Form of Government: Republic
Area: 65 610 sq km
Population: 21 444 000 inhab. (estimate 2017)
Density: 326.84 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 10° - 6° N; long. 80° - 82° E
Capital: Sri Jayewardenepura Kotte (capital) 107 925 inhab. (2012);
Currency: Sri Lankan rupee (100 cents)
Human development index: 0.766 (rank: 73)
President: Maithripala Sirisena (New Democratic Front), since 9 January 2015
Prime Minister: Ranil Wickremesinghe (United National Party), since 9 January 2015
House of Representatives: seats based on the elections of 17 August 2015: UNP (United National Party, conservative coalition), 106; UPFA (United People's Freedom Alliance, centre-left), 95; TNA (Tamil National Alliance), 16; JVP (People's Liberation Front, marxist), 6; others, 2
Internet: www.statistics.gov.lk (Department of Census and Statistics)
Member of Commonwealth, OAS observer, SAARC, UN, WTO

Sri Lanka

Useful information

International license plate code CL
International dialling code 0094
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (required only if traveling from a country with risk of transmission); malaria prophylaxis (recommended for some areas)
Electricity (Voltage) 230
Driving side left
Internet code .lk

GMT  +6
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Colombo 26.8
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Colombo 26/27
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Colombo 6/7
Annual average precipitation (mm) Colombo 2405
Days of rainfall (annual average) Colombo 188

Geography.
Sri Lanka is an island of southern Asia in the Indian Ocean to the southeast of the extreme southern point of the Deccan peninsula of India.
In the north there is a strip of plains partly covered by savannahs; in the southern area there is a plateau covered by forests which reaches a peak at Mount Pidurutalagala (2524 m). Various streams come down from the mountainous areas in the middle of the island, the largest of which is the River Mahaweli.
The climate is warm and humid, with some variations in temperature.

Government


A former British colony, Ceylon has been independent within the Commonwealth since 4 February 1968, becoming a republic on 22 May 1972 and changing its name to Sri Lanka.
Since 1975 the conflict between the Singhalese majority (Buddhist) and the Tamil minority (Hindu) has become more pronounced. This has led to the guerrilla movement of the LTTE, the Tamil Tigers, who have been fighting for the liberation of Eelam (the Tamil name for Sri Lanka), the northern areas of the island. A truce was signed in 2002, but the peace talks which followed, led by the Norwegian government, did not reach a successful conclusion.
In 2008, the government broke the cease-fire and launched an offensive against the areas controlled by the rebels. It succeeded in defeating them in May 2009. There is often violence by Buddhist majority against religious minorities.
On 9 March 2016, Parliament approved the formation of a Constitutional Assembly whose role is to draft a new Constitution. The President of the Republic, who is also head of executive power, is elected by direct suffrage for a five-year term, as is the House of Representatives (225 members).


Defence.
Military service is voluntary.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force11.5%2015
Army82.3%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes188.8per 100 000 pop.2015
Homicides2.3per 100 000 pop.2015
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Colombo561 314inhab.2012
Dehiwala-Mount Lavinia184 468inhab.2012
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Greater Colombo4 205 000inhab.2017
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2017)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate15.62016
Death rate6.22016
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Sinhalese74.9%2012
Tamil11.2%2012


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Buddhist70.1%2012
Hindu12.6%2012


Languages
DESCRIPTION
English
Sinhala (official)
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years24.1%2017
15-29 years21.8%2017


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Economy


Economic situation.
In 2017, the growth rate fell due to a prolonged drought; the outlook is nevertheless positive thanks to an increase in internal consumption, foreign investments, particularly from China, and tourism.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)128.1index2016
Balance of trade-9 529M US$2017
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population8 666 844units2017
Active population, Females34.5%2017
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate4.1%2017
Unemployment rate, Females55.6%2017
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses2 290 394M LCU2015
Revenues1 460 892M LCU2015
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture26.7%2017
industry25.7%2017
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture8.2%2016
industry29.6%2016
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation552.2BN LCU2016
International reserves7 959M US$2017
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Agriculture


Primary sector
Agriculture.
The workforce still active in the primary sector is in progressive decline. The main food crop is rice, which accounts for around 40% of the land which is farmed.
The main exports are tea, cinnamon (grown in the coastal area between Negombo and Galle), rubber and products derived from coconut palm (coconuts, oil and copra) and from tobacco. Covering about a third of the country, the forests also provide valuable woods (ebony, sandalwood and mahogany).

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land36.67%2015
forests33.01%2015
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cereals, total4 402.8341000 t2016
maize279.8031000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava317.5041000 t2016
potatoes66.5341000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages96.2631000 t2016
carrots and turnips49.8561000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry6.6241000 t2016
beans, green72.7771000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts28.2531000 t2016
sesame seed15.5161000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts2 520.0951000 t2016
copra651000 t2006
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cinnamon16.9311000 t2016
cloves4.9911000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane747.9071000 t2016
tobacco3.1891000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton01000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fruits, total858.4571000 t2014
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cashew nuts6.0781000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits13.5551000 t2016
lemons5.5621000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados18.0331000 t2016
mangoes81.7381000 t2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
maize72.391000 ha2016
millet5.8131000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava23.2351000 ha2016
potatoes4.2391000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages4.1851000 ha2016
carrots and turnips3.0761000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry5.8141000 ha2016
beans, green7.9371000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts13.6791000 ha2016
sesame seed16.9391000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts408.9181000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cinnamon31.1511000 ha2016
cloves7.5921000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane16.7511000 ha2016
tobacco1.5591000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton01000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cashew nuts21.1941000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits25.1051000 ha2016
lemons17.3951000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados2.0371000 ha2016
mangoes30.5571000 ha2016
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
natural rubber130 940t2016
timber5 374 0632016
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle1 068.0441000 heads2016
cattle and buffaloes1 378.8641000 heads2016
Livestock - Buffaloes
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
buffaloes310.821000 heads2016
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs81.4071000 heads2016
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep7.4381000 heads2016
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats311.5821000 heads2016
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
equines, total1.3791000 heads2016
horses1.3791000 heads2016
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds16 8751000 heads2016
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter0.631000 t2014
condensed milk5 000t2014
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs48 383.82t2016
freshwater fishes98 264t2016
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Minerals


Secondary and tertiary sector
Minerals.
There are not many important mineral resources present in Sri Lanka, apart from precious stones (rubies, sapphires, topaz and beryllium, which mostly come from Ratnapura). The only industrial product worthy of mention is graphite (deposits at Bogala, Kahatagaha and Kalangaha); phosphates and sea salt are also important (at Elephant Pass, Puttalam, Palavi and Hambantota).
Industry.
The main sector is textiles and clothing, which has its main centres at Colombo and Pugoda. Near Colombo (Homagama) there is an aluminium plant, while in Aturugiriva there’s a metal-working plant.
There is an oil refinery at Sapugaskanda. There is also some chemical processing (at Parantan and Ratmalana), oil production (at Colombo and Galle), tanneries (at Colombo and Ratmalana), paper, ceramics, cement (at Galle, Puttalam and Trincomalee), natural rubber (at Kelaniya), sugar refining (at Amparai and Kantalai), beer (at Nuwara Eliya) and tobacco (in Colombo).

Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ilmenite39.41000 t2015
rutile1.81000 t2015
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
feldspar96.51000 t2015
graphite41000 t2017
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
kaolin13.51000 t2015
limestone1 6001000 t2015
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
precious and semiprecious stones6 9501000 ct2015
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal6 384.48M kWh2015
- hydro5 909M kWh2015
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal2 2431000 kW2015
- hydro1 6651000 kW2015
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation12 711.48M kWh2015
total installed capacity4 0561000 kW2015
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
lead2.51000 t2015
steel, crude781000 t2015
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen51000 t2013
petrol359.21000 t2014
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
phosphate fertilizers101000 t2013
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley1251000 t2014
coconut oil45.31000 t2014
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes4 719M units2007
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemical pulp2.61000 t2016
chemi-mechanical pulp2.61000 t2016
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement2 2871000 t2015
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production530.8M US$2012
food, beverages and tobacco production5 735.8M US$2012
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Trade


Main exports (M US$ - 2017) apparel and accessories 4 740, tea 1 513, tyres and rubber articles 877, spices 364, petroleum products 295, electrical and electronic equipment 287, ships and boats 280, fish 256, diamonds and precious stones 243, fruit and vegetables 217, machinery 206, vegetable textile fibres 150, chemicals 102, fruit & vegetable juices and preserves 121, footwear 108, tobacco 104, food preparations 101

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufactures69.962% of goods exports2016
food products25.128% of goods exports2016
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
United States2 920M US$2017
United Kingdom1 043M US$2017
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
India4 494M US$2017
China4 189M US$2017
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
201711 330M US$ -
201610 309.7M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
201720 859M US$ -
201619 182.8M US$ -
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Tourism


Tourism. It is an important source of income for Sri Lanka.

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures2 295M US$2016
Number of arrivals2 051 000units2016
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown43 100 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried5 342.51000 units2017
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers58.461per 1000 pop.2017
Computers37.3per 1000 pop.2005
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling13.9years2016
Gradautes, percentage3.5%2016
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level76 426units2016
Teachers, secondary level150 320units2016
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds3.7per 1000 pop.2015
Physicians0.9per 1000 pop.2015
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV-0.1% of adults2016
HIV, total0.02%2001
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.1% of GDP2014
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking26.33%2016
Access to electricity95.588%2016
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear3.3%2012
education3.5%2012
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