Form of Government: Republic
Area: 49 035 sq km
Population: 5 450 421 inhab. (estimate 2018)
Density: 111.15 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 50° - 48° N; long. 17° - 23° E
Capital: Bratislava (capital) 429 564 inhab. (2017);
Currency: euro (100 cents)
Human development index: 0.855 (rank: 38)
President: Zuzana Čaputová (PS), elected 30 March 2019, in office since 15 June 2019
Prime Minister: Peter Pellegrini (SMER), since 22 March 2018
National Council: seats (June 2019 update): SMER (Direction-Social Democracy, centre-left), 48; SaS (Freedom and Solidarity, centre-right), 20; OL'aNO (Ordinary People and Independent Personalities, conservative), 16; SNS (Slovak National Party), 15; Kotleba-L'SNS (People's Party, right-wing), 13; Most-Híd (party representing the Hungarian minority), 13; We Are Family (centre-right), 8; independents, 17
Internet: www.statistics.sk (Statistical Office of the Slovak Rep.)
Member of Council of Europe, EBRD, EU, NATO, OAS observer, OECD, OSCE, UN, WTO

Slovakia

Slovensko, Slovenská republika
Useful information

International license plate code SK
International dialling code 00421
Travel vaccinations requirement none
Electricity (Voltage) 230
Driving side rigth
Internet code .sk

GMT  +1
DST  +2
DST duration (start-end) late March-late October

Annual average temperature (°C) Bratislava 10.3
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Bratislava -1/20.5
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Bratislava 9/1
Annual average precipitation (mm) Bratislava 665
Days of rainfall (annual average) Bratislava 98

Politics and current affairs

On 30 March 2019, Zuzana Čaputová was elected President of Slovakia with 58% of the votes. Čaputová belongs to Progressive Slovakia (PS), established in 2017, and is a proponent of cracking down on corruption and pro-EU policy. The results were similar in the European elections on 26 May 2019, when PS finished first with 20% of the votes. Following the elections, protests erupted over the assassination of anti-corruption journalist Jan Kuciak in 2018.

Geography.
Slovakia is bordered to the north by Poland, to the east by the Ukraine, to the south by Hungary and to the west by Austria and the Czech Republic.
The country is mostly mountainous covering the Western Carpathians (the Beskids, the High Tatras and the Low Tatras), where the highest peak can be found (Mount Gerlach, 2655 m), and the southern foothills (the White Carpathians and the Slovak Ore mountains) which slope down towards the Slovakian lowlands and towards the River Danube. The main rivers are the Hornád, the Hron, the Nitra, the Váh and the Morava. The climate is continental with particularly harsh winters.

Government


The country became independent on 1 January 1993, following the mutually agreed separation of the two countries (Slovakia and the Czech Republic) which had together made up Czechoslovakia since 1918. Since 2006, the political scene has been dominated by the centre-left (SMER), though ex-Prime Minister Fico has pushed for more conservative and Eurosceptic positions.
On 1 May 2004, the country joined the European Union, and on 1 January 2009, it adopted the euro. It became a member of NATO in March 2004. Slovakia did not sign the Global Pact for Migration.
In accordance with the 1992 Constitution, amended several times, the President of the Republic is elected by direct suffrage for a five-year term. The National Council comprises 150 members elected for four-year terms.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force24.9%2015
Army39.4%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes1 216.5per 100 000 pop.2017
Homicides1.5per 100 000 pop.2017
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Bratislava429 564inhab.2017
Košice239 095inhab.2017
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2018)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate10.72017
Death rate9.92017
Foreigners
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Foreigners, total72 883units2018
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Slovak81.5%2017
Hungarian8.3%2017


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Roman Catholic62%2011
nonreligious/atheist13.4%2011


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Hungarian and Czech minorities
Slovak (official)
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years15.2%2018
15-29 years17.5%2018


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Economy


Economic situation.
Growth is predicted to be around 3.8% in 2019, a slight drop, but is still driven by strong domestic consumption, which is fed by record employment levels. The plan to strengthen public accounts (debt/GDP was 48.8% in 2018) continues.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)98.14index2016
Balance of trade182.3M US$2018
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population2 746 200units2018
Active population, Females45.2%2018
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate6.5%2018
Unemployment rate, Females48.3%2018
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses22 426.2M LCU2018
Revenues21 516M LCU2018
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture2.3%2018
industry36.5%2018
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture3.3%2018
industry34.9%2018
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation12.618BN LCU2018
International reserves5 229.3M US$2018
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Agriculture


Primary sector.
Agriculture is largely concentrated in the western part of Slovakia, along the Danube. The main crops are wheat, barley, maize, potatoes and sugar beet. Livestock farming is also important (pigs and cattle).

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land29.14%2015
forests40.34%2015
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley545.2851000 t2017
cereals, total3 484.0611000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes149.7051000 t2017
roots and tubers, total149.7051000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asparagus0.4641000 t2017
cabbages18.2251000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry0.0731000 t2017
beans, green0.0011000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes45.8591000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
rapeseed448.6651000 t2017
soybeans102.4411000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mustard seed1.5311000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hops0.1041000 t2017
sugar beet1 230.7931000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
flax fibre and tow0.0811000 t2017
linseed1.5931000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples32.4781000 t2017
apricots0.3331000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hazelnuts01000 t2017
walnuts0.0051000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Others
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mushrooms2.051000 t2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley120.3291000 ha2017
maize187.8121000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes7.451000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages0.4341000 ha2017
carrots and turnips0.1851000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry0.091000 ha2017
beans, green0.0011000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape8.4711000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
rapeseed150.0821000 ha2017
soybeans43.91000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mustard seed2.3011000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hops0.1411000 ha2017
sugar beet22.3771000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
flax fibre and tow0.0631000 ha2017
linseed1.6421000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples2.1791000 ha2017
apricots0.1891000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hazelnuts01000 ha2017
walnuts0.2111000 ha2017
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber9 361 4922017
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle446.1121000 heads2017
cattle and buffaloes446.1121000 heads2017
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs585.8431000 heads2017
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep368.8961000 heads2017
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats36.3551000 heads2017
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
equines, total6.4071000 heads2017
horses6.4071000 heads2017
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds12 1301000 heads2017
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey4.081000 t2014
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter6.8341000 t2014
cheese48.9991000 t2014
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
freshwater fishes3 412.914t2017
total catch4 516.264t2017
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Minerals


Secondary
sector.
Slovakia has some mineral deposits of magnesite, gold and gypsum. Sources of energy are rather scarce with some lignite, crude oil and natural gas. The country is connected with the Druzhba (from Russia, whose flow was temporarily interrupted in April 2019) and Adria (from Croatia) oil pipeline networks. A gas pipeline linking Poland and Slovakia is under construction, with another one towards Southern Europe being planned (Eastring). Over half of Slovakia’s electrical power is generated by four nuclear reactors at the Jaslovské-Bohunice and Mochovce power plants, with two more under construction.
With more than 2600 mid- and large-size companies, industry plays an important role in the country’s economy. The most important are the engineering, energy, chemical, mining and iron and steel industries, followed by the food industries (sugar and beer).
An oil refinery is active in Bratislava. The food industry is important. Foreign investments play a relevant role in the automobile industry (Volkswagen-Audi, PSA, Hyundai, Kia, Jaguar Land Rover) in Bratislava, Trnava, Žilina and Nitra, and the electronics industry (Samsung factory) in Galanta.

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coal, total1 8361000 t2017
lignite1 8361000 t2017
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
magnesite4701000 t2018
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barite251000 t2016
bentonite128.71000 t2016
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
basalt1001000 t2016
dolomite8271000 t2016
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gold490kg2016
silver450kg2016
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- nuclear13 733M kWh2016
- thermal4 946.28M kWh2016
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal2 4381000 kW2016
- nuclear1 8141000 kW2016
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation25 316.28M kWh2016
total installed capacity7 6441000 kW2016
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
aluminium2001000 t2017
aluminium, primary2001000 t2017
Industry - Machinery and transport equipment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bikes81 294no.2018
cars1 090 000no.2018
Industry - Electrical and electronics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
air conditioners20 955no.2016
ovens119 639no.2016
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen51000 t2012
petrol1 609.41000 t2014
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ammonia444.31000 t2018
caustic soda40.21000 t2018
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
carpets3 0711000 m²2015
cotton fabrics - t0.1741000 t2010
Industry - Clothing and footwear
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
footwear18 089 604pairs2018
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley2881000 t2014
fish, frozen0.2021000 t2013
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemical pulp718.9151000 t2017
chemi-mechanical pulp728.1321000 t2017
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement3 912.71000 t2018
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production592M US$2016
food, beverages and tobacco production1 111.8M US$2016
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Trade


Tertiary sector.
The adoption of the Euro has reinforced the stability of the country and its ties with Western Europe. Several banks from other European countries are active in Slovakia.


Main exports (M US$ - 2017) cars 16 607, machinery 9 215, electrical and electronic equipment 6 561, vehicles and parts thereof 5 943, television receivers 5 905, iron and steel 5 899, telecommunications equipment 5 119, plastics 2 617, petroleum products 1 990, tyres 1 850, natural gas 1 700, furniture and accessories 1 672, aluminium 1 254, footwear 1 156

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufactures89.768% of goods exports2018
fuels3.733% of goods exports2018
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Germany20 916M US$2018
Czechia11 171M US$2018
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Germany16 774M US$2018
Czechia9 635M US$2018
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
201894 217M US$ -
201784 468M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
201894 035M US$ -
201783 304M US$ -
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Tourism


Tourism. The main centres are the ski stations in the Tatra Mountains, historic towns and thermal spas.

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures2 597M US$2017
Number of arrivals2 162 000units2017
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown11 800 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried7.91000 units2017
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers257.863per 1000 pop.2017
Computers580.8per 1000 pop.2008
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling14.5years2016
Gradautes, percentage23.1%2017
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level14 182units2015
Teachers, secondary level40 712units2015
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending36.4% of total expenses2016
Social protection spending17% of GDP2018
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds5.8per 1000 pop.2016
Physicians3.4per 1000 pop.2015
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV-0.1% of adults2017
Tuberculosis4.8per 100 000 pop.2017
Museums
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Museums244units2017
Museums, visitors5 055 429units2017
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.88% of GDP2017
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking96.58%2016
Access to electricity100%2017
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear4%2017
education1.6%2017
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