Form of Government: Republic
Area: 238 397 sq km
Population: 19 530 631 inhab. (estimate 2018)
Density: 81.93 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 48° - 44° N; long. 20° - 30° E
Capital: Bucharest=București (capital) 1 827 810 inhab. (2018);
Currency: Romanian leu, plural lei (100 bani)
Human development index: 0.811 (rank: 52)
President: Klaus Johannis (PNL), since 21 December 2014
Prime Minister: Viorica Dăncilă (PSD), since 29 January 2018
Chamber of Deputies: seats (June 2019 update): PSD (Social Democratic Party), 139; PNL (National Liberal Party), 69; USR (Save Romania Union, populist), 27; Pro Romania (social-liberal), 23; UDMR (Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania), 21; ALDE (Alliance of Liberals and Democrats), 19; PMP (People’s Movement Party), 12; ethnic minorities, 17; others, 2
Internet: www.insse.ro (National Institute of Statistics)
Member of Council of Europe, EBRD, EU, NATO, OAS observer, OSCE, UN, WTO
International license plate code RO
International dialling code 0040
Travel vaccinations requirement none
Electricity (Voltage) 230
Driving side rigth
Internet code .ro
DST duration (start-end) late March-late October
Annual average temperature (°C) Bucharest 10.9
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Bucharest -3/23
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Bucharest 9/2
Annual average precipitation (mm) Bucharest 590
Days of rainfall (annual average) Bucharest 77
Politics and current affairs
The government majority, dominated by the PSD, is tackling internal protests and strong criticism from the EU regarding the fight against corruption, the prevailing issue in the country at a time when Romania was serving as president of the Council of the European Union (January-June 2019). The criticisms concern the legislation aimed at shielding the leader of the PSD, Liviu Dragnea, from questions regarding his position and damaging the judiciary’s independence. During the European elections on 26 May 2019, the electorate severely punished the PSD, whose support was halved to 22.6%. The same day, in a referendum announced by President Johannis, the PSD’s adversary, some of the most controversial laws introduced by the majority were defeated with 85% of the votes. On 27 May, the Supreme Court finally approved Dragnea’s arrest concerning a previous conviction.
Romania is bordered to the north and east by Ukraine, to the east by Moldova, to the south by Bulgaria, and to the west by Serbia and Hungary, and to the south-east by the Black Sea. Two mountain chains, the Eastern Carpathians and Transylvanian Alps, enclose a vast, fertile alluvial basin. The arid, steppe-like Walachia region extends southwards. The most important river is the Danube. The climate is continental with wide temperature swings, though less so near coast.
An independent kingdom since 1881 following the union of Moldavia and Walachia, and a People’s Republic since 1948, Romania became a Communist dictatorship under Nicolae Ceauşescu in 1965, but was liberated by the revolt of 21-25 December 1989, followed by the adoption of a democratic system. Romania has been a member of NATO since 2004 and joined the EU in 2007.
The Constitution of 1991, revised in 2003, stipulates that the President of the Republic, who has wide-ranging governmental powers, is elected by direct vote with a mandate of five years. Since 2016, a new electoral law ensuring proportional representation has been in effect. Parliament is comprised of the Chamber of Deputies (raised to 329 members in 2016) and the Senate (raised to 136 members) and is elected for a term of 4 years.
Military service is voluntary.
|Bucharest=București||1 827 810||inhab.||2018|
|Population by age and gender (% - 2018)|
|Foreigners, total||111 411||units||2018|
In 2018, the economy slowed considerably compared to the previous year: growth fell by almost 3 points, to 4.1%, and should drop further to around 3% in 2019-20. Domestic consumption continues to be strong thanks to an increase in salaries, while the use of EU funds should improve. Unemployment is around 4.2%.
|Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)||94.54||index||2016|
|Balance of trade||-18 106.3||M US$||2018|
|Active population||9 068 200||units||2018|
|Active population, Females||42.8||%||2018|
|Unemployment rate, Females||35.5||%||2018|
|Expenses||225 737||M LCU||2018|
|Revenues||195 017.2||M LCU||2018|
|Currency in circulation||79.728||BN LCU||2018|
|International reserves||42 129.1||M US$||2018|
Agriculture employs 22.3% of the workforce. Cereals, principally wheat and maize, account for most of the country’s cultivated land. Other food crops include potatoes, vegetables and fruit (ţuică, the national liqueur, is distilled from plums). Oil production (sunflower and soya) is significant, and vine-growing is widely practised, especially in Moldavia and Oltenia regions. Flax, hemp, sugar beet (Moldavia and Transylvania), tobacco (Walachia) and hops are also important. Sheep farming, which yields significant amounts of wool, is the most important livestock activity, followed by pigs and cattle.
|barley||1 906.7||1000 t||2017|
|cereals, total||27 139.079||1000 t||2017|
|potatoes||3 116.91||1000 t||2017|
|roots and tubers, total||3 116.91||1000 t||2017|
|cabbages||1 066.787||1000 t||2017|
|beans, dry||16.13||1000 t||2017|
|beans, green||55.621||1000 t||2017|
|grapes||1 063.34||1000 t||2017|
|castor oil seed||0.016||1000 t||2016|
|rapeseed||1 673.33||1000 t||2017|
|mustard seed||5.489||1000 t||2017|
|sugar beet||1 174.5||1000 t||2017|
|seed cotton||0.004||1000 t||2016|
|flax fibre and tow||0.171||1000 t||2017|
|hemp tow waste||3.453||1000 t||2017|
|maize||2 405.24||1000 ha||2017|
|beans, dry||12.08||1000 ha||2017|
|beans, green||9.982||1000 ha||2017|
|castor oil seed||0.018||1000 ha||2016|
|mustard seed||5.453||1000 ha||2017|
|sugar beet||28.2||1000 ha||2017|
|seed cotton||0.005||1000 ha||2016|
|flax fibre and tow||0.077||1000 ha||2017|
|hemp tow waste||2.357||1000 ha||2017|
|timber||15 500 478||m³||2017|
|cattle||2 049.7||1000 heads||2017|
|cattle and buffaloes||2 049.7||1000 heads||2017|
|pigs||4 707.7||1000 heads||2017|
|sheep||9 875.5||1000 heads||2017|
|goats||1 483.1||1000 heads||2017|
|asses and mules||30.344||1000 heads||2017|
|birds||89 205||1000 heads||2017|
|silk, raw||2.1||1000 t||2014|
|crustaceans and molluscs||9 387.07||t||2017|
|freshwater fishes||15 428.3||t||2017|
Romania has significant oil, natural gas and lignite reserves, thus making the country almost self-sufficient. The main fields around Ploieşti, Boldeşti and Piteşti, as well as in Oltenia (Ticleni and Bîlteni) and Moldavia (Moineşti), are connected by pipelines to the terminals at Giurgiu (on the Danube), Costanta (on the Black Sea) and Galați-Reni.
Natural gas comes from abundant reserves in Transylvania and is channelled through the pipeline to Hungary. Numerous offshore projects were launched to extract natural gas in the Black Sea, but these were impeded by regulatory uncertainties on taxation and the price of gas. Work on the BRUA gas pipeline towards Hungary and Austria should conclude in 2019.
In other respects, the mineral industry is going through a serious crisis. There are lignite mines in the southern Transylvanian Alps and close to the border with Hungary, as well as less important coalfields in Petroşani and Banat region, iron ore deposits in the Poiana Ruscă Mountains, Căpuşu Mic, Banat and Lueta, and moderate bauxite deposits in the Pădurea Craiului mountains. Silver, zinc, lead, copper and manganese are also mined. There are major rock-salt deposits, as well as minor gold and uranium deposits.
Energy and industry.
Most electricity comes from thermal power stations but there is a hydroelectric power station in the Iron Gates gorge on the Danube and a nuclear power station at Cernavodă (two nuclear reactors) which produces 17% of electricity.
Romanian industry is diversified to a certain extent: numerous SMEs have appeared, financed by mixed capital (especially from Italy), in manufacturing areas as diverse as clothing, foodstuffs and metalworking. Many companies, in the past public ones, were privatized in an attempt to improve their management and attract capital. Many of the larger firms are still state-owned.
The largest oil refineries are in Câmpina, Midia-Năvodari, Oneşti, Piteşti and Ploieşti. There are chemical works of some importance, which produce soda ash and fertilizers, and pharmaceutical plants. Artificial fibres are also produced, while numerous production centres remain for the iron and steel industry, though inefficient and obsolete, as well as the metallurgy (aluminium, lead, zinc and copper) and mechanics industries.
There are mechanical engineering works in Reşiţa, Braşov, Craiova, Bucharest, Ploieşti, Târgovişte, Arad, Brăila and Timişoara. The automobile industry centres on Braşov, Pitesti, Craiova and Timişoara, and the main shipyards are in Constanţa, Mangalia, Galaţi and Olteniţa. There is a textile industry of some importance. Other industries include paper, wood, cement porcelain, tyres and sugar.
|coal, total||23 717.2||1000 t||2018|
|sand and gravel - t||3 571||1000 t||2016|
|- thermal||24 759.6||M kWh||2016|
|- hydro||17 848||M kWh||2016|
|- thermal||11 038||1000 kW||2016|
|- hydro||6 734||1000 kW||2016|
|total net generation||61 784.6||M kWh||2016|
|total installed capacity||23 943||1000 kW||2016|
|coke, metall.||300||1000 t||2010|
|fridges||1 259 009||no.||2014|
|petrol||3 885.8||1000 t||2014|
|caustic soda||215||1000 t||2016|
|cotton fabrics||31.97||M m²||2016|
|footwear||43 035 288||pairs||2016|
|beer of barley||1 658.1||1000 t||2014|
|fish, frozen||5.53||1000 t||2016|
|cigarettes||76 743.2||M units||2016|
|cigars and cigarettes||76 743.2||M units||2016|
|other paper||437.221||1000 t||2017|
|cement||8 038||1000 t||2016|
|chemicals production||1 986.2||M US$||2016|
|food, beverages and tobacco production||3 879.5||M US$||2016|
Romania has negative trade balance. It imports machinery, textiles and fuels. Germany and Italy are its main trading partners.
Main exports (M US$ - 2017) electric and electronic equipment 12 337, vehicles and parts thereof 8 100, machinery 7 747, iron and steel 3 871, cars 3 378, apparel and accessories 2 935, furniture and accessories 2 712, tyres and rubber articles 2 445, technical and electro-medical appliances 2 416, petroleum products 2 169, timber 1 857, plastics 1 593, footwear 1 524, oil seeds 1 465, aluminium 1 147, wheat and maize 1 129, cereals 1 118
Finance and banking.
The central bank is the National Bank of Romania (Banca Națională a României), and there is a stock exchange in Bucharest.
|manufactures||82.214||% of goods exports||2018|
|food products||9.463||% of goods exports||2018|
|Germany||18 392||M US$||2018|
|Italy||9 152||M US$||2018|
|Germany||20 025||M US$||2018|
|Italy||9 185||M US$||2018|
Tourism. The most important attractions are the Carpathian Mountains, the Danube delta and the Black Sea resorts.
|Expenditures||4 228||M US$||2017|
|Number of arrivals||10 926 000||units||2017|
|Civil aviation, km flown||28 000 000||km flown||2004|
|Civil aviation, passengers carried||4 425.7||1000 units||2017|
|Broadband subscribers||242.894||per 1000 pop.||2017|
|Computers||192.3||per 1000 pop.||2008|
Social and welfare
Education is free and mandatory from 6 to 16 years. Mother-tongue teaching is guaranteed for Hungarian and German minorities.
|Expected years of schooling||14.3||years||2016|
|Teachers, primary level||48 009||units||2017|
|Teachers, secondary level||124 376||units||2017|
|Social protection spending||33.3||% of total expenses||2016|
|Social protection spending||14.6||% of GDP||2016|
|Hospital beds||6.8||per 1000 pop.||2018|
|Physicians||3.1||per 1000 pop.||2018|
|HIV||0.1||% of adults||2017|
|Museums, visitors||17 610 000||units||2018|
|Research and development spending||0.5||% of GDP||2017|
|Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking||85.88||%||2016|
|Access to electricity||100||%||2017|