Form of Government: Republic
Area: 637 657 sq km
Population: 15 893 219 inhab. (estimate 2020)
Density: 24.92 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 12° N - 2° S; long. 41° - 52° E
Capital: Mogadishu 2 081 624 inhab. (2018), urban agglomeration
Currency: Somali shilling (100 cents)
Head of State: Maxamed Cabdulaahi Maxamed “Farmaajo” (Tayo, "Quality" Political Party), elected 8 February 2017
Prime Minister: Maxamed Xuseen Rooble, since 23 September 2020
Internet: www.nbs.gov.so (National Bureau of Statistics)
Member of Arab League, AU, COMESA, OIC, UN, WTO observer

Somalia

Aș-Șūmāl, Soomaaliya, Jumhūrīyat aș-Șūmāl al-Fīdirālīyah, Jamhuuriyadda Federaalka Soomaaliya
Useful information

International license plate code SO
International dialling code 00252
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (generally not recommended; required if traveling from a country with risk of transmission); malaria prophylaxis (recommended)
Electricity (Voltage) 220/230
Driving side rigth
Internet code .so

GMT  +3
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Mogadishu 26.4
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Mogadishu 27/24.5
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Mogadishu 7/9
Annual average precipitation (mm) Mogadishu 394
Days of rainfall (annual average) Mogadishu 64

Politics and current affairs

The elections scheduled for 1 December 2020 and 8 February 2021 did not go ahead due to clashes between the executive and the opposition and governments of Puntland and Jubaland. Violent clashes occurred between the factions, which were also fuelled by the two-year extension of the term for the president and the House of the People (12 April 2021). On 27 May, a new agreement was reached to ensure elections would be held.

Geography.
Somalia is bordered to the west by Kenya and Ethiopia. A short stretch in the north-west borders onto Djibouti. The country lies to the north on the Gulf of Aden and to the east on the Indian Ocean. The country is made up of a plateau that gradually descends from a height of 2000 m towards the Indian Ocean. The main rivers are the River Shebelle and the River Jubba (Juba). The climate is arid with scarce rainfall.

Government


The area of present-day Somalia, independent since 1 July 1960, is the outcome of the union of Somalia (administered as a trust territory by Italy from 1950) and the British protectorate of Somaliland. After the long authoritarian regime of General Siad Barre (1969-91), a civil war began between various factions that not even the intervention of UN troops (1992-95) was able to resolve. The result was the fragmentation of the country into several “republics” with their own institutions. In 1991, Somaliland in the north of the country proclaimed itself independent with capital in Hargeysa. Moreover, extremist Islamist militia groups (ash-Shabāb), which have held control over the southern central regions and part of the capital for a long time, stepped up their activities. The country’s coastline is a stronghold for pirates who attack merchant vessels passing through the Gulf of Aden. The provisional government institutions, in office until 2012, were never able to bring the country back under their control; the intervention of foreign troops (especially Kenyan and Ethiopian) allowed the cities in extremist hands to be reconquered in 2011-12. An AU (AMISOM) mission is active in the country, as well troops and military structures from other countries, particularly Ethiopia, the USA (which carry out an intense campaign of aerial attacks), the UAE and Turkey, whose presence and interests, often conflicting, aggravate instability in the region.
According to the 2012 Constitution, the country has a federal structure (5 states are officially recognized: Galmudug, Hirshabelle, Jubaland, Puntland, South West). The federal government is formed by the House of the People (275 members), elected by direct suffrage for a four-year term, and by the Upper House (54 members) elected by the regional councils. The President is elected by the Parliament for a four-year term. The Prime Minister is appointed by the President and must have the vote of confidence of Parliament.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Army100%2015
Military personnel19 800units2017
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Homicides4.3per 100 000 pop.2015
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Mogadishu=Muqdisho2 081 624inhab.2018
Hargeysa741 000inhab.2014
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Mogadishu2 081 624inhab.2018
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2020)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate41.5852019
Death rate10.6692019
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Somali92$%2000
other5$%2000


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Muslim (Sunni)99.8%2010
other0.2%2010


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Arabic (official)
English
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years42.2%2020
15-29 years26.9%2020


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Economy

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)107.91index2016
Agricultural prod. index (2014-16=100)96.81index2019
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population4 065 050units2020
Active population, Females23.2%2020
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate13.1%2020
Unemployment rate, Females22.6%2019
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses267.8M LCU2018
Revenues270.2M LCU2018
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture83.1%2019
industry3.6%2019
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture60.182%2019
industry7.357%2019
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Agriculture


Primary sector.
The main resource is the semi-nomadic rearing of sheep, goats and camels. The most important crops are sesame, sorghum and maize, as well as fruit (bananas), cassava and sugar cane. The most productive areas are the valleys of the Jubba and the Shebelle. Plants growing wild that are harvested for commercial use include incense, myrrh and gum arabic; cedar trees are also widespread. Fishing is practised.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land1.793%2018
forests9.777%2018
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cereals, total184.1851000 t2019
maize57$1000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava93.7171000 t2019
roots and tubers, total102.3431000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
onions, dry5.7031000 t2019
tomatoes24.5451000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry29.2181000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts8.6281000 t2019
sesame seed36$1000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts11$1000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane226.5071000 t2019
tobacco0.1541000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton7.1331000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fruits, total208.3551000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits24.5191000 t2019
grapefruits5.0681000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bananas18.2431000 t2019
dates14.1661000 t2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
maize1001000 ha2019
rice1.131000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava9.7431000 ha2019
sweet potatoes0.8681000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
onions, dry3.861000 ha2019
tomatoes16.5061000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry94.1541000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts8.0841000 ha2019
sesame seed80$1000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts4.1581000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane6.2411000 ha2019
tobacco0.3711000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton17.7511000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits3.9021000 ha2019
grapefruits1.0291000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bananas1.0681000 ha2019
dates2.71000 ha2019
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber16 122 9282019
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle4 232.4131000 heads2019
cattle and buffaloes4 232.4131000 heads2019
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs3.8591000 heads2019
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep11 687.4221000 heads2019
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats11 466.7681000 heads2019
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses22.7171000 heads2019
asses and mules44.9231000 heads2019
Livestock - Camelids
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
camels7 243.7921000 heads2019
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds3 7211000 heads2019
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter9.0361000 t2018
eggs2.641000 t2019
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs1 100t2019
freshwater fishes200t2019
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Minerals


Secondary & tertiary sector.
The mineral resources that are exploited are the salt-works at Gerisa and the chalk deposits near Berbera. There are also deposits of niobium, tantalum, sepiolite and iron ore, exploited at the artisan level. The few industrial activities, although mostly out of action, operated in the chemical (in Jawhar and Mogadishu), cement (in Berbera), textiles, tanning (in Mogadishu), shoe manufacturing (in Baraawe and Mogadishu) and food sectors (sugar refineries in Jawhar; oil factories in Jawhar, Mogadishu and Marka; beverage production in Hargeysa). The port of Berbera is under development with UAE funds.

Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sepiolite0.0061000 t2004
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gypsum1.51000 t2004
salt1$1000 t2004
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal330M kWh2018
non-renewable electricity generation95.046%2018
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal80$1000 kW2018
- other renew.10.621000 kW2019
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation347.2M kWh2018
total installed capacity90.621000 kW2018
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Industry

Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
petrol59.61000 t2008
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cottonseed oil0.5221000 t2018
sesame oil13.4671000 t2018
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Trade

International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Yemen57$M US$2005
India12$M US$2005
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Brazil45$M US$2005
Kenya40$M US$2004
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
2005113M US$ -
2004175M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20201 170M US$ -
2005214M US$ -
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, passengers carried34.11000 units2019
Merchant fleet4$units2021
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers6.717per 1000 pop.2017
Computers9$per 1000 pop.2005
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling2.5years2007
Gross enrolment ratio, primary - Female23$index2007
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Students, primary level457 132units2007
Students, secondary level86 929units2007
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending0.395% of total expenses2018
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds0.87per 1000 pop.2017
Physicians0.02per 1000 pop.2014
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV0.1% of adults2019
HIV, total0.5%2001
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking3$%2019
Access to electricity36.033%2019
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