Form of Government: Republic
Area: 238 397 sq km
Population: 19 328 838 inhab. (estimate 2020)
Density: 81.08 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 48° - 44° N; long. 20° - 30° E
Capital: Bucharest=București (capital) 1 835 258 inhab. (2020);
Currency: Romanian leu, plural lei (100 bani)
Human development index: 0.828 (rank: 49)
President: Klaus Johannis (PNL), since 21 December 2014, re-elected 24 November 2019
Prime Minister: Florin Cîțu (PNL), since 22 December 2020
Chamber of Deputies: seats based on the elections of 6 December 2020: PSD (Social Democratic Party), 110; PNL (National Liberal Party), 93; USR PLUS (Save Romania Union-Freedom, Unity and Solidarity Party, liberal), 55; Alliance for the Union of Romanians (populist, right), 33; RMDSZ (Democratic Alliance of Hungarians in Romania, Magyar ethnic minority), 21; ethnic minorities, 18
Internet: www.insse.ro (National Institute of Statistics)
Member of Council of Europe, EBRD, EU, NATO, OAS observer, OSCE, UN, WTO

Romania

România
Useful information

International license plate code RO
International dialling code 0040
Travel vaccinations requirement none
Electricity (Voltage) 230
Driving side rigth
Internet code .ro

GMT  +2
DST  +3
DST duration (start-end) late March-late October

Annual average temperature (°C) Bucharest 10.9
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Bucharest -3/23
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Bucharest 9/2
Annual average precipitation (mm) Bucharest 590
Days of rainfall (annual average) Bucharest 77

Politics and current affairs

The elections held on 6 December 2020 were won by the PSD (Social Democratic Party, 29.32%), but they were unable to win the number of seats required to form a government. A coalition government was formed between the liberal PNL and USR PLUS parties with the support of the Hungarian ethnic minority party, RMDSZ. The agreement between the liberals resulted in the appointment (22 December 2020) of Florin Cîțu (PNL) as the new prime minister. The vaccination campaign did not bring the results that had been hoped for due to widespread scepticism. In summer 2021, Romania was the penultimate EU country (Bulgaria was last) for the number of first doses to be administered; on 1 August, only approximately 25% of the population had received a first dose. On 10 December 2020, Bucharest was chosen to host the EU’s future Cybersecurity Competence Centre.

Geography.
Romania is bordered to the north and east by Ukraine, to the east by Moldova, to the south by Bulgaria, and to the west by Serbia and Hungary, and to the south-east by the Black Sea.
Two mountain chains, the Eastern Carpathians and Transylvanian Alps, enclose a vast, fertile alluvial basin. The arid, steppe-like Walachia region extends southwards.
The most important river is the Danube.
The climate is continental with wide temperature swings, though less so near coast.

Government


An independent kingdom since 1881 following the union of Moldavia and Walachia, and a People’s Republic since 1948, Romania became a Communist dictatorship under Nicolae Ceauşescu in 1965, but was liberated by the revolt of 21-25 December 1989, followed by the adoption of a democratic system. Romania has been a member of NATO since 2004 and joined the EU in 2007.
The Constitution of 1991, revised in 2003, stipulates that the President of the Republic, who has wide-ranging governmental powers, is elected by direct vote with a mandate of five years. Since 2016, a new electoral law ensuring proportional representation has been in effect. Parliament is comprised of the Chamber of Deputies (raised to 330 members in 2016) and the Senate (raised to 136 members) and is elected for a term of 4 years.


Defence.
Military service is voluntary.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force16.6%2019
Army55.5%2019
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes1 444.4per 100 000 pop.2012
Homicides1.4per 100 000 pop.2018
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Bucharest=București1 835 258inhab.2020
Cluj-Napoca324 576inhab.2011
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2020)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate9.62019
Death rate13.42019
Foreigners
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Foreigners, total139 775units2020
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Romanian83.5%2011
other6.3%2011


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Orthodox81$%2011
other7.7%2011


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Romanian
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years14.1%2020
15-29 years16.1%2020


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Economy


Economic situation.
The measures introduced to restrict the health emergency have had a negative impact on the economy, which dropped by 3.9% in 2020. GDP is expected to grow sharply in 2021 (+6%). To introduce emergency measures, the government brought the deficit/GDP ratio to 9.8% in 2020. The EU has informed the country to reduce the deficit to 2.9% by 2024.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)94.54index2016
Agricultural prod. index (2014-16=100)112.63index2019
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population8 972 800units2020
Active population, Females42.4%2020
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate5$%2020
Unemployment rate, Females39.6%2020
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses317 541.7M LCU2020
Revenues221 046.9M LCU2020
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture20.506%2020
industry29.729%2020
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture4.211%2020
industry28.943%2020
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation100.394BN LCU2020
International reserves52 190.563M US$2020
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Agriculture


Primary sector.
Agriculture is still relevant. Cereals, principally wheat and maize, account for most of the country’s cultivated land. Other food crops include potatoes, vegetables and fruit (ţuică, the national liqueur, is distilled from plums).
Oil production (sunflower and soya) is significant, and vine-growing is widely practised, especially in Moldavia and Oltenia regions. Flax, hemp, sugar beet (Moldavia and Transylvania), tobacco (Walachia) and hops are also important. Sheep farming, which yields significant amounts of wool, is the most important livestock activity, followed by pigs and cattle.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land39.664%2018
forests30.116%2018
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley1 879.951000 t2019
cereals, total30 411.971000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes2 626.791000 t2019
roots and tubers, total2 626.791000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
artichokes0.7321000 t2018
asparagus0.271000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry17.2981000 t2018
beans, green26.691000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes973.991000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
castor oil seed0.0161000 t2016
rapeseed798.221000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mustard seed2.751000 t2018
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hops0.221000 t2019
sugar beet917.161000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton0.0041000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
flax fibre and tow0.121000 t2018
linseed6.21000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hemp tow waste3.161000 t2019
hempseed0.0841000 t2018
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples492.71000 t2019
apricots29.421000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hazelnuts0.231000 t2019
walnuts49.581000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Others
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mushrooms13.871000 t2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley448.891000 ha2019
maize2 681.931000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes174.121000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
artichokes0.0561000 ha2018
cabbages28.791000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry12.2311000 ha2018
beans, green5.381000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape176.341000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
castor oil seed0.0181000 ha2016
rapeseed352.621000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mustard seed2.5631000 ha2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hops0.251000 ha2019
sugar beet22.731000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton0.0051000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
flax fibre and tow0.091000 ha2018
linseed3.081000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hemp tow waste1.431000 ha2019
hempseed0.7991000 ha2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples52.741000 ha2019
apricots2.041000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hazelnuts0.891000 ha2019
walnuts1.621000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Others
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mushrooms0.081000 ha2019
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber15 827 2462019
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle1 923.31000 heads2019
cattle and buffaloes1 942.31000 heads2019
Livestock - Buffaloes
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
buffaloes19$1000 heads2019
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs3 834.11000 heads2019
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep10 358.71000 heads2019
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats1 598.81000 heads2019
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses30.4141000 heads2018
asses and mules30.4141000 heads2018
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds73 9931000 heads2019
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey25.2691000 t2019
Livestock - Silk farming
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
silk, raw2.11000 t2018
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter11.8191000 t2018
cheese115.1021000 t2018
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs6 973.234t2019
freshwater fishes13 278.652t2019
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Minerals


Secondary sector
Minerals.
Romania has significant oil, natural gas and lignite reserves, thus making the country almost self-sufficient. The main fields around Ploieşti, Boldeşti and Piteşti, as well as in Oltenia (Ticleni and Bîlteni) and Moldavia (Moineşti), are connected by pipelines to the terminals at Giurgiu (on the Danube), Constanța (on the Black Sea) and Galați-Reni.
Natural gas is extracted from abundant reserves in Transylvania.
The Arad-Szeged gas pipeline to Hungary is operational, while work has slowed down on the BRUA interconnector to Austria.
The extraction of natural gas from the Black Sea offshore fields in the Constanța area should begin from the end of 2021. The country is already the second largest producer in the EU.
In other respects, the mineral industry is going through a serious crisis.
There are lignite mines in the southern Transylvanian Alps and close to the border with Hungary, as well as less important coalfields in Petroşani and Banat region, iron ore deposits in the Poiana Ruscă Mountains, Căpuşu Mic, Banat and Lueta, and moderate bauxite deposits in the Pădurea Craiului mountains. Silver, zinc, lead, copper and manganese are also mined. There are major rock-salt deposits, as well as minor gold and uranium deposits.
Energy and industry.
Most electricity comes from thermal power stations but there is a hydroelectric power station in the Iron Gates gorge on the Danube and a nuclear power station at Cernavodă (two nuclear reactors) which produces about 18% of electricity.
Romanian industry is diversified to a certain extent: numerous SMEs have appeared, financed by mixed capital (especially from Italy), in manufacturing areas as diverse as clothing, foodstuffs and metalworking. Many companies, in the past public ones, were privatized in an attempt to improve their management and attract capital. Many of the larger firms are still state-owned (energy sector).
The largest oil refineries are in Midia-Năvodari, Piteşti and Ploieşti. There are chemical works of some importance, which produce soda ash and fertilizers, and pharmaceutical plants. Artificial fibres are also produced, while numerous production centres remain for the iron and steel industry, though inefficient and obsolete, as well as the metallurgy (aluminium, lead, zinc and copper) and mechanics industries.
There are mechanical engineering works in Reşiţa, Braşov, Craiova (Ford), Bucharest, Ploieşti, Târgovişte, Arad, Brăila and Timişoara. The automobile industry centres on Braşov, Pitesti, Craiova and Timişoara, and the main shipyards are in Constanţa, Mangalia, Galaţi and Olteniţa. There is a textile industry of some importance. Other industries include paper, wood, cement porcelain, tyres and sugar.

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coal, total15 002.41000 t2020
lignite15 002.41000 t2020
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
copper8.71000 t2018
manganese2$1000 t2019
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bentonite42$1000 t2019
feldspar23$1000 t2018
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
kaolin30$1000 t2016
sand and gravel - t16 0301000 t2018
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gold500kg2011
silver18 000kg2011
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal22 607M kWh2019
- hydro15 652.89M kWh2019
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal11 0221000 kW2018
- hydro6 3281000 kW2019
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation57 515.89M kWh2019
total installed capacity23 571.271000 kW2018
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
alumina4611000 t2019
aluminium2801000 t2019
Industry - Machinery and transport equipment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bikes563 380no.2016
cars438 107no.2020
Industry - Electrical and electronics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
computers12 694no.2016
fridges1 259 009no.2014
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen1021000 t2018
petrol3 885.81000 t2014
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ammonia6601000 t2019
caustic soda2151000 t2016
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
carpets5211000 m²2007
cotton fabrics31.97M m²2016
Industry - Clothing and footwear
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
footwear43 035 288pairs2016
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley1 823.1581000 t2018
fish, frozen5.531000 t2016
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes76 743.2M units2016
cigars and cigarettes76 743.2M units2016
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mechanical pulp25$1000 t2018
other paper561.0141000 t2019
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement8 9511000 t2018
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production2 110.329M US$2018
food, beverages and tobacco production5 292.228M US$2018
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Trade


Tertiary sector
Foreign trade.
Romania has negative trade balance. It imports machinery, textiles and fuels. Germany and Italy are its main trading partners.


Main exports (M US$ - 2017) 
electric and electronic equipment 12 337, vehicles and parts thereof 8 100, machinery 7 747, iron and steel 3 871, cars 3 378, apparel and accessories 2 935, furniture and accessories 2 712, tyres and rubber articles 2 445, technical and electro-medical appliances 2 416, petroleum products 2 169, timber 1 857, plastics 1 593, footwear 1 524, oil seeds 1 465, aluminium 1 147, wheat and maize 1 129, cereals 1 118


Finance and banking.
The central bank is the National Bank of Romania (Banca Națională a României), and there is a stock exchange in Bucharest.

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufactures81.721% of goods exports2019
food products10.342% of goods exports2019
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Germany16 193M US$2020
Italy7 629M US$2020
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Germany19 172M US$2020
Italy8 216M US$2020
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
202070 720M US$ -
201976 867M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
202092 122M US$ -
201996 544M US$ -
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Tourism


Tourism. The most important attractions are the Carpathian Mountains, the Danube delta and the Black Sea resorts.

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures7 098M US$2019
Number of arrivals12 815 000units2019
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown28 000 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried5 630.31000 units2019
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers272.544per 1000 pop.2019
Computers192.3per 1000 pop.2008
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Social and welfare


Education.
Education is free and mandatory from 6 to 16 years. Mother-tongue teaching is guaranteed for Hungarian and German minorities.

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling14.275years2018
Graduates124 800units2018
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Students, primary level947 931units2018
Students, secondary level1 457 948units2018
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending32.734% of total expenses2019
Social protection spending15$% of GDP2018
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds6.8per 1000 pop.2019
Physicians3$per 1000 pop.2019
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV0.1% of adults2019
HIV, total0.03%2001
Museums
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Museums787units2018
Museums, visitors18 198 000units2019
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.48% of GDP2019
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking100%2019
Access to electricity100%2019
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear6.9%2020
education1.2%2020
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