Form of Government: Republic
Area: 20 271 sq km
Population: 2 108 977 inhab. (estimate 2021)
Density: 104.04 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 47° - 45° N; long. 13° - 17° E
Capital: Ljubljana (capital) 285 604 inhab. (2021);
Currency: euro (100 cents)
Human development index: 0.917 (rank: 22)
President: Borut Pahor (SD), since 22 December 2012, re-elected 12 November 2017
Prime Minister: Janez Janša (SDS), elected 13 March 2020
National Assembly: seats (August 2021 update): SDS (Slovenian Democratic Party, conservative), 26; LMŠ (List of Marjan Šarec, centre-left), 14; SD (Social Democrats), 12; The Left, 8; NSi (New Slovenia), 7; SMC (Modern Centre Party, liberal), 5; SAB (Party of Alenka Bratušek), 5; DeSUS (Democratic Party of Pensioners), 4; Slovenian National Party, 3; Italian and Hungarian minorities, 2; others, 4
Internet: www.stat.si (Statistical Office of the Rep. of Slovenia)
Member of Council of Europe, EBRD, EU, NATO, OAS observer, OECD, OSCE, UN, WTO

Slovenia

Slovenija, Republika Slovenija
Useful information

International license plate code SLO
International dialling code 00386
Travel vaccinations requirement none
Electricity (Voltage) 230
Driving side rigth
Internet code .si

GMT  +1
DST  +2
DST duration (start-end) late March-late October

Annual average temperature (°C) Ljubljana 10.6
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Ljubljana 0/21
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Ljubljana 7/1
Annual average precipitation (mm) Ljubljana 1355
Days of rainfall (annual average) Ljubljana 118

Politics and current affairs

Slovenia has held the presidency of the Council of the European Union since 1 July 2021. In recent months, the Janša (SDS) government has been at the centre of controversy in the EU, especially for attacking the freedom of the press and for the delay in appointing prosecutors to the new European Public Prosecutor’s Office (EPPO).

Geography.
Slovenia is bordered to the north by Austria, to the north-east by Hungary, to the south and south-east by Croatia and to the west by Italy. To the south-west it faces the Adriatic Sea. The country is mostly mountainous. The principal rivers are the Sava, the Drava and the Mura. The climate is alpine in the mountains and continental inland and Mediterranean on the strip of Mediterranean coastline.

Government


Formerly part of the Socialist republic of Yugoslavia, Slovenia declared itself an independent state on 25 June 1991 and was internationally recognized on the 15 January 1992. The declaration of independence created a serious military crisis, following the involvement of troops from Federal Yugoslavia. The crisis was, however, soon resolved with the withdrawal of federal troops in October 1991. Since the 1992 elections, top positions in the government have been held by an alternating succession of right-wing, left-wing and liberal politicians. The country joined the European Union on 1 May 2004 and adopted the Euro on 1 January 2007. On 21 December 2007 Slovenia became a Schengen country and the historic Italo-Slovenian border between the Italian city of Gorizia and the Karst Plateau was opened up. The dissolution of the former Yugoslavia left several questions unanswered between the different republics which had formed part of it. The dispute with Croatia over the border line in the Bay of Piran is still reason for tension after Croatia refused to apply the Hague’s arbitration verdict. In 2018, Slovenia turned to the EU Court of Justice, which however ruled (31 January 2020) that it had no jurisdiction in the matter, to be resolved bilaterally.
According to the 1991 Constitution, the President of the Republic is elected by direct suffrage for a five-year term and can only be re-elected once. There are two houses of parliament: the National Assembly is made up of 90 members elected for four years (among which are representatives of the Italian and Hungarian minorities) and the Council of State which consists of 40 members elected for a five-year term by indirect suffrage (representing local organizations and social and economic institutions).
The President of the Republic appoints the Prime Minister, who must be approved by the Parliament.


Defence and justice.
With the abolition of military service in 2003, Slovenian armed forces have become a professional army. The legal system is based on that of Continental Europe.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Army100%2018
Military expenditure1.1% of GDP2019
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes4 448.1per 100 000 pop.2012
Homicides0.5per 100 000 pop.2018
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Ljubljana285 604inhab.2021
Maribor97 019inhab.2021
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2020)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate9.32019
Death rate9.92019
Foreigners
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Foreigners, total168 651units2021
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Slovene83.1%2002
other10.6%2002


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Catholic57.8%2002
other27.4%2002


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Hungarian
Italian
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years14.8%2020
15-29 years14.1%2020


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Economy


Economic situation.
The economy has been affected by the pandemic: the GDP fell by 5.5% (2020). Estimates for 2021 (+3.7%) are expected to bring growth due to investments made by the National Recovery and Resilience Plan.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)87.94index2016
Agricultural prod. index (2014-16=100)99.23index2019
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population1 029 300units2020
Active population, Females46.1%2020
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate5$%2020
Unemployment rate, Females52.9%2020
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses15 359.6M LCU2020
Revenues11 378.3M LCU2020
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture4.079%2020
industry33.882%2020
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture2.303%2020
industry32.976%2020
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation6.472BN LCU2020
International reserves1 311.111M US$2020
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Agriculture


Primary sector.
Agriculture is quite limited as there is little land appropriate for farming cereal crops, nevertheless potatoes, sugar beet and various fruits are grown (especially grapes). Livestock farming is reasonably well developed (cattle and pigs).

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land11.732%2018
forests61.802%2018
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley102.481000 t2019
cereals, total642.251000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes65.961000 t2019
roots and tubers, total65.961000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asparagus0.581000 t2019
cabbages23.791000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry1.4371000 t2018
beans, green1.981000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes105.21000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Olive
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
olives3.961000 t2018
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
rapeseed9.451000 t2019
soybeans4.241000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hops2.571000 t2019
sugar beet11.281000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples54.271000 t2019
apricots0.921000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
almonds0.0011000 t2018
hazelnuts0.251000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Others
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mushrooms1$1000 t2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley21.141000 ha2019
maize38.881000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes2.81000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages0.821000 ha2019
carrots and turnips0.261000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry0.6341000 ha2018
beans, green0.361000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape15.571000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Olive
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
olive1.371000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
rapeseed3.251000 ha2019
soybeans1.431000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hops1.621000 ha2019
sugar beet0.181000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples2.271000 ha2019
apricots0.081000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
almonds0.011000 ha2018
hazelnuts0.151000 ha2019
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber4 528 7172019
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle483.071000 heads2019
cattle and buffaloes483.071000 heads2019
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs240.141000 heads2019
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep109.8321000 heads2019
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats24.0561000 heads2019
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
equines, total21.9171000 heads2018
horses21.9171000 heads2018
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds4 1981000 heads2019
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey1.7461000 t2019
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter2.41000 t2019
cheese16.11000 t2019
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs866.3t2019
freshwater fishes357.6t2019
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Minerals


Secondary sector.
Lignite is the main mining resource. More than a third of Slovenia’s power comes from the Krško nuclear plant (shared with Croatia). New reactors are being studied. Industry is quite varied, the main sectors are chemicals (sulfuric acid, caustic soda and tannin), metal-working (aluminium at Kidričevo, lead at Mežica, zinc at Celje), iron and steel (at Jesenice, Štore and Ravne) and machinery (at Novo mesto).
The most advanced and competitive sectors are telecommunications and pharmaceuticals. There are important paper mills and production of furniture, foodstuffs and textiles is noteworthy.

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coal, total3 1431000 t2019
lignite3 1431000 t2019
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bentonite0.0991000 t2019
salt2$1000 t2018
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
limestone4 4701000 t2018
pumice8.61000 t2019
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- nuclear5 532.98M kWh2019
- thermal4 725.38M kWh2019
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal1 452.61000 kW2018
- hydro1 1631000 kW2019
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation15 208.57M kWh2019
total installed capacity3 797.61000 kW2018
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
aluminium80$1000 t2019
lead12$1000 t2018
Industry - Machinery and transport equipment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cars141 714no.2020
motor vehicles141 714no.2020
Industry - Electrical and electronics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
air conditioners623no.2019
computers7 025no.2012
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen555.21000 t2019
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fertilizers1.21000 t2012
paints7.71000 t2019
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cotton fabrics2.3M m²2012
cotton yarn1.21000 t2007
Industry - Clothing and footwear
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
footwear1 554 164pairs2016
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley142.9151000 t2018
maize oil2.3251000 t2018
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mechanical pulp92$1000 t2019
newsprint158.0171000 t2019
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement6801000 t2018
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production429.3M US$2016
food, beverages and tobacco production700.739M US$2018
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Trade


Tertiary sector.
The main trading partners are Germany and Italy. There is a stock exchange in Ljubljana.


Main exports (M US$ - 2017) electrical and electronic equipment 3 477, machinery 3 118, cars 2 996, pharmaceuticals 2 770, iron and steel 1 638, vehicles and parts thereof 1 544, plastics 1 265, aluminium 1 024, furniture and accessories 900, petroleum products 893, timber 790, chemicals 680, paper 648, technical and electro-medical appliances 638, electric energy 410, dyes 395, tyres 336, tools and implements 267, cosmetics 266, synthetic and artificial fibres and yarns 261

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufactures84.442% of goods exports2019
fuels5.297% of goods exports2019
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Germany6 758M US$2020
Switzerland4 545M US$2020
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Germany5 130M US$2020
Switzerland4 635M US$2020
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
202044 777M US$ -
201944 943M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
202042 121M US$ -
201944 007M US$ -
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Tourism


Tourism. The main attractions are the seaside resorts (Koper and Piran), winter sports resorts (Kranjska Gora), spas (Radenci and Rogaška Slatina) and karst cave system (Postojna).

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures1 640M US$2019
Number of arrivals4 702 000units2019
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown13 700 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried869.61000 units2019
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers302.089per 1000 pop.2019
Computers425.1per 1000 pop.2008
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Social and welfare


Education and research.
Education is compulsory and free between the ages of 6 and 15. In the Hungarian-Slovenian area education is bilingual, in the Slovenian-Italian area it can be either in Slovenian or in Italian.

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling17.596years2018
Gradautes, percentage33.283%2019
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Students, primary level129 123units2018
Students, secondary level147 003units2018
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending38.056% of total expenses2019
Social protection spending21.112% of GDP2019
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds4.43per 1000 pop.2018
Physicians3.18per 1000 pop.2018
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV-0.1% of adults2018
HIV, total0.01%2001
Museums
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Museums91$units2019
Museums, visitors2 800 899units2019
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending2.04% of GDP2019
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking100%2019
Access to electricity100%2019
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear5.4%2019
education1.3%2019
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