Form of Government: Republic
Area: 637 657 sq km
Population: 14 742 523 inhab. (estimate 2017)
Density: 23.12 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 12° N - 2° S; long. 41° - 52° E
Capital: Mogadishu 2 081 624 inhab. (2018), urban agglomeration
Currency: Somali shilling (100 cents)
Head of State: Maxamed Cabdulaahi Maxamed “Farmaajo” (Tayo, "Quality" Political Party), elected 8 February 2017
Prime Minister: Xasan Cali Khayre (independent), since 1 March 2017
Internet: www.dns.org.so (Directorate of National Statistics)
Member of Arab League, AU, COMESA, OIC, UN, WTO observer

Somalia

Aș-Șūmāl, Soomaaliya, Jumhūrīyat aș-Șūmāl al-Fīdirālīyah, Jamhuuriyadda Federaalka Soomaaliya
Useful information

International license plate code SO
International dialling code 00252
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (generally not recommended; required if traveling from a country with risk of transmission); malaria prophylaxis (recommended)
Electricity (Voltage) 220/230
Driving side rigth
Internet code .so

GMT  +3
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Mogadishu 26.4
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Mogadishu 27/24.5
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Mogadishu 7/9
Annual average precipitation (mm) Mogadishu 394
Days of rainfall (annual average) Mogadishu 64

Politics and current affairs

To strike the militant group ash-Shabāb, an intense campaign of aerial attacks was carried out by the USA, which reopened a permanent diplomatic delegation in the capital on 2 December 2018 despite a succession of serious aggressions.

Geography.
Somalia is bordered to the west by Kenya and Ethiopia. A short stretch in the north-west borders onto Djibouti. The country lies to the north on the Gulf of Aden and to the east on the Indian Ocean. The country is made up of a plateau that gradually descends from a height of 2000 m towards the Indian Ocean. The main rivers are the River Shebelle and the River Jubba (Juba). The climate is arid with scarce rainfall.

Government


The area of present-day Somalia, independent since 1 July 1960, is the outcome of the union of Somalia (administered as a trust territory by Italy from 1950) and the British protectorate of Somaliland. After the long authoritarian regime of General Siad Barre (1969-91), a civil war began between various factions that not even the intervention of UN troops (1992-95) was able to resolve. The result was the fragmentation of the country into several “republics” with their own institutions. As early as 1991, Somaliland in the north of the country proclaimed itself independent with capital in Hargeysa, and in 1998 it was the turn of Puntland. Moreover, extremist Islamist militia groups (ash-Shabāb), which have held control over the southern central regions and part of the capital for a long time, stepped up their activities.
The country’s coastline is a stronghold for pirates who attack merchant vessels passing through the Gulf of Aden. The provisional government institutions, in office until 2012, were never able to bring the country back under their control; the intervention of foreign troops (especially Kenyan and Ethiopian) allowed the cities in extremist hands to be reconquered in 2011-12. An AU (AMISOM) mission is active in the country, as well troops and military structures from other countries, particularly Ethiopia, USA, United Arab Emirates and Turkey, whose presence and interests, often conflicting, aggravate instability in the region.
According to the 2012 Constitution, the federal government is formed by the House of the People (275 members), elected by direct suffrage for a four-year term, and by the Upper House (54 members) elected by the regional councils. The President is elected by the Parliament for a four-year term. The Prime Minister is appointed by the President and must have the vote of confidence of Parliament.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Army100%2015
Military personnel19 800units2017
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Homicides4.3per 100 000 pop.2015
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Mogadishu=Muqdisho2 081 624inhab.2018
Hargeysa741 000inhab.2014
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Mogadishu2 081 624inhab.2018
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2018)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate43.12017
Death rate11.12017
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Somali92%2000
other5%2000


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Muslim (Sunni)99.8%2010
other0.2%2010


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Arabic (official)
English
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years42.9%2018
15-29 years27.1%2018


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Economy

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)107.91index2016
External debt2 958M US$2017
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population3 779 857units2018
Active population, Females20.9%2018
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate14%2018
Unemployment rate, Females23%2018
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses171M LCU2016
Revenues168M LCU2016
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture72.4%2018
industry6.4%2018
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture60.2%2017
industry7.4%2017
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Agriculture


Primary sector.
The main resource is the semi-nomadic rearing of sheep, goats and camels. The most important crops are sesame, sorghum and maize, as well as fruit (bananas), cassava and sugar cane. The most productive areas are the valleys of the Jubba and the Shebelle. Plants growing wild that are harvested for commercial use include incense, myrrh and gum arabic; cedar trees are also widespread. Fishing is practised.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land1.79%2015
forests10.14%2015
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cereals, total187.9781000 t2017
maize651000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava93.0811000 t2017
roots and tubers, total102.011000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
onions, dry4.7811000 t2017
tomatoes28.5941000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry26.861000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts8.9241000 t2017
sesame seed26.211000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts11.3981000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane209.1891000 t2017
tobacco0.1421000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton7.2181000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fruits, total200.5531000 t2014
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits24.531000 t2017
grapefruits5.6981000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bananas21.991000 t2017
dates13.5831000 t2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
maize1001000 ha2017
rice1.1911000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava9.7151000 ha2017
sweet potatoes0.9021000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
onions, dry2.5751000 ha2017
tomatoes19.9991000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry88.1361000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts8.4621000 ha2017
sesame seed45.4091000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts3.6571000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane5.6021000 ha2017
tobacco0.3471000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton17.8721000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits3.9141000 ha2017
grapefruits1.211000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bananas1.2871000 ha2017
dates2.6821000 ha2017
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber15 316 2822017
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle4 8001000 heads2017
cattle and buffaloes4 8001000 heads2017
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs3.7811000 heads2017
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep11 0001000 heads2017
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats11 524.4961000 heads2017
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses22.6671000 heads2017
asses and mules44.791000 heads2017
Livestock - Camelids
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
camels7 222.1811000 heads2017
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds3 5691000 heads2017
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter9.8621000 t2014
eggs2.641000 t2017
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs1 100t2017
freshwater fishes200t2017
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Minerals


Secondary and tertiary sector.
The mineral resources that are exploited are the salt-works at Gerisa and the chalk deposits near Berbera. There are also deposits of niobium, tantalum, sepiolite and iron ore, exploited at the artisan level. The few industrial activities, although mostly out of action, operated in the chemical (in Jawhar and Mogadishu), cement (in Berbera), textiles, tanning (in Mogadishu), shoe manufacturing (in Baraawe and Mogadishu) and food (sugar refineries in Jawhar; oil factories in Jawhar, Mogadishu and Marka) sectors.

Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sepiolite0.0061000 t2004
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gypsum1.51000 t2004
salt11000 t2004
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal330M kWh2016
non-renewable electricity generation97.345%2016
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal801000 kW2016
- hydro51000 kW2009
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation339M kWh2016
total installed capacity851000 kW2016
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Industry

Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
petrol59.61000 t2008
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cottonseed oil0.51000 t2014
sesame oil91000 t2014
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Trade

International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Yemen57M US$2005
India12M US$2005
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Brazil45M US$2005
Kenya40M US$2004
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
2005113M US$ -
2004175M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
2005214M US$ -
2004483M US$ -
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, passengers carried4.51000 units2017
Merchant fleet5units2018
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers6.425per 1000 pop.2016
Computers9per 1000 pop.2005
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling2.5years2007
Gross enrolment ratio, primary - Female23index2007
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level12 870units2007
Teachers, secondary level4 504units2007
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds0.9per 1000 pop.2014
Physicians0.03per 1000 pop.2014
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV0.1% of adults2017
HIV, total0.5%2001
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking2.34%2016
Access to electricity32.946%2017
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