Form of Government: Republic
Area: 26 338 sq km
Population: 12 663 117 inhab. (estimate 2020)
Density: 480.79 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 1° - 3° S; long. 29° - 31° E
Capital: Kigali (capital) 1 132 686 inhab. (2012);
Currency: Rwandese franc (100 centimes)
Human development index: 0.543 (rank: 160)
President: Paul Kagame (FPR), since 23 March 2000, last re-elected 4 August 2017
Prime Minister: Édouard Ngirente (independent), since 30 August 2018
House of Representatives: seats based on the elections of 3 September 2018: coalition led by the FPR (Rwandan Patriotic Front, including minor parties), 40; PSD (Social Democratic Party), 5; PL (Liberal Party), 4; others, 4
Internet: www.statistics.gov.rw (National Institute of Statistics)
Member of AU, COMESA, Commonwealth, EAC, UN, WTO

Rwanda

Rwanda, République du Rwanda, Republic of Rwanda, Republika y’u Rwanda
Useful information

International license plate code RWA
International dialling code 00250
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (required); malaria prophylaxis (recommended)
Electricity (Voltage) 230
Driving side rigth
Internet code .rw

GMT  +2
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Kigali 16.9
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Kigali 18/16
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Kigali 6/4
Annual average precipitation (mm) Kigali 977
Days of rainfall (annual average) Kigali 101

Geography.
Rwanda is bordered to the north by Uganda, to the east by Tanzania, to the south by Burundi and to the west by the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
The country lies on a plateau that slopes down towards Lake Victoria. To the west, the plateau is hemmed in by a mountain chain; to the east, there are imposing volcanic formations (Mount Karisimbi, 4507 m). The most important river is the River Kagera. The climate is equatorial although milder on account of the altitude.

Government


Previously a German protectorate known as Ruanda-Urundi, it was granted as a trust territory to Belgium in 1920 and became fully independent on 1 July 1962. In 1973, a coup d’état brought to power General Juvénal Habyarimana, a Hutu from the north who established an authoritarian one-party regime. In October 1990, armed groups of Tutsi refugees from the Rwandan Patriotic Front (FPR) started a civil war between the Tutsi minority and Hutu government forces. In 1993, the government and the FPR signed a peace treaty, but in April 1994, following the assassination of President Habyarimana, the situation hurled headlong into a terrible bloodbath (with 800 000 dead and two million refugees). Victors in the civil war (which ended in 1994), the FPR along with moderate Hutu parties set up a provisional government. Elected President in 2000 by the Transitional Assembly, the FPR leader, Paul Kagame was reconfirmed in the subsequent elections. However, the process of ethnic reconciliation has encountered new obstacles on account of the political domination of the Tutsi minority. The country is also involved in wars taking place in the neighbouring Democratic Republic of the Congo. Based on the Constitution approved by a referendum on 26 May 2003, the President of the Republic, also head of the executive, is elected by direct voting for a term of seven years, but a constitutional amendment that was approved via referendum (18 December 2015) reduced the presidential term to 5 years after 2024. The Chamber of Deputies is made up of 80 members (53 directly elected, 24 women elected by the local councils and 3 members appointed by youth and disabled organisations) for a term of five years; the Senate (26 members, 12 of whom elected) is elected for a term of eight years.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force3$%2015
Army97$%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Homicides2.5per 100 000 pop.2015
Police personnel4.8per 100 000 pop.2013
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Kigali1 132 686inhab.2012
Gisenyi126 706inhab.2012
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2020)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate31.2492019
Death rate5.1232019
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hutu85$%2002
Tutsi14$%2002


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Catholic43.7%2012
Protestant37.7%2012


Languages
DESCRIPTION
English (official)
French (official)
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years39.9%2020
15-29 years27.8%2020


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Economy


Before the crisis due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the economy, driven by the development of services, had maintained good growth levels. It remains dependent on international aid and sensitive to oil and food prices trends, the country’s main imports. Agriculture occupies most of the active population. Although under development, commercial crops (coffee and tea) are far from widespread; subsistence crops (bananas, cassava and potatoes) are not sufficient enough to meet the demand for food. Mineral resources (methane in Lake Kivu, gold, cassiterite, wolframite, columbite-tantalite, beryllium) are often exploited on a small scale due to inadequate infrastructure. Industrial activity includes a tin foundry in Kigali, small factories processing agricultural products as well as cement factories and tobacco manufacturing. In 2011, the Kigali Special Economic Zone was created. The telecommunications sector is under fast development. The country exports gold, coffee, tea, tin.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)140.11index2016
Agricultural prod. index (2014-16=100)123.33index2019
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population6 296 285units2020
Active population, Females51.7%2020
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate15.3%2019
Unemployment rate, Females50.7%2018
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses1 606 253.2M LCU2019
Revenues2 004 371.5M LCU2019
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture62.4%2019
industry8.9%2019
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture25.724%2019
industry20.645%2019
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation286.875BN LCU2020
International reserves1 806.068M US$2020
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Agriculture

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land56.818%2018
forests11.107%2018
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cereals, total733.3021000 t2019
maize421.2181000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava1 181.8251000 t2019
potatoes973.4081000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages58.481000 t2019
carrots and turnips31.7041000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry484.2511000 t2019
beans, green8.7431000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts19.5611000 t2019
rapeseed30$1000 t2014
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coffee29.3661000 t2019
pepper2.8411000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane114.611000 t2019
tobacco5.441000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton0$1000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fruits, total2 845.1941000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits11.4371000 t2019
lemons7.5811000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados6.6011000 t2019
bananas1 850.6331000 t2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
maize288.2981000 ha2019
millet16.2331000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava195.1351000 ha2019
potatoes107.591000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages3.5261000 ha2019
carrots and turnips2.2761000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry582.671000 ha2019
beans, green1.0111000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts43.921000 ha2019
rapeseed40$1000 ha2014
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coffee21.7931000 ha2019
pepper0.7571000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane7.7971000 ha2019
tobacco4.8661000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton0$1000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits3.3651000 ha2019
lemons1.4211000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados0.221000 ha2019
bananas253.9961000 ha2019
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber6 211 9272019
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle1 330.1921000 heads2019
cattle and buffaloes1 330.1921000 heads2019
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs1 228.4651000 heads2019
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep587.9491000 heads2019
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats2 685.0381000 heads2019
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds5 6031000 heads2019
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey5.0461000 t2019
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter2.0451000 t2018
eggs7.81000 t2019
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
freshwater fishes24 760.2t2019
total catch24 760.2t2019
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Minerals

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
natural gas69$M m³2018
peat1001000 t2018
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beryllium0.0011000 t2020
tantalite0.271000 t2020
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
limestone5601000 t2018
pozzolan1651000 t2019
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
amethyst8 986kg2016
gold300kg2018
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal338M kWh2018
- hydro330.68M kWh2018
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro1001000 kW2017
- thermal81$1000 kW2018
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation725.01M kWh2018
total installed capacity1201000 kW2018
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
steel, crude23$1000 t2018
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley2001000 t2018
groundnut oil1.8521000 t2018
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes0.14M units2012
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement4001000 t2018
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production4$M US$2002
food, beverages and tobacco production135M US$2004
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Trade

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
food products34.706% of goods exports2019
ores and metals14.803% of goods exports2019
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20201 400M US$ -
20191 166M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20203 410M US$ -
20192 704M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures382.8M US$2019
Number of arrivals1 634 000units2019
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, passengers carried1 561.61000 units2019
Motor vehicles102 287units2018
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers0.704per 1000 pop.2019
Computers3$per 1000 pop.2008
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling11.231years2019
Graduates20 405units2018
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Students, primary level2 512 465units2019
Students, secondary level732 104units2019
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds1.7per 1000 pop.2017
Physicians0.13per 1000 pop.2018
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV2.6% of adults2019
HIV, total6.3%2001
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.647% of GDP2016
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking1.5%2019
Access to electricity37.782%2019
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