Form of Government: Republic
Area: 238 397 sq km
Population: 19 328 838 inhab. (estimate 2020)
Density: 81.08 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 48° - 44° N; long. 20° - 30° E
Capital: Bucharest=București (capital) 1 835 258 inhab. (2020);
Currency: Romanian leu, plural lei (100 bani)
Human development index: 0.828 (rank: 49)
President: Klaus Johannis (PNL), since 21 December 2014, re-elected 24 November 2019
Prime Minister: Florin Cîțu (PNL), since 22 December 2020
Chamber of Deputies: seats based on the elections of 6 December 2020: PSD (Social Democratic Party), 110; PNL (National Liberal Party), 93; USR PLUS (Save Romania Union-Freedom, Unity and Solidarity Party, liberal), 55; Alliance for the Union of Romanians (populist, right), 33; RMDSZ (Democratic Alliance of Hungarians in Romania, Magyar ethnic minority), 21; ethnic minorities, 18
Internet: www.insse.ro (National Institute of Statistics)
Member of Council of Europe, EBRD, EU, NATO, OAS observer, OSCE, UN, WTO
International license plate code RO
International dialling code 0040
Travel vaccinations requirement none
Electricity (Voltage) 230
Driving side rigth
Internet code .ro
DST duration (start-end) late March-late October
Annual average temperature (°C) Bucharest 10.9
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Bucharest -3/23
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Bucharest 9/2
Annual average precipitation (mm) Bucharest 590
Days of rainfall (annual average) Bucharest 77
Politics and current affairs
The elections held on 6 December 2020 were won by the PSD (Social Democratic Party, 29.32%), but they were unable to win the number of seats required to form a government. A coalition government was formed between the liberal PNL and USR PLUS parties with the support of the Hungarian ethnic minority party, RMDSZ. The agreement between the liberals resulted in the appointment (22 December 2020) of Florin Cîțu (PNL) as the new prime minister. The vaccination campaign did not bring the results that had been hoped for due to widespread scepticism. In summer 2021, Romania was the penultimate EU country (Bulgaria was last) for the number of first doses to be administered; on 1 August, only approximately 25% of the population had received a first dose. On 10 December 2020, Bucharest was chosen to host the EU’s future Cybersecurity Competence Centre.
Romania is bordered to the north and east by Ukraine, to the east by Moldova, to the south by Bulgaria, and to the west by Serbia and Hungary, and to the south-east by the Black Sea.
Two mountain chains, the Eastern Carpathians and Transylvanian Alps, enclose a vast, fertile alluvial basin. The arid, steppe-like Walachia region extends southwards.
The most important river is the Danube.
The climate is continental with wide temperature swings, though less so near coast.
An independent kingdom since 1881 following the union of Moldavia and Walachia, and a People’s Republic since 1948, Romania became a Communist dictatorship under Nicolae Ceauşescu in 1965, but was liberated by the revolt of 21-25 December 1989, followed by the adoption of a democratic system. Romania has been a member of NATO since 2004 and joined the EU in 2007.
The Constitution of 1991, revised in 2003, stipulates that the President of the Republic, who has wide-ranging governmental powers, is elected by direct vote with a mandate of five years. Since 2016, a new electoral law ensuring proportional representation has been in effect. Parliament is comprised of the Chamber of Deputies (raised to 330 members in 2016) and the Senate (raised to 136 members) and is elected for a term of 4 years.
Military service is voluntary.
|Bucharest=București||1 835 258||inhab.||2020|
|Population by age and gender (% - 2020)|
|Foreigners, total||139 775||units||2020|
The measures introduced to restrict the health emergency have had a negative impact on the economy, which dropped by 3.9% in 2020. GDP is expected to grow sharply in 2021 (+6%). To introduce emergency measures, the government brought the deficit/GDP ratio to 9.8% in 2020. The EU has informed the country to reduce the deficit to 2.9% by 2024.
|Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)||94.54||index||2016|
|Agricultural prod. index (2014-16=100)||112.63||index||2019|
|Active population||8 972 800||units||2020|
|Active population, Females||42.4||%||2020|
|Unemployment rate, Females||39.6||%||2020|
|Expenses||317 541.7||M LCU||2020|
|Revenues||221 046.9||M LCU||2020|
|Currency in circulation||100.394||BN LCU||2020|
|International reserves||52 190.563||M US$||2020|
Agriculture is still relevant. Cereals, principally wheat and maize, account for most of the country’s cultivated land. Other food crops include potatoes, vegetables and fruit (ţuică, the national liqueur, is distilled from plums).
Oil production (sunflower and soya) is significant, and vine-growing is widely practised, especially in Moldavia and Oltenia regions. Flax, hemp, sugar beet (Moldavia and Transylvania), tobacco (Walachia) and hops are also important. Sheep farming, which yields significant amounts of wool, is the most important livestock activity, followed by pigs and cattle.
|barley||1 879.95||1000 t||2019|
|cereals, total||30 411.97||1000 t||2019|
|potatoes||2 626.79||1000 t||2019|
|roots and tubers, total||2 626.79||1000 t||2019|
|beans, dry||17.298||1000 t||2018|
|beans, green||26.69||1000 t||2019|
|castor oil seed||0.016||1000 t||2016|
|mustard seed||2.75||1000 t||2018|
|sugar beet||917.16||1000 t||2019|
|seed cotton||0.004||1000 t||2016|
|flax fibre and tow||0.12||1000 t||2018|
|hemp tow waste||3.16||1000 t||2019|
|maize||2 681.93||1000 ha||2019|
|beans, dry||12.231||1000 ha||2018|
|beans, green||5.38||1000 ha||2019|
|castor oil seed||0.018||1000 ha||2016|
|mustard seed||2.563||1000 ha||2018|
|sugar beet||22.73||1000 ha||2019|
|seed cotton||0.005||1000 ha||2016|
|flax fibre and tow||0.09||1000 ha||2018|
|hemp tow waste||1.43||1000 ha||2019|
|timber||15 827 246||m³||2019|
|cattle||1 923.3||1000 heads||2019|
|cattle and buffaloes||1 942.3||1000 heads||2019|
|pigs||3 834.1||1000 heads||2019|
|sheep||10 358.7||1000 heads||2019|
|goats||1 598.8||1000 heads||2019|
|asses and mules||30.414||1000 heads||2018|
|birds||73 993||1000 heads||2019|
|silk, raw||2.1||1000 t||2018|
|crustaceans and molluscs||6 973.234||t||2019|
|freshwater fishes||13 278.652||t||2019|
Romania has significant oil, natural gas and lignite reserves, thus making the country almost self-sufficient. The main fields around Ploieşti, Boldeşti and Piteşti, as well as in Oltenia (Ticleni and Bîlteni) and Moldavia (Moineşti), are connected by pipelines to the terminals at Giurgiu (on the Danube), Constanța (on the Black Sea) and Galați-Reni.
Natural gas is extracted from abundant reserves in Transylvania.
The Arad-Szeged gas pipeline to Hungary is operational, while work has slowed down on the BRUA interconnector to Austria.
The extraction of natural gas from the Black Sea offshore fields in the Constanța area should begin from the end of 2021. The country is already the second largest producer in the EU.
In other respects, the mineral industry is going through a serious crisis.
There are lignite mines in the southern Transylvanian Alps and close to the border with Hungary, as well as less important coalfields in Petroşani and Banat region, iron ore deposits in the Poiana Ruscă Mountains, Căpuşu Mic, Banat and Lueta, and moderate bauxite deposits in the Pădurea Craiului mountains. Silver, zinc, lead, copper and manganese are also mined. There are major rock-salt deposits, as well as minor gold and uranium deposits.
Energy and industry.
Most electricity comes from thermal power stations but there is a hydroelectric power station in the Iron Gates gorge on the Danube and a nuclear power station at Cernavodă (two nuclear reactors) which produces about 18% of electricity.
Romanian industry is diversified to a certain extent: numerous SMEs have appeared, financed by mixed capital (especially from Italy), in manufacturing areas as diverse as clothing, foodstuffs and metalworking. Many companies, in the past public ones, were privatized in an attempt to improve their management and attract capital. Many of the larger firms are still state-owned (energy sector).
The largest oil refineries are in Midia-Năvodari, Piteşti and Ploieşti. There are chemical works of some importance, which produce soda ash and fertilizers, and pharmaceutical plants. Artificial fibres are also produced, while numerous production centres remain for the iron and steel industry, though inefficient and obsolete, as well as the metallurgy (aluminium, lead, zinc and copper) and mechanics industries.
There are mechanical engineering works in Reşiţa, Braşov, Craiova (Ford), Bucharest, Ploieşti, Târgovişte, Arad, Brăila and Timişoara. The automobile industry centres on Braşov, Pitesti, Craiova and Timişoara, and the main shipyards are in Constanţa, Mangalia, Galaţi and Olteniţa. There is a textile industry of some importance. Other industries include paper, wood, cement porcelain, tyres and sugar.
|coal, total||15 002.4||1000 t||2020|
|lignite||15 002.4||1000 t||2020|
|sand and gravel - t||16 030||1000 t||2018|
|- thermal||22 607||M kWh||2019|
|- hydro||15 652.89||M kWh||2019|
|- thermal||11 022||1000 kW||2018|
|- hydro||6 328||1000 kW||2019|
|total net generation||57 515.89||M kWh||2019|
|total installed capacity||23 571.27||1000 kW||2018|
|fridges||1 259 009||no.||2014|
|petrol||3 885.8||1000 t||2014|
|caustic soda||215||1000 t||2016|
|cotton fabrics||31.97||M m²||2016|
|footwear||43 035 288||pairs||2016|
|beer of barley||1 823.158||1000 t||2018|
|fish, frozen||5.53||1000 t||2016|
|cigarettes||76 743.2||M units||2016|
|cigars and cigarettes||76 743.2||M units||2016|
|mechanical pulp||25$||1000 t||2018|
|other paper||561.014||1000 t||2019|
|cement||8 951||1000 t||2018|
|chemicals production||2 110.329||M US$||2018|
|food, beverages and tobacco production||5 292.228||M US$||2018|
Romania has negative trade balance. It imports machinery, textiles and fuels. Germany and Italy are its main trading partners.
Main exports (M US$ - 2017) electric and electronic equipment 12 337, vehicles and parts thereof 8 100, machinery 7 747, iron and steel 3 871, cars 3 378, apparel and accessories 2 935, furniture and accessories 2 712, tyres and rubber articles 2 445, technical and electro-medical appliances 2 416, petroleum products 2 169, timber 1 857, plastics 1 593, footwear 1 524, oil seeds 1 465, aluminium 1 147, wheat and maize 1 129, cereals 1 118
Finance and banking.
The central bank is the National Bank of Romania (Banca Națională a României), and there is a stock exchange in Bucharest.
|manufactures||81.721||% of goods exports||2019|
|food products||10.342||% of goods exports||2019|
|Germany||16 193||M US$||2020|
|Italy||7 629||M US$||2020|
|Germany||19 172||M US$||2020|
|Italy||8 216||M US$||2020|
Tourism. The most important attractions are the Carpathian Mountains, the Danube delta and the Black Sea resorts.
|Expenditures||7 098||M US$||2019|
|Number of arrivals||12 815 000||units||2019|
|Civil aviation, km flown||28 000 000||km flown||2004|
|Civil aviation, passengers carried||5 630.3||1000 units||2019|
|Broadband subscribers||272.544||per 1000 pop.||2019|
|Computers||192.3||per 1000 pop.||2008|
Social and welfare
Education is free and mandatory from 6 to 16 years. Mother-tongue teaching is guaranteed for Hungarian and German minorities.
|Expected years of schooling||14.275||years||2018|
|Students, primary level||947 931||units||2018|
|Students, secondary level||1 457 948||units||2018|
|Social protection spending||32.734||% of total expenses||2019|
|Social protection spending||15$||% of GDP||2018|
|Hospital beds||6.8||per 1000 pop.||2019|
|Physicians||3$||per 1000 pop.||2019|
|HIV||0.1||% of adults||2019|
|Museums, visitors||18 198 000||units||2019|
|Research and development spending||0.48||% of GDP||2019|
|Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking||100||%||2019|
|Access to electricity||100||%||2019|