reach a successful conclusion.
In 2008, the government broke the cease-fire and launched an offensive against the areas controlled by the rebels. It succeeded in defeating them in May 2009. There is often violence by Buddhist majority against religious minorities.
On 9 March 2016, Parliament approved the formation of a Constitutional Assembly whose role is to draft a new Constitution. The President of the Republic, who is also head of executive power, is elected by direct suffrage for a five-year term, as is the House of Representatives (225 members).


Defence.
Military service is voluntary.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force11.5%2015
Army82.3%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes188.8per 100 000 pop.2015
Homicides2.5per 100 000 pop.2016
TOP

Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Colombo599 821inhab.2018
Dehiwala-Mount Lavinia184 468inhab.2012
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Greater Colombo4 370 000inhab.2018
TOP

Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2018)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate15.12018
Death rate6.42018
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Sinhalese74.9%2012
Tamil11.2%2012


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Buddhist70.1%2012
Hindu12.6%2012


Languages
DESCRIPTION
English
Sinhala (official)
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years23.7%2018
15-29 years21.8%2018


TOP

Economy


Economic situation.
Between 2017-19, the growth rate declined compared to previous years. To date, the economy has relied on an increase in domestic consumption, foreign investments - especially from China - and tourism. Public debt is high.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)128.1index2016
Balance of trade-10 635M US$2018
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population8 622 008units2018
Active population, Females35%2018
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate4.4%2018
Unemployment rate, Females56.1%2018
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses2 573 056M LCU2017
Revenues1 839 562M LCU2017
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture25.9%2018
industry28.3%2018
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture8.5%2017
industry30.2%2017
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation552.2BN LCU2016
International reserves7 959M US$2017
TOP

Agriculture


Primary sector
Agriculture.
The workforce still active in the primary sector is in progressive decline. The main food crop is rice, which accounts for around 40% of the land which is farmed.
The main exports are tea, cinnamon (grown in the coastal area between Negombo and Galle), rubber and products derived from coconut palm (coconuts, oil and copra) and from tobacco. Covering about a third of the country, the forests also provide valuable woods (ebony, sandalwood and mahogany).

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land36.67%2015
forests33.01%2015
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cereals, total1 823.1621000 t2017
maize195.7441000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava306.3471000 t2017
potatoes73.3581000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages99.6161000 t2017
carrots and turnips71.6071000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry5.8141000 t2017
beans, green75.7871000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts22.4751000 t2017
sesame seed7.7541000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts2 575.231000 t2017
copra651000 t2006
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cinnamon17.2551000 t2017
cloves7.2921000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane654.5221000 t2017
tobacco3.2731000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton01000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fruits, total858.4571000 t2014
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cashew nuts5.941000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits10.5781000 t2017
lemons4.1241000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados30.6061000 t2017
bananas62.5491000 t2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
maize52.5441000 ha2017
millet4.2051000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava22.0871000 ha2017
potatoes4.4571000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages4.2241000 ha2017
carrots and turnips3.6871000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry5.0461000 ha2017
beans, green8.0571000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts12.6391000 ha2017
sesame seed9.0651000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts409.2241000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cinnamon31.5981000 ha2017
cloves7.1771000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane17.91000 ha2017
tobacco1.5511000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton01000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cashew nuts21.0141000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits17.6891000 ha2017
lemons10.7981000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados2.9231000 ha2017
bananas49.3071000 ha2017
TOP

Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
natural rubber166 798t2017
timber5 380 3102017
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle1 000.881000 heads2017
cattle and buffaloes1 284.431000 heads2017
Livestock - Buffaloes
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
buffaloes283.551000 heads2017
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs95.121000 heads2017
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep10.3891000 heads2017
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats287.191000 heads2017
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
equines, total1.3831000 heads2017
horses1.3831000 heads2017
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds21 2871000 heads2017
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter0.631000 t2014
condensed milk5 000t2014
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs43 397.57t2017
freshwater fishes104 922t2017
TOP

Minerals


Secondary and tertiary sector
Minerals.
There are not many important mineral resources present in Sri Lanka, apart from precious stones (rubies, sapphires, topaz and beryllium, which mostly come from Ratnapura). The only industrial product worthy of mention is graphite (deposits at Bogala, Kahatagaha and Kalangaha); phosphates and sea salt are also important (at Elephant Pass, Puttalam, Palavi and Hambantota).
Industry.
The main sector is textiles and clothing, which has its main centres at Colombo and Pugoda. Near Colombo (Homagama) there is an aluminium plant, while in Aturugiriva there’s a metal-working plant.
There is an oil refinery at Sapugaskanda. There is also some chemical processing (at Parantan and Ratmalana), oil production (at Colombo and Galle), tanneries (at Colombo and Ratmalana), paper, ceramics, cement (at Galle, Puttalam and Trincomalee), natural rubber (at Kelaniya), sugar refining (at Amparai and Kantalai), beer (at Nuwara Eliya) and tobacco (in Colombo).

Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ilmenite60.81000 t2018
rutile2.31000 t2018
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
feldspar951000 t2016
graphite41000 t2018
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
kaolin13.51000 t2016
limestone1 6001000 t2016
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
precious and semiprecious stones7 159.41000 ct2016
precious stones3 259.41000 ct2016
TOP

Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal9 045.62M kWh2016
- hydro4 179M kWh2016
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal2 1151000 kW2016
- hydro1 6701000 kW2016
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation13 664.62M kWh2016
total installed capacity3 9981000 kW2016
TOP

Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
lead2.11000 t2016
steel, crude301000 t2016
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen51000 t2013
petrol359.21000 t2014
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
phosphate fertilizers16.41000 t2016
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley1251000 t2014
coconut oil45.31000 t2014
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes4 719M units2007
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemical pulp2.61000 t2017
chemi-mechanical pulp2.61000 t2017
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement2 8411000 t2018
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production604.4M US$2016
food, beverages and tobacco production4 867.9M US$2016
TOP

Trade


Main exports (M US$ - 2017) apparel and accessories 4 740, tea 1 513, tyres and rubber articles 877, spices 364, petroleum products 295, electrical and electronic equipment 287, ships and boats 280, fish 256, diamonds and precious stones 243, fruit and vegetables 217, machinery 206, vegetable textile fibres 150, chemicals 102, fruit & vegetable juices and preserves 121, footwear 108, tobacco 104, food preparations 101

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufactures67.923% of goods exports2017
food products26.041% of goods exports2017
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
United States2 920M US$2017
United Kingdom1 043M US$2017
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
India4 494M US$2017
China4 189M US$2017
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
201811 900M US$ -
201711 360M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
201822 535M US$ -
201720 980M US$ -
TOP

Tourism


Tourism. It is an important source of income for Sri Lanka.

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures2 409M US$2017
Number of arrivals2 116 400units2017
TOP

Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown43 100 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried5 342.51000 units2017
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers58.461per 1000 pop.2017
Computers37.3per 1000 pop.2005
TOP

Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling14years2017
Gradautes, percentage3.5%2016
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level76 173units2017
Teachers, secondary level151 803units2017
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds3.5per 1000 pop.2018
Physicians1per 1000 pop.2018
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV-0.1% of adults2017
HIV, total0.02%2001
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.1% of GDP2015
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking26.33%2016
Access to electricity97.544%2017
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear2.9%2016
education3.8%2016
TOP