Form of Government: Republic
Area: 238 397 sq km
Population: 19 530 631 inhab. (estimate 2018)
Density: 81.93 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 48° - 44° N; long. 20° - 30° E
Capital: Bucharest=București (capital) 1 827 810 inhab. (2018);
Currency: Romanian leu, plural lei (100 bani)
Human development index: 0.811 (rank: 52)
President: Klaus Johannis (PNL), since 21 December 2014
Prime Minister: Viorica Dăncilă (PSD), since 29 January 2018
Chamber of Deputies: seats (June 2019 update): PSD (Social Democratic Party), 139; PNL (National Liberal Party), 69; USR (Save Romania Union, populist), 27; Pro Romania (social-liberal), 23; UDMR (Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania), 21; ALDE (Alliance of Liberals and Democrats), 19; PMP (People’s Movement Party), 12; ethnic minorities, 17; others, 2
Internet: www.insse.ro (National Institute of Statistics)
Member of Council of Europe, EBRD, EU, NATO, OAS observer, OSCE, UN, WTO

Romania

România
Useful information

International license plate code RO
International dialling code 0040
Travel vaccinations requirement none
Electricity (Voltage) 230
Driving side rigth
Internet code .ro

GMT  +2
DST  +3
DST duration (start-end) late March-late October

Annual average temperature (°C) Bucharest 10.9
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Bucharest -3/23
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Bucharest 9/2
Annual average precipitation (mm) Bucharest 590
Days of rainfall (annual average) Bucharest 77

Politics and current affairs

The government majority, dominated by the PSD, is tackling internal protests and strong criticism from the EU regarding the fight against corruption, the prevailing issue in the country at a time when Romania was serving as president of the Council of the European Union (January-June 2019). The criticisms concern the legislation aimed at shielding the leader of the PSD, Liviu Dragnea, from questions regarding his position and damaging the judiciary’s independence. During the European elections on 26 May 2019, the electorate severely punished the PSD, whose support was halved to 22.6%. The same day, in a referendum announced by President Johannis, the PSD’s adversary, some of the most controversial laws introduced by the majority were defeated with 85% of the votes. On 27 May, the Supreme Court finally approved Dragnea’s arrest concerning a previous conviction.

Geography.
Romania is bordered to the north and east by Ukraine, to the east by Moldova, to the south by Bulgaria, and to the west by Serbia and Hungary, and to the south-east by the Black Sea. Two mountain chains, the Eastern Carpathians and Transylvanian Alps, enclose a vast, fertile alluvial basin. The arid, steppe-like Walachia region extends southwards. The most important river is the Danube. The climate is continental with wide temperature swings, though less so near coast.

Government


An independent kingdom since 1881 following the union of Moldavia and Walachia, and a People’s Republic since 1948, Romania became a Communist dictatorship under Nicolae Ceauşescu in 1965, but was liberated by the revolt of 21-25 December 1989, followed by the adoption of a democratic system. Romania has been a member of NATO since 2004 and joined the EU in 2007.
The Constitution of 1991, revised in 2003, stipulates that the President of the Republic, who has wide-ranging governmental powers, is elected by direct vote with a mandate of five years. Since 2016, a new electoral law ensuring proportional representation has been in effect. Parliament is comprised of the Chamber of Deputies (raised to 329 members in 2016) and the Senate (raised to 136 members) and is elected for a term of 4 years.


Defence.
Military service is voluntary.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force14.9%2017
Army51.9%2017
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes1 444.4per 100 000 pop.2012
Homicides1.2per 100 000 pop.2016
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Bucharest=București1 827 810inhab.2018
Cluj-Napoca324 576inhab.2011
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2018)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate9.72017
Death rate13.32017
Foreigners
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Foreigners, total111 411units2018
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Romanian83.5%2011
other6.3%2011


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Orthodox81%2011
other7.7%2011


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Romanian
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years14.3%2018
15-29 years17%2018


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Economy


Economic situation.
In 2018, the economy slowed considerably compared to the previous year: growth fell by almost 3 points, to 4.1%, and should drop further to around 3% in 2019-20. Domestic consumption continues to be strong thanks to an increase in salaries, while the use of EU funds should improve. Unemployment is around 4.2%.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)94.54index2016
Balance of trade-18 106.3M US$2018
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population9 068 200units2018
Active population, Females42.8%2018
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate4.2%2018
Unemployment rate, Females35.5%2018
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses225 737M LCU2018
Revenues195 017.2M LCU2018
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture22.3%2018
industry30%2018
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture4.8%2018
industry32%2018
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation79.728BN LCU2018
International reserves42 129.1M US$2018
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Agriculture


Primary sector.
Agriculture employs 22.3% of the workforce. Cereals, principally wheat and maize, account for most of the country’s cultivated land. Other food crops include potatoes, vegetables and fruit (ţuică, the national liqueur, is distilled from plums). Oil production (sunflower and soya) is significant, and vine-growing is widely practised, especially in Moldavia and Oltenia regions. Flax, hemp, sugar beet (Moldavia and Transylvania), tobacco (Walachia) and hops are also important. Sheep farming, which yields significant amounts of wool, is the most important livestock activity, followed by pigs and cattle.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land39.9%2015
forests29.82%2015
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley1 906.71000 t2017
cereals, total27 139.0791000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes3 116.911000 t2017
roots and tubers, total3 116.911000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
artichokes0.6371000 t2017
cabbages1 066.7871000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry16.131000 t2017
beans, green55.6211000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes1 063.341000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
castor oil seed0.0161000 t2016
rapeseed1 673.331000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mustard seed5.4891000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hops0.121000 t2017
sugar beet1 174.51000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton0.0041000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
flax fibre and tow0.1711000 t2017
linseed3.621000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hemp tow waste3.4531000 t2017
hempseed0.0951000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples339.571000 t2017
apricots32.641000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hazelnuts0.411000 t2017
walnuts43.721000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Others
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mushrooms161000 t2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley455.461000 ha2017
maize2 405.241000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes171.391000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
artichokes0.0491000 ha2017
cabbages49.9041000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry12.081000 ha2017
beans, green9.9821000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape175.321000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
castor oil seed0.0181000 ha2016
rapeseed597.971000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mustard seed5.4531000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hops0.231000 ha2017
sugar beet28.21000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton0.0051000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
flax fibre and tow0.0771000 ha2017
linseed2.161000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hemp tow waste2.3571000 ha2017
hempseed0.8981000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples55.61000 ha2017
apricots2.111000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hazelnuts0.711000 ha2017
walnuts1.61000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Others
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mushrooms0.021000 ha2017
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber15 500 4782017
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle2 049.71000 heads2017
cattle and buffaloes2 049.71000 heads2017
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs4 707.71000 heads2017
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep9 875.51000 heads2017
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats1 483.11000 heads2017
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses30.3441000 heads2017
asses and mules30.3441000 heads2017
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds89 2051000 heads2017
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey18.041000 t2014
Livestock - Silk farming
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
silk, raw2.11000 t2014
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter8.21000 t2014
cheese871000 t2014
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs9 387.07t2017
freshwater fishes15 428.3t2017
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Minerals


Secondary sector
Minerals.
Romania has significant oil, natural gas and lignite reserves, thus making the country almost self-sufficient. The main fields around Ploieşti, Boldeşti and Piteşti, as well as in Oltenia (Ticleni and Bîlteni) and Moldavia (Moineşti), are connected by pipelines to the terminals at Giurgiu (on the Danube), Costanta (on the Black Sea) and Galați-Reni.
Natural gas comes from abundant reserves in Transylvania and is channelled through the pipeline to Hungary. Numerous offshore projects were launched to extract natural gas in the Black Sea, but these were impeded by regulatory uncertainties on taxation and the price of gas. Work on the BRUA gas pipeline towards Hungary and Austria should conclude in 2019.
In other respects, the mineral industry is going through a serious crisis. There are lignite mines in the southern Transylvanian Alps and close to the border with Hungary, as well as less important coalfields in Petroşani and Banat region, iron ore deposits in the Poiana Ruscă Mountains, Căpuşu Mic, Banat and Lueta, and moderate bauxite deposits in the Pădurea Craiului mountains. Silver, zinc, lead, copper and manganese are also mined. There are major rock-salt deposits, as well as minor gold and uranium deposits.
Energy and industry.
Most electricity comes from thermal power stations but there is a hydroelectric power station in the Iron Gates gorge on the Danube and a nuclear power station at Cernavodă (two nuclear reactors) which produces 17% of electricity.
Romanian industry is diversified to a certain extent: numerous SMEs have appeared, financed by mixed capital (especially from Italy), in manufacturing areas as diverse as clothing, foodstuffs and metalworking. Many companies, in the past public ones, were privatized in an attempt to improve their management and attract capital. Many of the larger firms are still state-owned.
The largest oil refineries are in Câmpina, Midia-Năvodari, Oneşti, Piteşti and Ploieşti. There are chemical works of some importance, which produce soda ash and fertilizers, and pharmaceutical plants. Artificial fibres are also produced, while numerous production centres remain for the iron and steel industry, though inefficient and obsolete, as well as the metallurgy (aluminium, lead, zinc and copper) and mechanics industries.
There are mechanical engineering works in Reşiţa, Braşov, Craiova, Bucharest, Ploieşti, Târgovişte, Arad, Brăila and Timişoara. The automobile industry centres on Braşov, Pitesti, Craiova and Timişoara, and the main shipyards are in Constanţa, Mangalia, Galaţi and Olteniţa. There is a textile industry of some importance. Other industries include paper, wood, cement porcelain, tyres and sugar.

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coal121000 t2016
coal, total23 717.21000 t2018
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
alumina4671000 t2016
copper9.51000 t2016
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bentonite251000 t2016
feldspar4.51000 t2016
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
kaolin301000 t2016
sand and gravel - t3 5711000 t2016
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gold500kg2011
silver18 000kg2011
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal24 759.6M kWh2016
- hydro17 848M kWh2016
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal11 0381000 kW2016
- hydro6 7341000 kW2016
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation61 784.6M kWh2016
total installed capacity23 9431000 kW2016
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
aluminium2701000 t2017
coke, metall.3001000 t2010
Industry - Machinery and transport equipment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bikes563 380no.2016
cars476 769no.2018
Industry - Electrical and electronics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
computers12 694no.2016
fridges1 259 009no.2014
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen911000 t2016
petrol3 885.81000 t2014
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ammonia121000 t2016
caustic soda2151000 t2016
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
carpets5211000 m²2007
cotton fabrics31.97M m²2016
Industry - Clothing and footwear
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
footwear43 035 288pairs2016
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley1 658.11000 t2014
fish, frozen5.531000 t2016
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes76 743.2M units2016
cigars and cigarettes76 743.2M units2016
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
other paper437.2211000 t2017
paper437.2211000 t2017
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement8 0381000 t2016
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production1 986.2M US$2016
food, beverages and tobacco production3 879.5M US$2016
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Trade


Tertiary sector
Foreign trade.
Romania has negative trade balance. It imports machinery, textiles and fuels. Germany and Italy are its main trading partners.


Main exports (M US$ - 2017) electric and electronic equipment 12 337, vehicles and parts thereof 8 100, machinery 7 747, iron and steel 3 871, cars 3 378, apparel and accessories 2 935, furniture and accessories 2 712, tyres and rubber articles 2 445, technical and electro-medical appliances 2 416, petroleum products 2 169, timber 1 857, plastics 1 593, footwear 1 524, oil seeds 1 465, aluminium 1 147, wheat and maize 1 129, cereals 1 118


Finance and banking.
The central bank is the National Bank of Romania (Banca Națională a României), and there is a stock exchange in Bucharest.

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufactures82.214% of goods exports2018
food products9.463% of goods exports2018
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Germany18 392M US$2018
Italy9 152M US$2018
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Germany20 025M US$2018
Italy9 185M US$2018
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
201879 671M US$ -
201770 761M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
201897 777M US$ -
201785 485M US$ -
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Tourism


Tourism. The most important attractions are the Carpathian Mountains, the Danube delta and the Black Sea resorts.

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures4 228M US$2017
Number of arrivals10 926 000units2017
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown28 000 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried4 425.71000 units2017
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers242.894per 1000 pop.2017
Computers192.3per 1000 pop.2008
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Social and welfare


Education.
Education is free and mandatory from 6 to 16 years. Mother-tongue teaching is guaranteed for Hungarian and German minorities.

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling14.3years2016
Graduates121 300units2017
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level48 009units2017
Teachers, secondary level124 376units2017
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending33.3% of total expenses2016
Social protection spending14.6% of GDP2016
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds6.8per 1000 pop.2018
Physicians3.1per 1000 pop.2018
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV0.1% of adults2017
HIV, total0.03%2001
Museums
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Museums787units2018
Museums, visitors17 610 000units2018
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.5% of GDP2017
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking85.88%2016
Access to electricity100%2017
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear3.5%2018
education2.1%2018
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