Form of Government: Federal republic
Area: 17 125 300 sq km
Population: 146 882 100 inhab. (estimate 2018)
Density: 8.58 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 81° - 42° N; long. 19°-180° E - 169° W
Capital: Moscow=Moskva (capital) 12 342 600 inhab. (2018);
Currency: Russian rouble (100 kopeks)
Human development index: 0.816 (rank: 49)
President: Vladimir Putin (ER), elected 4 March 2012, re-elected 18 March 2018
Prime Minister: Dmitrij Medvedev (ER), since 8 May 2012
State Duma: seats (July 2019 update): ER (United Russia, nationalist), 339; KPRF (Communist Party), 43; LDPR (Liberal Democratic Party, populist-nationalist), 39; SR (A Just Russia), 23; others, 6
Internet: www.gks.ru (Federal State Statistics Service)
Member of APEC, CIS, Council of Europe, EAEU, EBRD, OAS observer, OIC observer, OSCE, SCO, UN, WTO

Russia

Rossija, Rossijskaja Federačija
Useful information

International license plate code RUS
International dialling code 007
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (required only if traveling from a country with risk of transmission)
Electricity (Voltage) 220
Driving side rigth
Internet code .ru

GMT Moscow +4; Kaliningrad +3; Samara +4; Ekaterinburg +6; Omsk +7; Krasnojarsk +8; Irkutsk +9; Jakutsk +10; Vladivostok +11; Magadan +12; Kam-atka/Anadyr +12
DST Moscow not applied; Kaliningrad not applied; Samara not applied; Ekaterinburg not applied; Omsk not applied; Krasnojarsk not applied; Irkutsk not applied; Jakutsk not applied; Vladivostok not applied; Magadan not applied; Kam-atka/Anadyr not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Moscow 5.1; Irkutsk 0.6; Kaliningrad 7.4; Murmansk 0.1; Omsk 1.5; Perm’ 2.2; Rostov-na-Donu 10; Saint Petersburg 5; Soči 14.7; Vladivostok 5.1
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Moscow -9/18; Irkutsk -18/18; Kaliningrad -3.5/17.5; Murmansk -11.5/13; Omsk -17.5/20; Perm’ -15/18.5; Rostov-na-Donu -5/23.5; Saint Petersburg -8/18; Soči 6.5/22.5; Vladivostok -11/18.5
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Moscow 9/1; Irkutsk 8/2; Kaliningrad 9/1; Murmansk 6/0; Omsk 10.5/2; Perm’ 10/0.5; Rostov-na-Donu 9.5/1; Saint Petersburg 9/0.5; Soči 9/3; Vladivostok 5/6
Annual average precipitation (mm) Moscow 695; Irkutsk 468; Kaliningrad 805; Murmansk 483; Omsk 405; Perm’ 615; Rostov-na-Donu 560; Saint Petersburg 645; Soči 1540; Vladivostok 796
Days of rainfall (annual average) Moscow 123; Irkutsk 77; Kaliningrad 130; Murmansk 111; Omsk 79; Perm’ 124; Rostov-na-Donu 86; Saint Petersburg 120; Soči 115; Vladivostok 79

Politics and current affairs

The geopolitical tension between Russia under Vladimir Putin and western countries remains high. On 25 November 2018, Russian forces captured three Ukrainian ships traveling through the Kerch Strait to the Sea of Azov. The operation further worsened rapports with Kiev, which have broken down in the five years since Russia annexed Crimea, where the saturation of Moscow’s influence continues through the establishment of military resources and strong investments. The crisis newly intensified the rapports with the West, which Russia accused of interfering in its neighbouring regions when NATO forces were assigned to Poland and the Baltics. Suspicion over Russian interference in American and European politics (including Italian politics) has grown. On 20 June 2019, the EU extended its sanctions imposed after the crisis began in Ukraine until January 2020, hitting the energy, finance and defence sectors. Other sanctions were promoted following the incident in the Sea of Azov and for the attempted assassination in 2018 of the former Russian spy Sergei Skripal in the United Kingdom. In general, Russia and western countries are divided on many international matters, such as Syria, Venezuela and Libya.
Meanwhile, protests by opposition movements are increasing in Moscow and other cities against the restrictions of freedom on the web and obstacles for free political participation. On 27 July 2019, the police arrested more than 1000 people.

Geography.
Bordering from south-east to south-west North Korea, China, Mongolia, Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan and Georgia, from south-west to north-west the Ukraine, Belarus, Poland, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Finland and Norway.
The northern coastline lies on the Arctic Ocean, eastern coastline on the Bering Sea, the Okhotsk Sea and the Japan Sea (Pacific Ocean). To the south-west lies the Caspian Sea, the Sea of Azov and the Black Sea; to the north-west the Baltic Sea. There are vast geographical differences within Russia. From west to east lie the East European Plain, the West Siberian Plain, the Central Siberian Plateau and the Russian Far East. The East European Plain covers a large part of European Russia, with a series of higher areas towards the middle (the Valdai Hills, the Central Russian Upland, the Don Upland and the Volga Plateau), ending with the Urals Mountains in the east. The main river is the River Volga, which flows into the Caspian Sea, as does the River Ural, the upper stretch of which flows through Russia. The other main rivers flow into the Sea of Azov, including the River Don and its tributary the River Donets.
To the north-west between Fennoscandia and Karelia there are two great lakes, Lake Ladoga and Lake Onega. Between the Urals and the west there are the Kazakh Uplands and the River Yenisey to the south, meanwhile further the east the great West Siberian Plain begins, with the course of the River Ob, with its tributary the River Irtysh, which follows the Central Siberian Plateau. Beyond the River Lena lies the north-eastern Asian arc, which mainly consists of mountain ranges. In the southern part lie the Caucasus Mountains, the Altay, Sayan, Yablonovy, Stanovoy, Sikhote-Alin and Dzhugdzhur mountains. The largest of the many lakes is Lake Baikal. The climate is broadly speaking continental, with hot summers and rather long, cold winters.

Government


After the “October Revolution” in 1917, Russia in its current form was the main republic within the USSR, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics which was created on 30 December 1922 and included the lands which were formerly part of the Tsarist empire. The political reforms of the second half of the 1980s (perestrojka), started by Mikhail Gorbachev, led to the dissolution of the Soviet Union (25 December 1991). In 1990, under Boris Yeltsin, Russia declared its independent sovereignty from the USSR, and on the 31 March 1992, the country, adopted a federal system, made up of various states.
The Constitution, which was approved by referendum on 12 December 1993, gives wide-ranging powers to the Federal President who is elected for a six year term by direct suffrage and for not more than two consecutive terms. The President appoints the Prime Minister, is responsible for foreign policy, heads the national security and intelligence services, and has the power to dissolve parliament and hold new elections. The highest legislative power is the Federal Assembly, which consists of the Duma (450 members elected for four years) and the Federation Council (166 members elected by the highest offices of the individual administrative units). Two institutional reforms (in 2000 and 2004) have re-defined the power of the regional governors, who were appointed directly by the central authorities until the new reform of 2012.
As President from 2000 onwards, Vladimir Putin led the central government to regain control over the powerful economic-financial bodies which had sprung up after the privatization of the large formerly state-run industries. Unable to stand for re-election in 2008, Putin proposed Dmitry Medvedev as presidential candidate, assuming the office of Prime Minister himself and keeping firm control over the regime. At the 2012 presidential elections, Putin ran for and kept his office, then being re-elected in 2018.
The authoritarian management of power takes place through the authorities’ tight control over the opposition and the media: the independent press is marginalized and its representatives are often subjected to threats and violence.
Chechnya, a republic with an Islamic majority, proclaimed its independence in 1991, but it was not recognized by the government in Moscow. There were then two bitter wars in the 1990s, with military campaigns, air raids and terrorist atrocities which caused thousands of civilian casualties. The region continues to be unstable today.
In 2014, Russia intervened in the Ukrainian crisis in support of the Russian-speaking minority and to defend Russian interests in Crimea. On 25 June 2019 the country was, however, readmitted to the Council of Europe. Since 2015, Russia has provided military support to Syrian president al-Asad, favouring his near complete victory over the rebels.


Defence.
Russian presence abroad is increasing, including in Africa (Central African Republic). Armed forces are tackling a modernization program aimed at supporting the policy of great power promoted by Putin. In 2015, 40 intercontinental ballistic missiles were added to the Russian nuclear arsenal. On 2 February 2019, Russia announced the suspension of the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty following the USA’s own withdrawal. The controversial delivery of the S-400 missile system to Turkey, a NATO member, began in July 2019.


Justice.
The legal system is based on continental European law. Since 5 May 1998, with the ratification of the European Convention of Human Rights, Russian citizens have had access to the European Court in Strasbourg.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force18.2%2015
Army30.1%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes1 474per 100 000 pop.2016
Homicides7.1per 100 000 pop.2016
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Moscow=Moskva12 342 600inhab.2018
Saint Petersburg5 351 900inhab.2018
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Sevastopol’440 000inhab.2018
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2018)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE

The 2010 census confirmed the decrease in population in absolute terms (2 300 000 fewer people than in 2002).

Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate12.92017
Death rate12.92017
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Russian77.7%2010
other11.8%2010


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Orthodox42.5%2012
nonreligious/atheist38%2012


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Russian
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years17.2%2018
15-29 years16.3%2018


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Economy


Economic situation.
Strong gas and petrol production, as well as enormous investments in the energy sector, guaranteed that growth exceeded expectations in 2018 (2.3%). Domestic consumption has weakened, however, and this has led experts to predict a slowdown in growth to around 2.5% in 2019-20. After many years, the government could increase public spending.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)138.78index2016
Balance of trade194 953M US$2018
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population76 190 110units2018
Active population, Females48.6%2018
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate4.8%2018
Unemployment rate, Females47.6%2018
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses14 304 861M LCU2018
Revenues19 318 700M LCU2018
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture5.8%2018
industry26.9%2018
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture4.4%2017
industry33.3%2017
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation10 312.5BN LCU2018
International reserves468 645.2M US$2018
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Agriculture


Primary sector
Agriculture.
Despite the vast farming areas, the country imports agricultural products. Huge state investments are made in the farming sector.
The main crop is wheat, followed by barley, potatoes, rye, oats, sunflower seeds and sugar beet.
Forests.
Forestry provides the basis for some of the most significant industries: sawmills (Archangel is the main centre of this), furniture production, wood pulp, cellulose, newspaper, paper.
Livestock.
Animal husbandry is sizeable yet insufficient for domestic needs. Reindeer and animals bred for their fur are found in Siberia.
Fishing.
Fishing plays an important role in meeting the demand for food and supplies the food conservation industry. The Arctic Coast is particularly heavily fished (herring and cod); in the Lower Volga, sturgeon (which caviar comes from) is widely fished.
The main fishing ports are on the Pacific, on the White Sea, on the Barents Sea and on the Caspian Sea.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land7.62%2015
forests49.76%2015
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley20 598.8071000 t2017
cereals, total131 143.6881000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes29 589.9761000 t2017
roots and tubers, total29 589.9761000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages3 530.4871000 t2017
carrots and turnips1 805.7871000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry6.1711000 t2017
broad beans, dry7.4191000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes536.8511000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
castor oil seed01000 t2015
rapeseed1 508.9731000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mustard seed98.3191000 t2017
tea0.5541000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hops0.3921000 t2017
sugar beet51 933.9131000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
flax fibre and tow38.7951000 t2017
linseed610.1181000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hemp tow waste1.5331000 t2017
hempseed1.0781000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples1 639.4211000 t2017
apricots58.5511000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hazelnuts11000 t2012
walnuts2.251000 t2012
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits0.0841000 t2017
oranges0.0841000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Others
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mushrooms16.0881000 t2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley7 847.7381000 ha2017
maize2 702.4251000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes1 889.2081000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages105.8131000 ha2017
carrots and turnips66.3091000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry3.5351000 ha2017
broad beans, dry3.8171000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape64.31000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
castor oil seed01000 ha2015
rapeseed955.9121000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mustard seed136.4241000 ha2017
tea0.471000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hops0.2571000 ha2017
sugar beet1 174.7191000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
flax fibre and tow42.2171000 ha2017
linseed579.7381000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hemp tow waste4.0891000 ha2017
hempseed3.61000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples188.2511000 ha2017
apricots10.1721000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hazelnuts0.851000 ha2012
walnuts7.81000 ha2012
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits0.0261000 ha2017
oranges0.0261000 ha2017
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber212 399 1992017
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle18 752.5311000 heads2017
cattle and buffaloes18 758.1931000 heads2017
Livestock - Buffaloes
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
buffaloes5.6621000 heads2017
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs22 027.6981000 heads2017
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep22 744.3761000 heads2017
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats2 099.3571000 heads2017
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses9.1361000 heads2017
asses and mules9.291000 heads2017
Livestock - Camelids
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
camels6.3441000 heads2017
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds547 0801000 heads2017
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey74.8681000 t2014
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter2531000 t2014
cheese6641000 t2014
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs227 612t2017
freshwater fishes294 061t2017
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Minerals


Secondary sector
Minerals.
There are many different mineral resources in Russia. The main coal deposits in the European part of Russia are found in the Pechora basin, on the eastern edge of the Donbass, in the Moscow area (lignite at Borodino), and in the Urals; in Siberia, coal deposits are exploited in the Kuznetsk Basin, in Kansk-Achinsk, Yakutia, Kamchatka and the island of Sakhalin.
The largest oilfields are those in the Western Siberia and in the Ob River basin. Other deposits can be found in the Northern Caucasus, in the Volga basin, in the Urals and on Sakhalin island; the potential of the Arctic fields is growing. In 2018, Russia entered into an agreement with OPEC to cut production and keep the price of crude oil stable.
Natural gas (of which Gazprom is a global player) is extracted in the Northern Caucasus, in the Komi Republic, in the Volga basin, in the Urals and especially in the Western Siberia. Russia is one of the leading exporters of fossil fuels to Europe, thanks to a long network of pipelines, including the Druzhba pipeline which transports crude oil to Central and Eastern Europe. In april 2019, the flow of this crucial pipeline was temporarily interrupted due to a contamination of the crude oil. The gas pipeline network, also well developed, includes the Yamal-Europe (towards Germany), Blue Stream and TurkStream (towards Turkey passing under the Black Sea and avoiding third countries) pipelines. In 2011-12 work ended on the Nord Stream, a Russian-German gas pipeline which passes for a long stretch under the Baltic Sea, avoiding Ukraine, Poland and the Baltic states. In 2018, thanks also to the political support of Germany, work started to build a second pipeline with the objective of doubling the capacity of Nord Stream.
Iron ore is mined in the Urals, in the Moscow region and in Central Siberia. Other minerals mined in the country include manganese, nickel, chromite, uranium, tin, platinum, gold, copper, bauxite, apatite, asbestos, potash, diamonds, mercury and magnesite. Many of these resources are exploited in the Urals and in the vast northern and Siberian territories.
Energy.
The main thermo-electric plants are those at Surgut, Ryazan, Stavropol, Novocherkassk and Nevinnomyssk. Important hydro-electric plants are located at Samara and Volgograd on the Volga, at Bratsk, Boguchany and Ust-Ilimsk on the Angara, at Krasnoyarsk and at Sayan, on the Yenisey. There are 36 nuclear reactors in operation, mostly outdated; a renewal policy has been launched to replace the old ones. Operational nuclear power plants are: Balakovo, Beloyarsk, Bilibino, Kalinin, Kola, Kursk, Leningrad, Novovoronezh, Rostov and Smolensk. The first floating nuclear power plant was inaugurated in the Arctic. The country is one of the most active in the construction of nuclear plants abroad.
Industry.
Iron and steel works, many of which are also obsolete, are concentrated in three areas: the central area of European Russia, in the Urals and in Siberia. Metal-working plants are widespread (aluminium, copper, lead and zinc, magnesium and nickel).
The main oil refineries, many operated by the giants Rosneft and Lukoil, are found at Achinsk, Angarsk, Khabarovsk, Yaroslavl, Kirishi, Komsomolsk, Kstovo, Kuybyshev, Moscow, Nizhny Novgorod, Novokuybyshevsk, Omsk, Orsk, Perm, Ryazan, Salavat, Syzran, Tuapse, Ufa, Ukhta and Volgograd. A liquefied natural gas terminal is active on the island of Sakhalin, with others planned in the Baltic Sea area and on the northern coasts.
The chemical industry is found at Novomoskovsk, Kirovsk, Krasnouralsk and Solikamsk. Noteworthy productions are artificial fibres, plastics, rubber, tyres and pharmaceuticals. The mechanics industry produces in particular tractors, agricultural machinery, cars and railway equipment.
The aeronautical industry has its headquarters at Moscow, Rybinsk, Nizhny Novgorod, Samara, Volgograd and Voronezh; the main shipbuilding centres are at Saint Petersburg, Archangel and Murmansk. Arms production, currently undergoing renewal, is found especially around Moscow, Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk and Saratov.
The space industry is based at the Baikonur/Bayqongyr Cosmodrome (in Kazakhstan); other missile bases are at Plesetsk and Kapustin Yar (near Volgograd). Moscow and Saint Petersburg are also important for the electronics and precision engineering industries. The digital industry sector is growing. The textiles industry is widespread throughout the country. Other important industries include cement, tobacco and food processing.

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coal328 210.11000 t2017
coal, total441 282.41000 t2018
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
antimony141000 t2018
bauxite5 5001000 t2018
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asbestos6501000 t2018
barite2201000 t2018
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
diatomite701000 t2017
kaolin7861000 t2016
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
diamonds23 0001000 ct2018
diamonds, industrial - ct19 0001000 ct2018
Mineral resources - Other minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arsenic1.51000 t2018
iodine10t2018
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal661 947.06M kWh2016
- nuclear184 054M kWh2016
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal166 0001000 kW2016
- hydro49 8001000 kW2016
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation1 031 318.06M kWh2016
total installed capacity244 8671000 kW2016
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
alumina2 8001000 t2018
aluminium3 7001000 t2018
Industry - Machinery and transport equipment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bikes1 129 000no.2016
cars1 563 572no.2018
Industry - Precision and optical instruments
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cameras100no.2015
watches and clocks2 129 000no.2016
Industry - Electrical and electronics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
air conditioners102 000no.2016
computers337 206no.2016
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen7 6331000 t2016
petrol60 100.31000 t2014
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ammonia14 0001000 t2018
artificial tow20.771000 t2016
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
carpets22 6081000 m²2016
cotton fabrics704M m²2017
Industry - Clothing and footwear
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
footwear104 000 000pairs2017
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley8 9001000 t2013
fish, frozen4 028.71000 t2016
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes335 365M units2016
cigars and cigarettes335 365M units2016
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemical pulp6 2671000 t2017
chemi-mechanical pulp8 5471000 t2017
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement55 0001000 t2018
sheet glass107 9001000 m²2017
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production23 508.8M US$2016
food, beverages and tobacco production24 426.9M US$2016
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Trade


Tertiary sector.
The export of hydrocarbons is an essential part of the country’s trading balance.


Main exports (M US$ - 2017) crude oil 93 306, petroleum products 58 544, iron and steel 22 203, coal and its products 15 725, machinery 8 541, timber 7 902, fertilizers 7 217, aluminium 6 673, chemicals 6 609, wheat 5 791, natural gas 4 721, refined copper 4 709, diamonds 4 700, electric and electronic equipment 4 322, fish and crustaceans 3 482, vehicles and parts thereof 3 435, platinum 3 279, synthetic rubber and tyres 3 138, metal ores 3 070, gold and jewels 3 069, plastics 2 814


Finance & banking.
The Federal Russian Bank acts as a central bank.
There are stock exchanges in Moscow, Saint Petersburg, Vladivostok and Novosibirsk. Tensions with the West have slowed down the growth in financial activities.

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fuels52.017% of goods exports2018
manufactures20.604% of goods exports2018
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
China56 020M US$2018
Netherlands43 450M US$2018
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
China52 218M US$2018
Germany25 511M US$2018
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
2018444 008M US$ -
2017353 548M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
2018249 055M US$ -
2017238 126M US$ -
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Tourism


Tourism. Tourism is mostly confined to the cities (Moscow, Saint Petersburg) and currently does not have the facilities to cope with the increasing in tourist numbers.

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures35 585M US$2017
Number of arrivals24 390 000units2017
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Communications


Transport.
The main transport network connecting European Russia, Siberia and the Far East is Trans-Siberian railway (9300 km between Moscow and Vladivostok), which accounts for a 20% of all rail traffic. A high-speed network links Saint Petersburg to Moscow since 2009, extended in 2010 as far as Nizhny Novgorod. Saint Petersburg is connected to Helsinki by a medium-speed line. The network of canals is also important for the movement of goods around the country, using the River Volga and the “five seas” which links the Baltic, the White Sea, the Caspian Sea, the Sea of Azov and the Black Sea.
The road network is underdeveloped, however, a plan has been launched to build 900 000 km of roads by 2025. In 2018, a new bridge linking Russia and the Crimean peninsula was completed. Air transport is the main means of transport in Siberia and for long distance travel.


Media and telecommunication.
The telecommunications sector is developing rapidly, although some of the necessary infrastructures are lacking.

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown694 400 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried89 373.61000 units2017
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers214.409per 1000 pop.2017
Computers133.3per 1000 pop.2008
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Social and welfare


Education, culture & research.
Education is compulsory between the ages of 7 and 17 years, including three years of primary school and two periods spent at secondary school (lasting five and two years respectively).


Social security and health.
The social welfare fund (financed by businesses and by workers) provides cover for sickness and maternity pay, whereas old-age pensions and disabilities are covered by the pensions fund; the federal fund for workers covers unemployment benefit. On 3 October 2018, an unpopular reform was approved, which gradually raises the retirement age. Basic healthcare is provided for all citizens.

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling15.5years2016
Gradautes, percentage53.1%2017
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level300 639units2016
Teachers, secondary level1 045 810units2012
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending32.7% of total expenses2016
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds8per 1000 pop.2017
Physicians4.7per 1000 pop.2017
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV1.2% of adults2017
HIV, total0.5%2001
Museums
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Museums2 742units2017
Museums, visitors117 400 000units2017
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending1.1% of GDP2017
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking98.25%2016
Access to electricity100%2017
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear9.2%2016
education0.8%2016
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