Form of Government: Republic
Area: 26 338 sq km
Population: 12 089 721 inhab. (estimate 2018)
Density: 459.02 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 1° - 3° S; long. 29° - 31° E
Capital: Kigali (capital) 1 132 686 inhab. (2012);
Currency: Rwandese franc (100 centimes)
Human development index: 0.524 (rank: 158)
President: Paul Kagame (FPR), since 23 March 2000, last re-elected 4 August 2017
Prime Minister: Édouard Ngirente (independent), since 30 August 2018
House of Representatives: seats based on the elections of 3 September 2018: coalition led by the FPR (Rwandan Patriotic Front, including minor parties), 40; PSD (Social Democratic Party), 5; PL (Liberal Party), 4; others, 4
Internet: www.statistics.gov.rw (National Institute of Statistics)
Member of AU, COMESA, Commonwealth, EAC, UN, WTO

Rwanda

Rwanda, République du Rwanda, Republic of Rwanda, Republika y’u Rwanda
Useful information

International license plate code RWA
International dialling code 00250
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (required); malaria prophylaxis (recommended)
Electricity (Voltage) 230
Driving side rigth
Internet code .rw

GMT  +2
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Kigali 16.9
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Kigali 18/16
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Kigali 6/4
Annual average precipitation (mm) Kigali 977
Days of rainfall (annual average) Kigali 101

Geography.
Rwanda is bordered to the north by Uganda, to the east by Tanzania, to the south by Burundi and to the west by the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
The country lies on a plateau that slopes down towards Lake Victoria. To the west, the plateau is hemmed in by a mountain chain; to the east, there are imposing volcanic formations (Mount Karisimbi, 4507 m). The most important river is the River Kagera. The climate is equatorial although milder on account of the altitude.

Government


Previously a German protectorate known as Ruanda-Urundi, it was granted as a trust territory to Belgium in 1920 and became fully independent on 1 July 1962. In 1973, a coup d’état brought to power General Juvénal Habyarimana, a Hutu from the north who established an authoritarian one-party regime. In October 1990, armed groups of Tutsi refugees from the Rwandan Patriotic Front (FPR) started a civil war between the Tutsi minority and Hutu government forces. In 1993, the government and the FPR signed a peace treaty, but in April 1994, following the assassination of President Habyarimana, the situation hurled headlong into a terrible bloodbath (with 800 000 dead and two million refugees). Victors in the civil war (which ended in 1994), the FPR along with moderate Hutu parties set up a provisional government. Elected President in 2000 by the Transitional Assembly, the FPR leader, Paul Kagame was reconfirmed in the subsequent elections. However, the process of ethnic reconciliation has encountered new obstacles on account of the political domination of the Tutsi minority. The country is also involved in wars taking place in the neighbouring Democratic Republic of the Congo. Based on the Constitution approved by a referendum on 26 May 2003, the President of the Republic, also head of the executive, is elected by direct voting for a term of seven years, but a constitutional amendment that was approved via referendum (18 December 2015) reduced the presidential term to 5 years after 2024. The Chamber of Deputies is made up of 80 members (53 directly elected, 24 women elected by the local councils and 3 members appointed by youth and disabled organisations) for a term of five years; the Senate (26 members, 12 of whom elected) is elected for a term of eight years.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force3%2015
Army97%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Homicides2.5per 100 000 pop.2015
Police personnel4.8per 100 000 pop.2013
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Kigali1 132 686inhab.2012
Gisenyi126 706inhab.2012
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2018)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate30.42017
Death rate5.82017
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hutu85%2002
Tutsi14%2002


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Catholic43.7%2012
Protestant37.7%2012


Languages
DESCRIPTION
English (official)
French (official)
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years41%2018
15-29 years27.9%2018


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Economy


Driven by the development of services, the country’s economy maintains good growth levels, but remains dependent on international aid and sensitive to oil and food prices trends, the main imports.
Agriculture occupies most of the active population. Although under development, commercial crops (coffee and tea) are far from widespread; subsistence crops (bananas, cassava and potatoes) are not sufficient enough to meet the demand for food. Mineral resources (methane in Lake Kivu, gold, cassiterite, wolframite, columbite-tantalite) are often exploited on a small scale due to inadequate infrastructure. Industrial activity includes small factories processing agricultural products as well as cement factories and tobacco manufacturing. In 2011, the Kigali Special Economic Zone was created. The telecommunications sector is under fast development. The country exports coffee, tungsten, tea and leather. Since 2007, Rwanda has been part of the East African Community (EAC).

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)140.11index2016
Balance of trade-1 479.9M US$2018
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population6 314 637units2018
Active population, Females51.8%2018
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate17.4%2017
Unemployment rate, Females53.3%2017
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses2 093 300M LCU2017
Revenues1 736 900M LCU2017
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture66.6%2018
industry8.8%2018
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture33.3%2017
industry16.9%2017
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation221.6BN LCU2018
International reserves909.2M US$2018
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Agriculture

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land56.81%2015
forests19.46%2015
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cereals, total634.9011000 t2017
maize358.4171000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava1 041.9861000 t2017
potatoes846.1841000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages94.9241000 t2017
carrots and turnips13.7151000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry455.8221000 t2017
beans, green9.4451000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts20.7031000 t2017
rapeseed301000 t2014
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coffee17.8241000 t2017
pepper2.6421000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane107.8771000 t2017
tobacco5.1781000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton01000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fruits, total2 188.8541000 t2014
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits7.81000 t2017
lemons51000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados6.9121000 t2017
bananas1 729.151000 t2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
maize297.4471000 ha2017
millet11.8321000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava1201000 ha2017
potatoes93.9911000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages7.4361000 ha2017
carrots and turnips2.3551000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry549.4411000 ha2017
beans, green1.1011000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts45.5121000 ha2017
rapeseed401000 ha2014
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coffee39.3091000 ha2017
pepper0.7451000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane6.9061000 ha2017
tobacco4.1521000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton01000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits31000 ha2017
lemons1.51000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados0.951000 ha2017
bananas464.8621000 ha2017
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber6 211 9272017
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle1 221.4891000 heads2017
cattle and buffaloes1 221.4891000 heads2017
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs1 7501000 heads2017
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep635.6961000 heads2017
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats2 7501000 heads2017
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds5 4621000 heads2017
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey0.051000 t2013
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter1.3731000 t2014
eggs7.51000 t2017
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
freshwater fishes28 357t2017
total catch28 357t2017
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Minerals

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
natural gas4M m³2014
peat1001000 t2017
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beryllium0.0011000 t2018
columbite0.211000 t2015
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
limestone187.71000 t2015
pozzolan48.91000 t2015
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
amethyst27 019kg2015
gold300kg2016
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro325M kWh2016
- thermal200M kWh2016
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro1001000 kW2016
- thermal811000 kW2016
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation525M kWh2016
total installed capacity1911000 kW2016
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
steel, crude151000 t2015
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley1201000 t2014
groundnut oil1.41000 t2014
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes0.14M units2012
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement4001000 t2016
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production4M US$2002
food, beverages and tobacco production135M US$2004
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Trade

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
food products56.201% of goods exports2016
ores and metals27.929% of goods exports2016
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20181 108M US$ -
20171 050M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20182 588M US$ -
20172 366M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures347M US$2017
Number of arrivals932 000units2016
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, passengers carried739.71000 units2017
Motor vehicles95 536units2017
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers1.784per 1000 pop.2017
Computers3per 1000 pop.2008
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling11.2years2017
Graduates21 576units2017
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level43 906units2017
Teachers, secondary level30 415units2017
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds1.7per 1000 pop.2017
Physicians0.06per 1000 pop.2015
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV2.7% of adults2017
HIV, total6.3%2001
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking0.57%2016
Access to electricity34.1%2017
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