Form of Government: Republic
Area: 20 271 sq km
Population: 2 080 908 inhab. (estimate 2019)
Density: 102.65 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 47° - 45° N; long. 13° - 17° E
Capital: Ljubljana (capital) 284 355 inhab. (2019);
Currency: euro (100 cents)
Human development index: 0.896 (rank: 25)
President: Borut Pahor (SD), since 22 December 2012, re-elected 12 November 2017
Prime Minister: Marjan Šarec (LMŠ), elected 17 August 2018, in office since 13 September 2018
National Assembly: seats based on the elections of 3 June 2018: SDS (Slovenian Democratic Party, conservative), 25; LMŠ (List of Marjan Šarec, centre-left), 13; SD (Social Democrats), 10; SMC (Modern Centre Party, liberal), 10; The Left, 9; NSi (New Slovenia), 7; DeSUS (Democratic Party of Pensioners), 5; SAB (Party of Alenka Bratušek), 5; Slovenian National Party, 4; Italian and Hungarian minorities, 2
Internet: www.stat.si (Statistical Office of the Rep. of Slovenia)
Member of Council of Europe, EBRD, EU, NATO, OAS observer, OECD, OSCE, UN, WTO

Slovenia

Slovenija, Republika Slovenija
Useful information

International license plate code SLO
International dialling code 00386
Travel vaccinations requirement none
Electricity (Voltage) 230
Driving side rigth
Internet code .si

GMT  +1
DST  +2
DST duration (start-end) late March-late October

Annual average temperature (°C) Ljubljana 10.6
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Ljubljana 0/21
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Ljubljana 7/1
Annual average precipitation (mm) Ljubljana 1355
Days of rainfall (annual average) Ljubljana 118

Politics and current affairs

The minority government led by Marjan Šarec (LMŠ) lost several ministers in only a few months and had to face the victory of the opposition, SDS, in the European elections on 26 May 2019. The privatization of the country’s chief banks (NLB and Abanka) continues.

Geography.
Slovenia is bordered to the north by Austria, to the north-east by Hungary, to the south and south-east by Croatia and to the west by Italy. To the south-west it faces the Adriatic Sea. The country is mostly mountainous. The principal rivers are the Sava, the Drava and the Mura. The climate is alpine in the mountains and continental inland and Mediterranean on the strip of Mediterranean coastline.

Government


Formerly part of the Socialist republic of Yugoslavia, Slovenia declared itself an independent state on 25 June 1991 and was internationally recognized on the 15 January 1992. The declaration of independence created a serious military crisis, following the involvement of troops from Federal Yugoslavia. The crisis was, however, soon resolved with the withdrawal of federal troops in October 1991.
Since the 1992 elections, top positions in the government have been held by an alternating succession of right- and left-wing politicians. Since 2014, liberal parties have also taken on roles in the government.
The country joined the European Union on 1 May 2004 and adopted the Euro on 1 January 2007. On 21 December 2007 Slovenia became a Schengen country and the historic Italo-Slovenian border between the Italian city of Gorizia and the Karst Plateau was opened up.
The dissolution of the former Yugoslavia left several questions unanswered between the different republics which had formed part of it. The dispute with Croatia over the border line in the Bay of Piran is still reason for tension after Croatia refused to apply the Hague’s arbitration verdict. On 13 July 2018, Slovenia therefore turned to the EU Court of Justice.
According to the 1991 Constitution, the President of the Republic is elected by direct suffrage for a five-year term and can only be re-elected once. There are two houses of parliament: the National Assembly is made up of 90 members elected for four years (among which are representatives of the Italian and Hungarian minorities) and the Council of State which consists of 40 members elected for a five-year term by indirect suffrage (representing local organizations and social and economic institutions).
The President of the Republic appoints the Prime Minister, who must be approved by the Parliament.


Defence and justice.
With the abolition of military service in 2003, Slovenian armed forces have become a professional army. The legal system is based on that of Continental Europe.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Army100%2017
Military expenditure1% of GDP2017
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes4 448.1per 100 000 pop.2012
Homicides0.5per 100 000 pop.2016
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Ljubljana284 355inhab.2019
Maribor95 767inhab.2019
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2018)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate9.82017
Death rate9.92017
Foreigners
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Foreigners, total138 193units2019
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Slovene83.1%2002
other10.6%2002


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Catholic57.8%2002
other27.4%2002


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Hungarian
Italian
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years14.8%2018
15-29 years14.6%2018


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Economy


Economic situation.
The 4.5% growth recorded in 2018 is expected to slow to around 3% over the next two years, but the role of investments continues to carry weight thanks to EU funds.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)87.94index2016
Balance of trade1 976.3M US$2018
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population1 033 400units2018
Active population, Females46.2%2018
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate5.1%2018
Unemployment rate, Females50.9%2018
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses11 684.6M LCU2018
Revenues12 076.5M LCU2018
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture5.4%2018
industry33.2%2018
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture2.2%2018
industry33.2%2018
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation5.654BN LCU2018
International reserves933.1M US$2018
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Agriculture


Primary sector.
Agriculture is quite limited as there is little land appropriate for farming cereal crops, nevertheless potatoes, sugar beet and various fruits are grown (especially grapes). Livestock farming is reasonably well developed (cattle and pigs).

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land11.79%2015
forests61.96%2015
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley97.9291000 t2017
cereals, total551.5791000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes77.0761000 t2017
roots and tubers, total93.0761000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asparagus0.2111000 t2017
cabbages21.9931000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry0.8961000 t2017
beans, green2.4431000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes89.4161000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Olive
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
olives1.6851000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
rapeseed8.9991000 t2017
soybeans7.7131000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hops2.161000 t2017
sugar beet2601000 t2008
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples801000 t2017
apricots0.761000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
almonds0.0011000 t2017
hazelnuts0.0981000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Others
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mushrooms11000 t2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley20.3691000 ha2017
maize38.291000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes3.1651000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages0.7431000 ha2017
carrots and turnips0.4981000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry0.6341000 ha2017
beans, green0.5221000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape15.8391000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Olive
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
olive1.2431000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
rapeseed3.4351000 ha2017
soybeans2.9081000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hops1.5911000 ha2017
sugar beet71000 ha2008
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples2.3551000 ha2017
apricots0.0751000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
almonds0.0011000 ha2017
hazelnuts0.1061000 ha2017
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber4 509 0482017
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle488.5981000 heads2017
cattle and buffaloes488.5981000 heads2017
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs265.7441000 heads2017
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep119.8451000 heads2017
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats22.4051000 heads2017
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
equines, total22.791000 heads2017
horses22.791000 heads2017
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds3 8131000 heads2017
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey0.4711000 t2014
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter2.4131000 t2014
cheese16.9721000 t2014
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs670.4t2017
freshwater fishes301.4t2017
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Minerals


Secondary sector.
Lignite is the main mining resource. Approximately a third of Slovenia’s power comes from the Krško nuclear plant (shared with Croatia). Industry is quite varied, the main sectors are chemicals (sulfuric acid, caustic soda and tannin), metal-working (aluminium at Kidričevo, lead at Mežica, zinc at Celje), iron and steel (at Jesenice, Štore and Ravne) and machinery (at Novo mesto).
The most advanced and competitive sectors are telecommunications and pharmaceuticals. There are important paper mills and production of furniture, foodstuffs and textiles is noteworthy.

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coal, total3 3561000 t2017
lignite3 3561000 t2017
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bentonite0.1821000 t2016
salt2.41000 t2016
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pumice8.81000 t2016
quartzite338.11000 t2016
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- nuclear5 431M kWh2016
- thermal5 114.54M kWh2016
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal1 2561000 kW2016
- hydro1 1131000 kW2016
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation15 456.54M kWh2016
total installed capacity3 5361000 kW2016
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
aluminium801000 t2017
lead121000 t2016
Industry - Machinery and transport equipment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cars209 378no.2018
motor vehicles209 378no.2018
Industry - Electrical and electronics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
air conditioners1 184no.2016
computers7 025no.2012
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen374.91000 t2018
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fertilizers1.21000 t2012
paints1941000 t2012
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cotton fabrics2.3M m²2012
cotton yarn1.21000 t2007
Industry - Clothing and footwear
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
footwear1 554 164pairs2016
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley200.41000 t2014
maize oil2.61000 t2014
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemical pulp5.7021000 t2014
chemi-mechanical pulp921000 t2017
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement7001000 t2016
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production429.3M US$2016
food, beverages and tobacco production637.1M US$2016
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Trade


Tertiary sector.
The main trading partners are Germany and Italy. There is a stock exchange in Ljubljana.


Main exports (M US$ - 2017) electrical and electronic equipment 3 477, machinery 3 118, cars 2 996, pharmaceuticals 2 770, iron and steel 1 638, vehicles and parts thereof 1 544, plastics 1 265, aluminium 1 024, furniture and accessories 900, petroleum products 893, timber 790, chemicals 680, paper 648, technical and electro-medical appliances 638, electric energy 410, dyes 395, tyres 336, tools and implements 267, cosmetics 266, synthetic and artificial fibres and yarns 261, toys and sports equipment 249, rubber articles 240, articles of base metal 240

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufactures84.219% of goods exports2018
fuels5.262% of goods exports2018
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Germany7 403M US$2018
Italy4 547M US$2018
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Germany5 906M US$2018
Italy4 946M US$2018
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
201844 210M US$ -
201738 443M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
201842 233M US$ -
201736 078M US$ -
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Tourism


Tourism. The main attractions are the seaside resorts (Koper and Piran), winter sports resorts (Kranjska Gora), spas (Radenci and Rogaška Slatina) and karst cave system (Postojna).

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures1 141M US$2017
Number of arrivals3 586 000units2017
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown13 700 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried1 087.11000 units2017
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers289.340per 1000 pop.2017
Computers425.1per 1000 pop.2008
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Social and welfare


Education and research.
Education is compulsory and free between the ages of 6 and 15. In the Hungarian-Slovenian area education is bilingual, in the Slovenian-Italian area it can be either in Slovenian or in Italian.

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling17.4years2016
Gradautes, percentage34.3%2017
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level8 663units2016
Teachers, secondary level15 351units2016
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending37% of total expenses2016
Social protection spending21.2% of GDP2018
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds4.5per 1000 pop.2016
Physicians3per 1000 pop.2016
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV-0.1% of adults2017
HIV, total0.01%2001
Museums
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Museums93units2018
Museums, visitors2 733 597units2018
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending1.86% of GDP2017
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking96.17%2016
Access to electricity100%2017
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear5.3%2017
education1.3%2017
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