Form of Government: Republic
Area: 49 035 sq km
Population: 5 459 781 inhab. (estimate 2020)
Density: 111.35 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 50° - 48° N; long. 17° - 23° E
Capital: Bratislava (capital) 440 948 inhab. (2020);
Currency: euro (100 cents)
Human development index: 0.86 (rank: 39)
President: Zuzana Čaputová (PS), elected 30 March 2019, in office since 15 June 2019
Prime Minister: Eduard Heger (OL’aNO), since 1 April 2021
National Council: seats (August 2021 update): OL'aNO (Ordinary People, anti-corruption, conservative), 52; SMER (Direction-Social Democracy, centre-left), 26; We Are Family (centre-right), 17; SaS (Freedom and Solidarity, centre-right), 13; For the People (conservative), 10; L'SNS (People's Party-Our Slovakia, right), 9; non-inscrits, 23
Internet: www.statistics.sk (Statistical Office of the Slovak Rep.)
Member of Council of Europe, EBRD, EU, NATO, OAS observer, OECD, OSCE, UN, WTO

Slovakia

Slovensko, Slovenská republika
Useful information

International license plate code SK
International dialling code 00421
Travel vaccinations requirement none
Electricity (Voltage) 230
Driving side rigth
Internet code .sk

GMT  +1
DST  +2
DST duration (start-end) late March-late October

Annual average temperature (°C) Bratislava 10.3
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Bratislava -1/20.5
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Bratislava 9/1
Annual average precipitation (mm) Bratislava 665
Days of rainfall (annual average) Bratislava 98

Politics and current affairs

In spring 2021, Slovakia faced a government crisis, caused by a decision made by former prime minister Igor Matovič (OL’aNO) to purchase 2 million doses of the Russian vaccine Sputnik-V without first informing his coalition allies and going against the advice of the State Institute for Drug Control. Forced to tender his resignation, Matovič was replaced by finance minister Eduard Heger (OL’aNO).
On 1 July 2021, only 8000 doses of Sputnik-V had been administered.

Geography.
Slovakia is bordered to the north by Poland, to the east by the Ukraine, to the south by Hungary and to the west by Austria and the Czech Republic.
The country is mostly mountainous covering the Western Carpathians (the Beskids, the High Tatras and the Low Tatras), where the highest peak can be found (Mount Gerlach, 2655 m), and the southern foothills (the White Carpathians and the Slovak Ore mountains) which slope down towards the Slovakian lowlands and towards the River Danube. The main rivers are the Hornád, the Hron, the Nitra, the Váh and the Morava. The climate is continental with particularly harsh winters.

Government


The country became independent on 1 January 1993, following the mutually agreed separation of the two countries (Slovakia and the Czech Republic) which had together made up Czechoslovakia since 1918. Since 2006, the political scene has been dominated by the centre-left (SMER), on conservative and Eurosceptic positions.
On 1 May 2004, the country joined the European Union, and on 1 January 2009, it adopted the euro. It became a member of NATO in March 2004.
In accordance with the 1992 Constitution, amended several times, the President of the Republic is elected by direct suffrage for a five-year term. The National Council comprises 150 members elected for four-year terms.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force24.9%2015
Army39.4%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes1 077.9per 100 000 pop.2019
Homicides1.4per 100 000 pop.2019
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Bratislava440 948inhab.2020
Košice238 138inhab.2020
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2020)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate10.42020
Death rate10.82020
Foreigners
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Foreigners, total78 936units2020
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Slovak81.6%2018
Hungarian8.3%2018


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Roman Catholic62$%2011
nonreligious/atheist13.4%2011


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Hungarian and Czech minorities
Slovak (official)
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years15.1%2020
15-29 years16.6%2020


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Economy


Economic situation.
The economy shrank by 5.2% in 2020 due to the consequences of the pandemic. 4.7% growth is expected in 2021. The semiconductor crisis impacted the automotive sector in the first half of 2021.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)98.14index2016
Agricultural prod. index (2014-16=100)97.62index2019
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population2 712 700units2020
Active population, Females45.4%2020
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate6.7%2020
Unemployment rate, Females48.1%2020
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses28 793.2M LCU2020
Revenues22 675.3M LCU2020
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture2.58%2020
industry36.546%2020
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture2.436%2020
industry29.484%2020
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation15.325BN LCU2020
International reserves9 343.714M US$2020
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Agriculture


Primary sector.
Agriculture is largely concentrated in the western part of Slovakia, along the Danube. The main crops are wheat, barley, maize, potatoes and sugar beet. Livestock farming is also important (pigs and cattle).

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land28.574%2018
forests40.316%2018
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley599.561000 t2019
cereals, total4 104.051000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes182.421000 t2019
roots and tubers, total182.421000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asparagus0.311000 t2019
cabbages14.141000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry0.1271000 t2018
beans, green0.0011000 t2018
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes43.041000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
rapeseed422.231000 t2019
soybeans119.661000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mustard seed2.5861000 t2018
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hops0.111000 t2019
sugar beet1 251.671000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
flax fibre and tow0.0921000 t2018
linseed0.81000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hemp tow waste0.181000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples35.191000 t2019
apricots0.451000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hazelnuts0$1000 t2017
walnuts0.021000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Others
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mushrooms2.051000 t2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley126.371000 ha2019
maize197.241000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes8.191000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages0.461000 ha2019
carrots and turnips0.391000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry0.0911000 ha2018
beans, green0.0011000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape7.921000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
rapeseed147.021000 ha2019
soybeans47.61000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mustard seed3.6531000 ha2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hops0.141000 ha2019
sugar beet21.721000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
flax fibre and tow0.0711000 ha2018
linseed0.821000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hemp tow waste0.11000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples2.061000 ha2019
apricots0.181000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hazelnuts0$1000 ha2017
walnuts0.631000 ha2019
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber8 956 8742019
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle432.251000 heads2019
cattle and buffaloes432.251000 heads2019
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs589.231000 heads2019
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep320.561000 heads2019
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats35.591000 heads2019
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
equines, total6.961000 heads2019
horses6.961000 heads2019
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds13 1321000 heads2019
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey4.1121000 t2018
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter6.91000 t2019
cheese53.41000 t2019
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
freshwater fishes3 483.3t2019
total catch4 552.54t2019
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Minerals


Secondary
sector.
Slovakia has some mineral deposits of magnesite, gold and gypsum. Sources of energy are rather scarce with some lignite, crude oil and natural gas. The country is connected with the Druzhba (from Russia) and Adria (from Croatia) oil pipeline networks. A bi-directional gas pipeline with Poland has been completed with EU support, with another one towards southern Europe being planned (Eastring). Over half of Slovakia’s electrical power is generated by four nuclear reactors at the Bohunice and Mochovce power plants, with two more under construction.
With more than 2600 mid- and large-size companies, industry plays an important role. The most important are the engineering, energy, chemical, mining and iron and steel industries.
An oil refinery is active in Bratislava. The food industry is also important. Foreign investments play a relevant role in the electronics (Samsung factory in Galanta) and automotive industry (Volkswagen-Audi, Stellantis, Hyundai, Kia, Jaguar Land Rover) in Bratislava, Trnava, Žilina and Nitra, however affected by the global car market crisis.

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coal, total1 4651000 t2019
lignite1 4651000 t2019
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
magnesite4601000 t2020
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barite16$1000 t2019
bentonite134.51000 t2019
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
basalt1001000 t2016
dolomite895.91000 t2019
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gold500kg2018
silver460kg2018
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- nuclear14 282M kWh2019
- thermal5 522.5M kWh2019
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal2 3921000 kW2018
- nuclear1 8141000 kW2019
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation25 782.93M kWh2019
total installed capacity7 4991000 kW2018
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
aluminium392.31000 t2019
aluminium, primary2201000 t2019
Industry - Machinery and transport equipment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bikes107 258no.2019
cars985 000no.2020
Industry - Electrical and electronics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
air conditioners15 694no.2019
ovens119 639no.2016
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen795.61000 t2019
petrol1 609.41000 t2014
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ammonia4231000 t2019
caustic soda43.31000 t2019
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
carpets3 0711000 m²2015
cotton fabrics - t0.1741000 t2010
Industry - Clothing and footwear
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
footwear9 873 153pairs2019
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley255.51000 t2018
fish, frozen0.2021000 t2013
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemical pulp639.0041000 t2019
chemi-mechanical pulp653.0041000 t2019
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement4 030.51000 t2019
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production595.947M US$2018
food, beverages and tobacco production1 243.849M US$2018
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Trade


Tertiary sector.
The adoption of the Euro has reinforced the stability of the country and its ties with Western Europe. Several banks from other European countries are active in Slovakia.


Main exports (M US$ - 2017) cars 16 607, machinery 9 215, electrical and electronic equipment 6 561, vehicles and parts thereof 5 943, television receivers 5 905, iron and steel 5 899, telecommunications equipment 5 119, plastics 2 617, petroleum products 1 990, tyres 1 850, natural gas 1 700, furniture and accessories 1 672, aluminium 1 254, footwear 1 156

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufactures90.305% of goods exports2019
food products3.564% of goods exports2019
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Germany19 009M US$2020
Czechia9 100M US$2020
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Germany15 760M US$2020
Czechia8 440M US$2020
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
202086 192M US$ -
201989 509M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
202084 468M US$ -
201990 001M US$ -
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Tourism


Tourism. The main centres are the ski stations in the Tatra Mountains, historic towns and thermal spas.

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures2 815M US$2019
Number of arrivals2 475 000units2019
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown11 800 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried7.91000 units2017
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers290.469per 1000 pop.2019
Computers580.8per 1000 pop.2008
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling14.481years2018
Gradautes, percentage25.786%2019
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Students, primary level229 456units2018
Students, secondary level441 952units2018
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending33.605% of total expenses2019
Social protection spending17.67% of GDP2019
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds5.7per 1000 pop.2018
Physicians3.42per 1000 pop.2017
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV-0.1% of adults2018
Tuberculosis4.5per 100 000 pop.2019
Museums
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Museums252units2018
Museums, visitors5 107 208units2018
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.83% of GDP2019
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking100%2019
Access to electricity100%2019
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear4$%2020
education1.3%2020
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