Form of Government: Republic
Area: 92 226 sq km
Population: 10 347 892 inhab. (census 2021)
Density: 112.2 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 42° - 37° N; long. 9° - 6° W
Capital: Lisbon=Lisboa (capital) 544 851 inhab. (2021); Greater Lisbon 2 719 000 inhab. (2020), urban agglomeration
Currency: euro (100 cents)
Human development index: 0.864 (rank: 38)
President: Marcelo Rebelo de Sousa (PSD), elected 24 January 2016, in office since 9 March 2016
Prime Minister: António Costa (PS), since 26 November 2016, re-elected 26 October 2019
Assembly of the Republic: seats (July 2021 update): PS (Socialist Party), 108; PSD (Social Democratic Party, centre-right), 79; BE (Left Bloc, extreme left-wing), 19; PCP (Communist Party), 10; CDS-People's Party (conservative), 5; PAN (People-Animals-Nature, environmentalist), 3; Ecologist Party (The Greens), 2; others, 4
Internet: www.ine.pt (Instituto Nacional de Estatística)
Member of Council of Europe, EBRD, EU, NATO, OAS observer, OECD, OSCE, UN, WTO

Portugal

Portugal, República Portuguesa
Useful information

International license plate code P
International dialling code 00351
Travel vaccinations requirement none
Electricity (Voltage) 230
Driving side rigth
Internet code .pt

GMT Lisbon 0; Azores -1; Madeira 0
DST Lisbon +1; Azores 0; Madeira +1
DST duration (start-end) late March-late October

Annual average temperature (°C) Lisbon 16.5; Faro 17.8; Funchal (Madeira) 18.5; Ponta Delgada (Azzorre) 16.8; Porto 14.5
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Lisbon 11/22; Faro 12/24; Funchal (Madeira) 16/21.5; Ponta Delgada (Azzorre) 14/21; Porto 9/20
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Lisbon 11/5; Faro 12/6; Funchal (Madeira) 7/5; Ponta Delgada (Azzorre) 5/3; Porto 10/4
Annual average precipitation (mm) Lisbon 681; Faro 446; Funchal (Madeira) 609; Ponta Delgada (Azzorre) 950; Porto 1145
Days of rainfall (annual average) Lisbon 79; Faro 50; Funchal (Madeira) 51; Ponta Delgada (Azzorre) 125; Porto 107

Politics and current affairs

Between late 2020 and early 2021, Portugal faced two new waves of COVID-19 infection, enforcing restrictions during periods of increased circulation of the virus. A high percentage of the population participated in the vaccination campaign. Effective 1 January 2021, the country presided for six months over the Council of the European Union. The money spent on refurbishing a pressroom proved controversial, which remained unused due to COVID-19 restrictions. On 24 January 2021 President Marcelo Rebelo de Sousa (PSD) was re-elected with 60.7% of the vote, up from 52% in 2016.

Geography.
Portugal is bordered to the north and east by Spain, and to the south and west by the Atlantic Ocean. It lies on the western edge of the Spanish meseta plateau and opens into wide alluvial valleys to the south. The River Tejo (Tagus), River Douro and River Guadiana are the most important in the country. The climate is mild.
The Azores (São Miguel 747 km², Terceira 396 km², Pico 433 km², São Jorge 238 km², Faial 172 km², Flores 143 km², and other smaller islands) are volcanic islands on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.
The Madeira archipelago (lat. 33° N; long. 17° W) comprises Madeira (740.6 km²), Porto Santo (42.5 km²), the Savage Islands and the Desertas.

Government


A republic since 1910, Portugal was ruled for many years by the dictator Oliveira Salazar (1932-1968) and his successor Marcelo Caetano. In a coup on 25 April 1974 (the Carnation Revolution), power was assumed first by the military and then by the Council of the Revolution formed by progressive army officers.
In 1974-75 Portugal granted independence to all its African colonies (Guinea-Bissau, Cabo Verde, Mozambique and Angola) and East Timor (incorporated into Indonesia).
Macao returned to China on 20 December 1999. Democracy came to the country under the government of the socialist Prime Minister Mario Soares, winner of the 1976 elections. Since then, centre-right governments led by the Social Democratic Party (PSD) and centre-left governments led by the Socialist Party (PS) have alternated in power.
The Constitution of 2 April 1976 has been amended several times, especially in 1982 (ending military control of politics and reducing the President’s powers), and in 1989 (removing economic and corporative restrictions dating from the Salazar era). The President of the Republic, elected by direct suffrage for a five-year term, appoints the Prime Minister taking into consideration the results of the elections. The government must be voted in by the Assembly of the Republic (230 deputies elected for four-year terms using a system of proportional representation).


Defence.
In addition to the armed forces there are the paramilitary National Republican Guard (gendarmerie), the Public Security Police and the Border Guard.
There is an American airbase at Lajes in the Azores.


Justice.
The legal system is based on continental European law.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force19.3%2015
Army54.2%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes3 259.7per 100 000 pop.2019
Homicides0.8per 100 000 pop.2018
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
1reported area2preliminary results
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Lisbon=Lisboa544 851inhab.2021
Porto231 962inhab.2021
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Greater Lisbon2 719 000inhab.2020
Greater Porto1 287 282inhab.2011
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2020)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE

In 2020, the migratory balance was positive for the fourth consecutive year. The government confirmed its approach aimed at reception even during the health emergency, equating the rights of asylum seekers with those of residents. The share of elderly people continues to increase: the country is third within the EU for the highest median age.

Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate8.22020
Death rate12$2020
Foreigners
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Foreigners, total588 976units2019
Brazilians150 919units2019
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Portuguese94.3%2019
other2.6%2019


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Catholic68.9%2011
other22.4%2011


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Portuguese
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years13.5%2020
15-29 years16.4%2020


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Economy


Economic situation.
The Portuguese economy, deeply hit by the pandemic in 2020, shrank by 7.6%. Recovery is expected in 2021 (+3.9%). According to the European Commission, the country will only return to pre-pandemic levels in mid-2022. The tourism sector continues to suffer, also affected in summer 2021 by a new wave caused by the Delta variant.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)107.94index2016
Agricultural prod. index (2014-16=100)109.44index2019
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population5 165 100units2020
Active population, Females49.5%2020
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate6.9%2020
Unemployment rate, Females51.3%2020
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses72 626.5M LCU2020
Revenues59 232.7M LCU2020
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture5.374%2020
industry24.773%2020
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture2.266%2020
industry22.025%2020
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation31.664BN LCU2020
International reserves29 459.812M US$2020
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Agriculture


Primary sector
Agriculture and livestock.
The main crop is the grape vine, especially in the Douro Valley. Port, the aromatic wines of Colares and Madeira, the muscats of Setúbal and Vinho Verde are world-famous. Olives and fruits (apples, pears and citrus fruits) are widely grown. Livestock farming (sheep and pigs), practised especially in the north, is also important.
Forests.
Portugal is one of the biggest producers of cork in the world. Cork trees thrive in the Tagus Valley and along the Alentejo coast.
Fishing.
The most abundant catch is sardines, which are exported preserved in oil. Quality fish caught include tuna, anchovies (Olhão fillets) and oysters (from the Tagus and Sado estuaries). The main fishing ports are Setúbal, Peniche, Figueira da Foz, Aveiro, Leixões and Nazaré.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land18.573%2018
forests36.224%2018
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley53.31000 t2019
cereals, total1 106.281000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes490.721000 t2019
roots and tubers, total490.721000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asparagus0.281000 t2019
cabbages145.31000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry3.0391000 t2018
beans, green10.341000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes863.221000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Olive
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
olives997.041000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts0.0311000 t2014
sunflower seed13.611000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
tea0.0841000 t2018
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hops0.021000 t2019
sugar beet8.5061000 t2018
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples355.71000 t2019
apricots3.511000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
almonds33.551000 t2019
hazelnuts0.251000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits398.831000 t2019
citrus fruits, nes0$1000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados14.2781000 t2014
bananas27.841000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Others
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mushrooms6.71000 t2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley19.51000 ha2019
maize83.361000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes21.651000 ha2019
sweet potatoes0.9231000 ha2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages5.421000 ha2019
carrots and turnips1.721000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry4.1891000 ha2018
beans, green0.741000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape178.781000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Olive
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
olive359.951000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts0.0141000 ha2014
sunflower seed8.21000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
tea0.0191000 ha2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hops0.011000 ha2019
sugar beet0.2681000 ha2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples14.581000 ha2019
apricots0.561000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
almonds39.641000 ha2019
hazelnuts0.351000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits21.071000 ha2019
grapefruits0.021000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados9.81000 ha2014
bananas1.041000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Others
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mushrooms0.041000 ha2019
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cork - t100 000t2005
timber13 855 0002019
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle1 674.971000 heads2019
cattle and buffaloes1 674.971000 heads2019
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs2 216.481000 heads2019
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep2 131.961000 heads2019
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats313.541000 heads2019
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses7.8841000 heads2018
asses and mules10.9621000 heads2018
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds17 2471000 heads2018
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey10.031000 t2018
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter31.0821000 t2018
cheese76.2021000 t2018
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs21 888.39t2019
freshwater fishes1$t2019
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Minerals


Secondary sector
Minerals.
The main mineral resources are pyrites, which are mined in the Serra da Caveira, lithium (the country aims to become the first European supplier), and tungsten. A consortium participated by national and foreign companies launched the first offshore explorations following the discovery of possible oil fields off the north-west coast.
Energy and industry.
The country is reliant on imported energy, in particular on petroleum and gas, which it purchases primarily from Angola, Saudi Arabia, Nigeria and Algeria (through the MEG pipeline, which arrives in Spain and then reaches the country).
In Sines there are a regasification terminal and a refinery (another refinery is active in Porto). Most electricity is still generated by coal and gas-fired thermal power stations, though renewable sources are developing rapidly, with considerable investments in hydro-electric and solar energy. A large solar power plant is operational at Serpa, in the south-east of the country, with an installed capacity of 11 MW. A connection with the Moroccan electricity transmission grid is being planned. The country aims to overhaul the industrial sector with investments in technology and the launch of 5G frequency.
In the area between Lisbon and Setúbal there are a number of chemical plants that produce fertilizers and synthetic fibres. The mechanical engineering industry is present with factories assembling cars and commercial vehicles; to the south of Lisbon (at Palmela) there is a large car factory (Volkswagen). The textile and agribusiness industries are important and rooted in tradition.

Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
copper51.71000 t2018
iron ore14$1000 t2013
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
feldspar1301000 t2018
gypsum2301000 t2019
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
granite13 0001000 t2016
kaolin304.71000 t2019
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
silver50 774kg2018
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal22 609.82M kWh2019
- other renew.18 647.24M kWh2019
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal7 387.621000 kW2018
- other renew.6 819.11000 kW2019
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation49 751.66M kWh2019
total installed capacity21 195.721000 kW2018
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
aluminium18$1000 t2012
coke, metall.3001000 t2012
Industry - Machinery and transport equipment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bikes1 859 132no.2016
cars211 281no.2020
Industry - Precision and optical instruments
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cameras19 613no.2016
watches and clocks371 041no.2016
Industry - Electrical and electronics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
air conditioners1 453 216no.2016
computers17 750no.2016
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen1321000 t2018
petrol2 329.71000 t2016
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ammonia2441000 t2013
artificial yarn0.391000 t2016
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
carpets3 1131000 m²2016
cotton fabrics169.9M m²2016
Industry - Clothing and footwear
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
footwear53 787 260pairs2018
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley675.71000 t2018
coconut oil0.061000 t2014
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes27 351.3M units2016
cigars4.3M units2011
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemical pulp2 673.2271000 t2019
other paper2 079.6741000 t2019
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement5 2001000 t2018
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production1 841.096M US$2018
food, beverages and tobacco production5 008.125M US$2018
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Trade


Tertiary sector
Foreign trade.
Exports are In 2020, both exports and imports fell. The trade deficit therefore narrowed slightly compared to 2019.


Main exports
(M US$ - 2017) 
electrical and electronic equipment 5 607, vehicles and parts thereof 4 492, machinery 3 926, petroleum products 3 825, apparel and accessories 3 568, plastics 3 325, iron and steel 3 252, cars 2 405, footwear 2 271, furniture and accessories 2 180, paper 2 087, chemicals 1 175, 
pharmaceuticals 1 136, cork 1 113, tyres 1 110, optical and electro-
medical appliances 1 080, fruit and vegetables 1 057, fish 928, 
wine 879, animal & vegetable fats and oils 849, ceramic products 806


Finance and banking.
The central bank is the state-owned Caixa Geral de Depósitos. The Stock Exchange in Lisbon belongs to the Euronext group which has other stock exchanges in Amsterdam, Paris, Rome and Brussels.

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufactures77.218% of goods exports2019
food products11.793% of goods exports2019
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Spain15 628M US$2020
France8 316M US$2020
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Spain25 316M US$2020
Germany10 336M US$2020
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
202061 509M US$ -
201967 063M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
202077 515M US$ -
201989 538M US$ -
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Tourism


Tourism. Tourism is the top economic sector, but it has been struck hard by the measures to contain the pandemic and restrictions on international travel, although the government intends to restart overseas connections. The main destinations are Lisbon, Porto, Coimbra, the Algarve, and the Azores and Madeira islands.

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures6 997M US$2019
Number of arrivals17 174 000units2019
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown148 800 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried18 673.91000 units2019
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers387.994per 1000 pop.2019
Computers182.5per 1000 pop.2008
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Social and welfare


Education, culture & research.
Education is compulsory from 6 to 18 years of age.


Social security and health.
The state social security system provides old-age, ex-servicemen and disability pensions, and unemployment, family, maternity and sickness benefit. The state guarantees a minimum wage.

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling16.72years2018
Gradautes, percentage26.207%2019
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Students, primary level621 660units2018
Students, secondary level767 094units2018
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending39.723% of total expenses2019
Social protection spending22.606% of GDP2019
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds3.45per 1000 pop.2018
Physicians5.12per 1000 pop.2017
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV0.5% of adults2018
HIV, total0.02%2001
Museums
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Museums431units2018
Museums, visitors19 494 106units2018
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending1.4% of GDP2019
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking100%2019
Access to electricity100%2019
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear5.8%2019
education1.5%2019
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