Form of Government: Federal republic
Area: 17 125 200 sq km
Population: 146 748 600 inhab. (estimate 2020)
Density: 8.57 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 81° - 42° N; long. 19°-180° E - 169° W
Capital: Moscow=Moskva (capital) 12 678 100 inhab. (2020);
Currency: Russian rouble (100 kopeks)
Human development index: 0.824 (rank: 52)
President: Vladimir Putin (ER), elected 4 March 2012, re-elected 18 March 2018
Prime Minister: Michail Mishustin (independent), since 16 January 2020
State Duma: seats (August 2021 update): ER (United Russia, nationalist), 334; KPRF (Communist Party), 43; LDPR (Liberal Democratic Party, populist-nationalist), 40; SR (A Just Russia), 23; others, 2, vacant, 8
Internet: www.gks.ru (Federal State Statistics Service)
Member of APEC, CIS, Council of Europe, EAEU, EBRD, OAS observer, OIC observer, OSCE, SCO, UN, WTO

Russia

Rossija, Rossijskaja Federačija
Useful information

International license plate code RUS
International dialling code 007
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (required only if traveling from a country with risk of transmission)
Electricity (Voltage) 220
Driving side rigth
Internet code .ru

GMT Moscow +4; Kaliningrad +3; Samara +4; Ekaterinburg +6; Omsk +7; Krasnojarsk +8; Irkutsk +9; Jakutsk +10; Vladivostok +11; Magadan +12; Kam-atka/Anadyr +12
DST Moscow not applied; Kaliningrad not applied; Samara not applied; Ekaterinburg not applied; Omsk not applied; Krasnojarsk not applied; Irkutsk not applied; Jakutsk not applied; Vladivostok not applied; Magadan not applied; Kam-atka/Anadyr not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Moscow 5.1; Irkutsk 0.6; Kaliningrad 7.4; Murmansk 0.1; Omsk 1.5; Perm’ 2.2; Rostov-na-Donu 10; Saint Petersburg 5; Soči 14.7; Vladivostok 5.1
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Moscow -9/18; Irkutsk -18/18; Kaliningrad -3.5/17.5; Murmansk -11.5/13; Omsk -17.5/20; Perm’ -15/18.5; Rostov-na-Donu -5/23.5; Saint Petersburg -8/18; Soči 6.5/22.5; Vladivostok -11/18.5
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Moscow 9/1; Irkutsk 8/2; Kaliningrad 9/1; Murmansk 6/0; Omsk 10.5/2; Perm’ 10/0.5; Rostov-na-Donu 9.5/1; Saint Petersburg 9/0.5; Soči 9/3; Vladivostok 5/6
Annual average precipitation (mm) Moscow 695; Irkutsk 468; Kaliningrad 805; Murmansk 483; Omsk 405; Perm’ 615; Rostov-na-Donu 560; Saint Petersburg 645; Soči 1540; Vladivostok 796
Days of rainfall (annual average) Moscow 123; Irkutsk 77; Kaliningrad 130; Murmansk 111; Omsk 79; Perm’ 124; Rostov-na-Donu 86; Saint Petersburg 120; Soči 115; Vladivostok 79

Politics and current affairs

Vladimir Putin’s Russia continues with its geopolitical projection, often in contrast with western interests. In November 2020, after the end of the war in Nagorno-Karabakh, Russia launched a peacekeeping mission, deploying almost 2000 soldiers on the border between Armenia and Azerbaijan. The country continues to support Lukašènka’s regime in Belarus, providing diplomatic backing after the hijacking of the Ryanair plane to arrest dissident journalist Protasevich. In spring 2021, Russia increased pressure on the Ukraine by deploying tens of thousands of soldiers along the border (later withdrawn). In August, Russia did not evacuate its diplomatic staff in Afghanistan, opening a dialogue with the reinstalled Taliban regime. Russia has faced several waves of COVID-19, introducing restrictions to control the pandemic. Although the country has developed its own vaccine (Sputnik-V), in the first few months of 2021, Russian efforts were mainly focused on exporting and donating vaccines for geopolitical gain rather than immunizing its own people. On 22 August 2021, fewer than 30% of the Russian population had received a first dose. The Sputnik-V vaccine has been approved for use in almost 70 countries. On 17 January 2021, the dissident Alexey Navalny was arrested on his return to Moscow; his state of health gives cause for concern. Russia continues to be accused by many western countries for launching cyber attacks and spreading fake news on social media.

Geography.
Bordering from south-east to south-west North Korea, China, Mongolia, Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan and Georgia, from south-west to north-west the Ukraine, Belarus, Poland, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Finland and Norway. The northern coastline lies on the Arctic Ocean, eastern coastline on the Bering Sea, the Okhotsk Sea and the Japan Sea (Pacific Ocean). To the south-west lies the Caspian Sea, the Sea of Azov and the Black Sea; to the north-west the Baltic Sea. There are vast geographical differences within Russia. From west to east lie the East European Plain, the West Siberian Plain, the Central Siberian Plateau and the Russian Far East. The East European Plain covers a large part of European Russia, with a series of higher areas towards the middle (the Valdai Hills, the Central Russian Upland, the Don Upland and the Volga Plateau), ending with the Urals Mountains in the east. The main river is the River Volga, which flows into the Caspian Sea, as does the River Ural, the upper stretch of which flows through Russia. The other main rivers flow into the Sea of Azov, including the River Don and its tributary the River Donets. To the north-west between Fennoscandia and Karelia there are two great lakes, Lake Ladoga and Lake Onega. Between the Urals and the west there are the Kazakh Uplands and the River Yenisey to the south, meanwhile further the east the great West Siberian Plain begins, with the course of the River Ob, with its tributary the River Irtysh, which follows the Central Siberian Plateau. Beyond the River Lena lies the north-eastern Asian arc, which mainly consists of mountain ranges. In the southern part lie the Caucasus Mountains, the Altay, Sayan, Yablonovy, Stanovoy, Sikhote-Alin and Dzhugdzhur mountains. The largest of the many lakes is Lake Baikal. The climate is broadly speaking continental, with hot summers and rather long, cold winters.

Government


After the “October Revolution” in 1917, Russia in its current form was the main republic within the USSR, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics which was created on 30 December 1922 and included the lands which were formerly part of the Tsarist empire. The political reforms of the second half of the 1980s (perestrojka), started by Mikhail Gorbachev, led to the dissolution of the Soviet Union (25 December 1991). In 1990, under Boris Yeltsin, Russia declared its independent sovereignty from the USSR, and on the 31 March 1992, the country, adopted a federal system, made up of various states. The Constitution, which was approved by referendum on 12 December 1993, amended in 2020, gives wide-ranging powers to the Federal President who is elected for a six year term by direct suffrage and for not more than two consecutive terms. The President appoints the Prime Minister, is responsible for foreign policy, heads the national security and intelligence services, and has the power to dissolve parliament and hold new elections. The highest legislative power is the Federal Assembly, which consists of the Duma (450 members elected for four years) and the Federation Council (166 members elected by the highest offices of the individual administrative units). Two institutional reforms (in 2000 and 2004) have re-defined the power of the regional governors, who were appointed directly by the central authorities until the new reform of 2012.
As President from 2000 onwards, Vladimir Putin led the central government to regain control over the powerful economic-financial bodies which had sprung up after the privatization of the large formerly state-run industries. Unable to stand for re-election in 2008, Putin proposed Dmitry Medvedev as presidential candidate, assuming the office of Prime Minister himself and keeping firm control over the regime. At the 2012 presidential elections, Putin ran for and kept his office, then being re-elected in 2018.
The authoritarian management of power takes place through the authorities’ tight control over the opposition and the media: the independent press is marginalized and its representatives are often subjected to threats and violence.
Chechnya, a republic with an Islamic majority, proclaimed its independence in 1991, but it was not recognized by the government in Moscow. There were then two bitter wars in the 1990s, with military campaigns, air raids and terrorist atrocities which caused thousands of civilian casualties. The region continues to be unstable today.
In 2014, Russia intervened in Ukraine in support of the Russian-speaking minority and to defend Russian interests in Crimea. In 2019, the country was, however, readmitted to the Council of Europe.


Defence.
Russian presence abroad is increasing, including in Africa (first ever Russia-Africa Summit held in Sochi on 23-24 October 2019). Armed forces are tackling a modernization program aimed at supporting the policy of great power promoted by Putin.
On 2 February 2019, Russia announced the suspension of the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty following the USA’s own withdrawal. The peacekeeping mission in Nagorno-Karabakh started in November 2020.


Justice.
The legal system is based on continental European law. Since 5 May 1998, with the ratification of the European Convention of Human Rights, Russian citizens have had access to the European Court in Strasbourg. In 2019, a law was approved that allows authorities also to pursue individuals (and NGOs) as “foreign agents”.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force18.2%2015
Army30.1%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes1 379.1per 100 000 pop.2019
Homicides5$per 100 000 pop.2019
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Moscow=Moskva12 678 100inhab.2020
Saint Petersburg5 398 100inhab.2020
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2020)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE

The number of inhabitants reached its peak in 1993 (148.5 million). The results of the new population census are expected in 2021.

Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate10.12019
Death rate12.32019
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Russian77.7%2010
other11.8%2010


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Orthodox42.5%2012
nonreligious/atheist38$%2012


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Russian
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years17.2%2020
15-29 years15.2%2020


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Economy


Economic situation.
In 2020, the Russian economy had several shocks: falling oil prices, at a record low for 18 years; the effects of quarantine measures; and reduced export of mining products. As a result, the GDP fell by 3.1%. The global economic recovery is expected to result in a return to growth for the Russian economy in 2021 (+3.8%).

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)138.78index2016
Agricultural prod. index (2014-16=100)109.95index2019
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population74 832 770units2020
Active population, Females48.7%2020
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate5.8%2020
Unemployment rate, Females48.2%2020
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses20 067 700M LCU2020
Revenues18 606 500M LCU2020
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture6.028%2020
industry26.669%2020
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture3.912%2019
industry34.107%2019
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation13 419.606BN LCU2020
International reserves596 769.863M US$2020
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Agriculture


Primary sector
Agriculture.
Despite the vast farming areas, the country imports agricultural products. Huge state investments are made in the farming sector.
The main crop is wheat, followed by barley, potatoes, rye, oats, sunflower seeds and sugar beet.
Forests.
Forestry provides the basis for some of the most significant industries: sawmills (Archangel is the main centre of this), furniture production, wood pulp, cellulose, newspaper, paper.
Livestock.
Animal husbandry is sizeable yet insufficient for domestic needs. Reindeer and animals bred for their fur are found in Siberia.
Fishing.
Fishing plays an important role in meeting the demand for food and supplies the food conservation industry. The Arctic Coast is particularly heavily fished (herring and cod); in the Lower Volga, sturgeon (which caviar comes from) is widely fished.
The main fishing ports are on the Pacific, on the White Sea, on the Barents Sea and on the Caspian Sea.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land7.538%2018
forests49.784%2018
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley20 489.0881000 t2019
cereals, total117 868.2421000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes22 074.8741000 t2019
roots and tubers, total22 074.8741000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages2 623.231000 t2019
carrots and turnips1 558.8661000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry5.7151000 t2019
broad beans, dry8.0441000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes677.9971000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
castor oil seed0.3191000 t2019
rapeseed2 060.321000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mustard seed164.8571000 t2019
tea0.2981000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hops0.2051000 t2019
sugar beet54 350.1151000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
flax fibre and tow38.4641000 t2019
linseed658.6441000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hemp tow waste1.1871000 t2019
hempseed2.8931000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples1 950.81000 t2019
apricots69.61000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hazelnuts1$1000 t2012
walnuts2.251000 t2012
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits0.0751000 t2019
oranges0.0751000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Others
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mushrooms47.9511000 t2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley8 536.6751000 ha2019
maize2 506.2471000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes1 238.5751000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages72.1881000 ha2019
carrots and turnips48.7021000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry3.4061000 ha2019
broad beans, dry5.4651000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape70.171000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
castor oil seed0.4681000 ha2019
rapeseed1 426.2411000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mustard seed292.8371000 ha2019
tea0.4991000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hops0.1361000 ha2019
sugar beet1 133.2531000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
flax fibre and tow44.4371000 ha2019
linseed810.8751000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hemp tow waste3.1021000 ha2019
hempseed5.9921000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples210.8221000 ha2019
apricots11.5231000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hazelnuts0.851000 ha2012
walnuts7.81000 ha2012
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits0.021000 ha2019
oranges0.021000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Others
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mushrooms67.8221000 ha2019
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber218 400 0002019
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle18 151.3941000 heads2019
cattle and buffaloes18 157.7291000 heads2019
Livestock - Buffaloes
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
buffaloes6.3351000 heads2019
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs23 726.561000 heads2019
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep21 136.41000 heads2019
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats1 992.8961000 heads2019
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses7.751000 heads2019
asses and mules7.9091000 heads2019
Livestock - Camelids
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
camels5.8631000 heads2019
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds530 7871000 heads2019
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey63.5261000 t2019
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter257.8831000 t2018
cheese702.3181000 t2018
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs279 608t2019
freshwater fishes301 776t2019
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Minerals


Secondary
sector
Minerals.
There are many different mineral resources in Russia. The main coal deposits in the European part of Russia are found in the Pechora basin, on the eastern edge of the Donbass, in the Moscow area (lignite at Borodino), and in the Urals; in Siberia, coal deposits are exploited in the Kuznetsk Basin, in Kansk-Achinsk, Yakutia, Kamchatka and the island of Sakhalin. The largest oilfields are those in the Western Siberia and in the Ob River basin. Other deposits can be found in the Northern Caucasus, in the Volga basin, in the Urals and on Sakhalin island; the potential of the Arctic fields is growing. The price of oil collapsed in 2020 due to the economic crisis and the oil price war between Russia and Saudi Arabia. The difference was corrected by an OPEC agreement, which calls for a 10% cut in the global oil supply. By September 2022, the cut will be progressively revoked.
Natural gas (of which Gazprom is a global player) is extracted in the Northern Caucasus, in the Komi Republic, in the Volga basin, in the Urals and especially in the Western Siberia. Russia is one of the leading exporters of fossil fuels to Europe, thanks to a long network of pipelines, including the Druzhba pipeline which transports crude oil to Central and Eastern Europe. The gas pipeline network is also well developed: in addition to those that cross Ukraine, it includes the Yamal-Europe (towards Germany), Blue Stream and TurkStream (towards Turkey passing under the Black Sea and avoiding third countries) and Power of Siberia (towards China, opened in 2019) pipelines. Nord Stream, a Russian-German gas pipeline, passes for a long stretch under the Baltic Sea avoiding Ukraine, Poland and the Baltic states. Thanks to the political support of Germany, the disputed works to double the capacity of Nord Stream are nearing completion. After initial opposition, the US supported the project in 2021. Iron ore is mined in the Urals, in the Moscow region and in Central Siberia. Other minerals mined in the country include manganese, nickel, chromite, uranium, tin, platinum, gold, copper, bauxite, apatite, asbestos, potash, diamonds, mercury and magnesite. Many of these resources are exploited in the Urals and in the vast northern and Siberian territories.
Energy.
In addition to widespread thermo-electric plants, there are important hydro-electric plants at Samara and Volgograd on the Volga, at Bratsk, Boguchany and Ust-Ilimsk on the Angara, at Krasnoyarsk and at Sayan, on the Yenisey. There are 38 nuclear reactors in operation, with 3 more being built (a renewal policy has been launched to replace the old ones).
The main operational nuclear power plants are Balakovo, Beloyarsk, Bilibino, Kalinin, Kola, Kursk, Leningrad, Novovoronezh, Rostov and Smolensk. The first floating nuclear power plant was inaugurated in the Arctic. The country is one of the most active in exports and in the construction of nuclear plants abroad.
Industry.
Iron and steel works, many of which are also obsolete, are concentrated in three areas: the central area of European Russia, in the Urals and in Siberia. Metal-working plants are widespread (aluminium, copper, lead and zinc, magnesium and nickel). The main oil refineries, many operated by the giants Rosneft and Lukoil, are found at Achinsk, Angarsk, Khabarovsk, Yaroslavl, Kirishi, Komsomolsk, Kstovo, Kuybyshev, Moscow, Nizhny Novgorod, Novokuybyshevsk, Omsk, Orsk, Perm, Ryazan, Salavat, Saratov, Syzran, Tuapse, Ufa, Ukhta and Volgograd. A liquefied natural gas terminal is active on the island of Sakhalin, with others planned in the Baltic Sea area and on the northern coasts. The chemical industry is relevant: noteworthy productions are artificial fibres, plastics, rubber, tyres and pharmaceuticals. The mechanics industry produces in particular tractors, agricultural machinery, cars and railway equipment.
The aeronautical industry has its headquarters at Moscow, Rybinsk, Nizhny Novgorod, Samara, Volgograd and Voronezh; the main shipbuilding centres are at Saint Petersburg, Archangel and Murmansk. Arms production is currently undergoing renewal and expansion: Russia is one of the major exporters. The space industry is based at the Baikonur/Bayqongyr Cosmodrome (in Kazakhstan); other missile bases are at Plesetsk and Kapustin Yar (near Volgograd). Moscow and Saint Petersburg are also important for the electronics and precision engineering industries. The digital industry sector is growing. The textiles industry is widespread throughout the country. Other important industries include cement, tobacco and food processing.

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coal354 820.61000 t2019
coal, total399 770.61000 t2020
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
antimony30$1000 t2020
bauxite6 1001000 t2020
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asbestos7901000 t2020
barite1601000 t2020
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
diatomite51$1000 t2020
kaolin1 5301000 t2019
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
diamonds24 0001000 ct2020
diamonds, gemstones and industrial43 0001000 ct2020
Mineral resources - Other minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arsenic1.51000 t2020
iodine2$t2020
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal665 469.24M kWh2019
- nuclear195 535M kWh2019
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal190 2001000 kW2018
- hydro52 5801000 kW2019
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation1 057 620.48M kWh2019
total installed capacity272 498.221000 kW2018
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
alumina2 8001000 t2020
aluminium3 6001000 t2020
Industry - Machinery and transport equipment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bikes1 300 000no.2018
cars1 260 517no.2020
Industry - Precision and optical instruments
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cameras100no.2015
watches and clocks2 129 000no.2016
Industry - Electrical and electronics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
air conditioners102 000no.2016
computers337 206no.2016
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen6 912.11000 t2018
petrol60 100.31000 t2014
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ammonia15 0001000 t2020
artificial tow18.51000 t2018
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
carpets23 4001000 m²2018
cotton fabrics771M m²2018
Industry - Clothing and footwear
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
footwear121 000 000pairs2018
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley7 769.971000 t2018
fish, frozen4 028.71000 t2016
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes476 000M units2018
cigars and cigarettes476 000M units2018
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemical pulp5 8761000 t2019
chemi-mechanical pulp8 2271000 t2019
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement56 0001000 t2020
sheet glass109 7001000 m²2018
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production32 080.772M US$2018
food, beverages and tobacco production35 231.771M US$2018
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Trade


Tertiary sector.
The export of hydrocarbons is an essential part of the country’s trading balance.


Main exports (M US$ - 2017) crude oil 93 306, petroleum products 58 544, iron and steel 22 203, coal and its products 15 725, machinery 8 541, timber 7 902, fertilizers 7 217, aluminium 6 673, chemicals 6 609, wheat 5 791, natural gas 4 721, refined copper 4 709, diamonds 4 700, electric and electronic equipment 4 322, fish and crustaceans 3 482, vehicles and parts thereof 3 435, platinum 3 279, synthetic rubber and tyres 3 138, metal ores 3 070, gold and jewels 3 069, plastics 2 814


Finance & banking.
The Federal Russian Bank acts as a central bank.
There are stock exchanges in Moscow, Saint Petersburg, Vladivostok and Novosibirsk. Tensions with the West have slowed down the growth in financial activities.

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fuels51.952% of goods exports2019
manufactures19.581% of goods exports2019
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
China49 146M US$2020
Netherlands24 819M US$2020
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
China54 913M US$2020
Germany23 384M US$2020
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
2020331 748M US$ -
2019419 850M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
2020239 748M US$ -
2019254 598M US$ -
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Tourism


Tourism. Tourism is mostly confined to the cities (Moscow, Saint Petersburg) and currently does not have the facilities to cope with the increasing in tourist numbers.

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures40 611M US$2019
Number of arrivals24 419 000units2019
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Communications


Transport.
The main transport network connecting European Russia, Siberia and the Far East is Trans-Siberian railway (9300 km between Moscow and Vladivostok), which accounts for a 20% of all rail traffic. A high-speed network links Saint Petersburg to Moscow since 2009, extended in 2010 as far as Nizhny Novgorod. Saint Petersburg is connected to Helsinki by a medium-speed line. A railway bridge between Russia and Crimea was inaugurated in 2019. The network of canals is also important for the movement of goods around the country, using the River Volga and the “five seas” which links the Baltic, the White Sea, the Caspian Sea, the Sea of Azov and the Black Sea.
The road network is underdeveloped, however, a plan has been launched to build 900 000 km of roads by 2025. In 2018, a new bridge linking Russia and the Crimean peninsula was completed. Air transport is the main means of transport in Siberia and for long distance travel.


Media and telecommunication.
The telecommunications sector is developing rapidly, although some of the necessary infrastructures are lacking. The country has started a project to develop a “sovereign” internet network.

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown694 400 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried115 482.71000 units2019
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers225.249per 1000 pop.2019
Computers133.3per 1000 pop.2008
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Social and welfare


Education, culture & research.
Education is compulsory between the ages of 7 and 17 years, including three years of primary school and two periods spent at secondary school (lasting five and two years respectively).


Social security and health.
The social welfare fund (financed by businesses and by workers) provides cover for sickness and maternity pay, whereas old-age pensions and disabilities are covered by the pensions fund; the federal fund for workers covers unemployment benefit. Basic healthcare is provided for all citizens.

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling15.707years2018
Gradautes, percentage56.726%2019
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Students, primary level6 927 980units2018
Students, secondary level10 242 404units2018
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending31.555% of total expenses2019
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds7.12per 1000 pop.2018
Physicians4.09per 1000 pop.2018
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV1.2% of adults2017
HIV, total0.5%2001
Museums
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Museums2 809units2018
Museums, visitors113 800 000units2018
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending1.03% of GDP2019
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking90.1%2019
Access to electricity100%2019
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear9.2%2016
education0.8%2016
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