Form of Government: Republic
Area: 49 035 sq km
Population: 5 457 873 inhab. (estimate 2019)
Density: 111.31 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 50° - 48° N; long. 17° - 23° E
Capital: Bratislava (capital) 432 864 inhab. (2018);
Currency: euro (100 cents)
Human development index: 0.857 (rank: 36)
President: Zuzana Čaputová (PS), elected 30 March 2019, in office since 15 June 2019
Prime Minister: Igor Matovič (OL’aNO), since 21 March 2020
National Council: seats based on the elections of 29 February 2020: OL'aNO (Ordinary People, anti-corruption, conservative), 53; SMER (Direction-Social Democracy, centre-left), 37; We Are Family (centre-right), 17; L'SNS (People's Party-Our Slovakia, right), 14; SaS (Freedom and Solidarity, centre-right), 13; For the People (conservative), 12; non-inscrits, 4
Internet: www.statistics.sk (Statistical Office of the Slovak Rep.)
Member of Council of Europe, EBRD, EU, NATO, OAS observer, OECD, OSCE, UN, WTO

Slovakia

Slovensko, Slovenská republika
Useful information

International license plate code SK
International dialling code 00421
Travel vaccinations requirement none
Electricity (Voltage) 230
Driving side rigth
Internet code .sk

GMT  +1
DST  +2
DST duration (start-end) late March-late October

Annual average temperature (°C) Bratislava 10.3
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Bratislava -1/20.5
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Bratislava 9/1
Annual average precipitation (mm) Bratislava 665
Days of rainfall (annual average) Bratislava 98

Politics and current affairs

The 29 February 2020 elections brought the defeat of the SMER party (18.3%), which had governed the country for 12 of the last 14 years, mired with scandal surrounding the murder of journalist Ján Kuciak. Victory went to the anti-corruption movement OL’aNO (25%), which is led by the new prime minister Igor Matovič for a centre-right coalition with other three parties. The new government has had to deal with the economic fallout of the COVID-19 pandemic, while the infection rate is relatively low (almost 7000 cases as of September 2020) and deaths (around 40).

Geography.
Slovakia is bordered to the north by Poland, to the east by the Ukraine, to the south by Hungary and to the west by Austria and the Czech Republic.
The country is mostly mountainous covering the Western Carpathians (the Beskids, the High Tatras and the Low Tatras), where the highest peak can be found (Mount Gerlach, 2655 m), and the southern foothills (the White Carpathians and the Slovak Ore mountains) which slope down towards the Slovakian lowlands and towards the River Danube. The main rivers are the Hornád, the Hron, the Nitra, the Váh and the Morava. The climate is continental with particularly harsh winters.

Government


The country became independent on 1 January 1993, following the mutually agreed separation of the two countries (Slovakia and the Czech Republic) which had together made up Czechoslovakia since 1918. Since 2006, the political scene has been dominated by the centre-left (SMER), on conservative and Eurosceptic positions.
On 1 May 2004, the country joined the European Union, and on 1 January 2009, it adopted the euro. It became a member of NATO in March 2004.
In accordance with the 1992 Constitution, amended several times, the President of the Republic is elected by direct suffrage for a five-year term. The National Council comprises 150 members elected for four-year terms.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force24.9%2015
Army39.4%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes1 126.4per 100 000 pop.2018
Homicides1.2per 100 000 pop.2018
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Bratislava432 864inhab.2018
Košice238 757inhab.2018
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2018)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate10.62018
Death rate102018
Foreigners
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Foreigners, total76 116units2019
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Slovak81.6%2018
Hungarian8.3%2018


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Roman Catholic62%2011
nonreligious/atheist13.4%2011


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Hungarian and Czech minorities
Slovak (official)
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years15.2%2018
15-29 years17.5%2018


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Economy


Economic situation.
After having grown by 2.3% in 2019, the economy is expected to contract by 6.75% in 2020 before bouncing back by 6.5% in 2021. Consumption, investment and exports are all suffering with unemployment expected to rise after years of record levels.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)98.14index2016
Balance of trade- 366M US$2019
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population2 741 400units2019
Active population, Females45.2%2019
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate5.8%2019
Unemployment rate, Females46.8%2019
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses25 063.4M LCU2019
Revenues23 531.2M LCU2019
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture2.8%2019
industry36.1%2019
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture2.8%2019
industry32.3%2019
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation13.873BN LCU2019
International reserves7 168.8M US$2019
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Agriculture


Primary sector.
Agriculture is largely concentrated in the western part of Slovakia, along the Danube. The main crops are wheat, barley, maize, potatoes and sugar beet. Livestock farming is also important (pigs and cattle).

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land29.14%2015
forests40.34%2015
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley486.8981000 t2018
cereals, total4 037.7611000 t2018
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes169.9531000 t2018
roots and tubers, total169.9531000 t2018
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asparagus0.3951000 t2018
cabbages14.9761000 t2018
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry0.1271000 t2018
beans, green0.0011000 t2018
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes52.4181000 t2018
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
rapeseed480.0131000 t2018
soybeans104.5251000 t2018
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mustard seed2.5861000 t2018
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hops0.1091000 t2018
sugar beet1 311.9721000 t2018
Agriculture - products - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
flax fibre and tow0.0921000 t2018
linseed1.2051000 t2018
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples43.9291000 t2018
apricots0.3381000 t2018
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hazelnuts01000 t2017
walnuts0.0281000 t2018
Agriculture - products - Others
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mushrooms2.051000 t2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley124.1631000 ha2018
maize179.0331000 ha2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes7.761000 ha2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages0.3751000 ha2018
carrots and turnips0.2771000 ha2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry0.0911000 ha2018
beans, green0.0011000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape8.0131000 ha2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
rapeseed154.181000 ha2018
soybeans45.3041000 ha2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mustard seed3.6531000 ha2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hops0.1411000 ha2018
sugar beet21.9111000 ha2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
flax fibre and tow0.0711000 ha2018
linseed1.0671000 ha2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples2.1371000 ha2018
apricots0.1611000 ha2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hazelnuts01000 ha2017
walnuts0.361000 ha2018
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber9 602 8542018
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle439.8261000 heads2018
cattle and buffaloes439.8261000 heads2018
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs614.3841000 heads2018
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep365.3441000 heads2018
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats37.0671000 heads2018
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
equines, total6.1451000 heads2018
horses6.1451000 heads2018
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds13 3541000 heads2018
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey4.1121000 t2018
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter6.91000 t2019
cheese53.41000 t2019
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
freshwater fishes3 070.11t2018
total catch4 161.41t2018
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Minerals


Secondary
sector.
Slovakia has some mineral deposits of magnesite, gold and gypsum. Sources of energy are rather scarce with some lignite, crude oil and natural gas. The country is connected with the Druzhba (from Russia) and Adria (from Croatia) oil pipeline networks. A bi-directional gas pipeline with Poland is under construction with EU support, with another one towards southern Europe being planned (Eastring). Over half of Slovakia’s electrical power is generated by four nuclear reactors at the Bohunice and Mochovce power plants, with two more under construction.
With more than 2600 mid- and large-size companies, industry plays an important role. The most important are the engineering, energy, chemical, mining and iron and steel industries.
An oil refinery is active in Bratislava. The food industry is also important. Foreign investments play a relevant role in the electronics (Samsung factory in Galanta) and automotive industry (Volkswagen-Audi, PSA, Hyundai, Kia, Jaguar Land Rover) in Bratislava, Trnava, Žilina and Nitra, however affected by the global car market crisis.

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coal, total1 5031000 t2018
lignite1 5031000 t2018
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
magnesite5001000 t2019
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barite151000 t2017
bentonite134.51000 t2019
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
basalt1001000 t2016
dolomite895.91000 t2019
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gold500kg2017
silver450kg2016
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- nuclear13 789M kWh2018
- thermal4 259M kWh2018
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal2 3831000 kW2017
- nuclear1 8141000 kW2018
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation23 585M kWh2018
total installed capacity7 5451000 kW2017
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
aluminium392.31000 t2019
aluminium, primary2201000 t2018
Industry - Machinery and transport equipment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bikes107 258no.2019
cars1 100 000no.2019
Industry - Electrical and electronics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
air conditioners15 694no.2019
ovens119 639no.2016
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen795.61000 t2019
petrol1 609.41000 t2014
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ammonia4231000 t2019
caustic soda43.31000 t2019
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
carpets3 0711000 m²2015
cotton fabrics - t0.1741000 t2010
Industry - Clothing and footwear
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
footwear9 873 153pairs2019
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley2881000 t2014
fish, frozen0.2021000 t2013
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemical pulp670.8611000 t2018
chemi-mechanical pulp685.8611000 t2018
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement4 030.51000 t2019
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production597.8M US$2018
food, beverages and tobacco production1 247.6M US$2018
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Trade


Tertiary sector.
The adoption of the Euro has reinforced the stability of the country and its ties with Western Europe. Several banks from other European countries are active in Slovakia.


Main exports (M US$ - 2017) cars 16 607, machinery 9 215, electrical and electronic equipment 6 561, vehicles and parts thereof 5 943, television receivers 5 905, iron and steel 5 899, telecommunications equipment 5 119, plastics 2 617, petroleum products 1 990, tyres 1 850, natural gas 1 700, furniture and accessories 1 672, aluminium 1 254, footwear 1 156

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufactures90.494% of goods exports2018
food products3.448% of goods exports2018
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Germany20 087M US$2019
Czechia9 903M US$2019
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Germany14 898M US$2019
Czechia9 212M US$2019
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
201989 682M US$ -
201893 425M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
201990 049M US$ -
201892 902M US$ -
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Tourism


Tourism. The main centres are the ski stations in the Tatra Mountains, historic towns and thermal spas.

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures2 823M US$2018
Number of arrivals2 256 000units2018
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown11 800 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried7.91000 units2017
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers276.543per 1000 pop.2018
Computers580.8per 1000 pop.2008
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling14.5years2017
Gradautes, percentage24.6%2018
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level14 507units2017
Teachers, secondary level39 894units2017
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending34.3% of total expenses2018
Social protection spending17% of GDP2018
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds5.7per 1000 pop.2018
Physicians3.42per 1000 pop.2017
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV-0.1% of adults2018
Tuberculosis5.8per 100 000 pop.2018
Museums
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Museums252units2018
Museums, visitors5 107 208units2018
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.84% of GDP2018
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking96.58%2016
Access to electricity100%2018
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear4.1%2019
education1.5%2019
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